Great National Assembly
The Great National Assembly (Romanian: Marea Adunare Națională; MAN) was the legislature of the Socialist Republic of Romania (known as the Romanian People's Republic before 1965). After the overthrow of Communism in Romania in December 1989, the National Assembly was dissolved by decree of the National Salvation Front and eventually replaced by the bicameral parliament, made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
Great National Assembly
Marea Adunare Națională
|Communist Romania (1948-1989)|
|Preceded by||Romanian: Reprezentanța Națională1 (Adunarea Deputaților2)|
|Succeeded by||Parliament of Romania (Chamber of Deputies and the Senate)|
|open single party list|
|Palatul Adunării Deputaților|
The Great National Assembly was elected every four years and each individual member represented 60,000 citizens. The system was created to imitate the Soviet model.
The MAN had the power to, among other things, amend the constitution and appoint and depose the Supreme Commander of the Romanian People's Army. The resolutions required a simple majority to be passed through.
The Assembly convened twice a year for ordinary sessions and for extraordinary sessions as many times as required by the State Council or by at least one third of the members of the Assembly. It elected its own chairmen and four deputies to preside each session. On paper, it was the highest level of state power in Romania, and all other state organs were subordinate to it. In practice, like all other Communist legislatures, it did little more than give legal sanction to decisions already made by the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).
Voters were presented with a single slate of candidates from an alliance dominated by the PCR—known as the People's Democratic Front from 1947 to 1968, the Socialist Unity Front from 1968 to 1980, and the Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy from 1980 to 1989. Since no one could run for office without Front approval, the Front—and through it, the PCR—effectively predetermined the composition of the Assembly.
When the Assembly was not in session, some of its powers were exercised by the State Council (which the Constitution defined as the MAN in permanent session), such as setting guidelines for the law and supervising the local councils. It could also issue governmental regulations in lieu of law. If such regulation was not approved by the MAN at its next session, it was considered revoked. However, under the principles of democratic centralism, such approval was merely a formality. Combined with the MAN's infrequent sessions, this meant that State Council decisions de facto had the force of law. In emergencies, the State Council assumed the MAN's powers to control the budget and economic plan, appoint and dismiss ministers and justices of the Supreme Court, mobilize the armed forces and declare war.
According to the official results of the March 9, 1980, election, which elected 369 deputies, 99.99% of the registered voters cast their votes. Of them, 98.52% approved the Front list, 1.48% voted against and just 44 votes were declared invalid.
Presidents of the Great National AssemblyEdit
The "lower house" numbering continues from the numbering of presidents of the old Assembly of Deputies (1862–1948).
|No.||Name||Portrait||Born–died||Took office||Left office||Party|
|41||1||Gheorghe Apostol||1913–2010||7 April 1948||11 June 1948||PMR|
|42||2||Constantin Agiu||1891–1961||11 June 1948||27 December 1948||PMR|
|43||3||Constantin Pârvulescu||1895–1992||27 December 1948||5 July 1949||PMR|
|44||4||Dumitru Petrescu||1906–1969||5 July 1949||28 December 1949||PMR|
|45||5||Alexandru Drăghici||1913–1993||28 December 1949||26 January 1950||PMR|
|(44)||(4)||Dumitru Petrescu||1906–1969||26 January 1950||29 May 1950||PMR|
|46||6||Constantin Doncea||1904–1973||29 May 1950||6 September 1950||PMR|
|(41)||(1)||Gheorghe Apostol||1913–2010||6 September 1950||5 April 1951||PMR|
|47||7||Ion Vincze||1910–1996||5 April 1951||26 March 1952||PMR|
|(41)||(1)||Gheorghe Apostol||1913–2010||26 March 1952||6 June 1952||PMR|
|48||8||Gheorghe Stoica||1900–1976||2 June 1952||30 November 1952||PMR|
|(43)||(3)||Constantin Pârvulescu||1895–1992||23 January 1953||5 March 1961||PMR|
|49||9||Ştefan Voitec||1900–1984||20 March 1961||28 March 1974||PMR/PCR|
|50||10||Miron Constantinescu||1917–1974||28 March 1974||18 July 1974||PCR|
|51||11||Nicolae Giosan||1921–1990||26 July 1974||12 December 1989||PCR|
- Richard Staar, Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe (4th revised edition, 1984), Hoover Institution, Stanford University. pg. 193-194
- 1948 Constitution of Romania
- 1952 Constitution of Romania
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Sergiu Verona (July 1989). "Government and Politics". In Bachman, Ronald D (ed.). Romania: a country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. LCCN 90006449.