Selby rail crash
The Selby rail crash was a high-speed train accident that occurred at Great Heck near Selby, North Yorkshire, England, on the morning of 28 February 2001. An InterCity 225 passenger train operated by Great North Eastern Railway (GNER) travelling from Newcastle to London collided with a Land Rover Defender which had crashed down a motorway embankment onto the railway line. It was consequently derailed into the path of an oncoming freight train at an estimated closing speed of 142 mph (229 km/h). Ten people died including the drivers of both trains, and 82 were seriously injured. It remains the worst rail disaster of the 21st century in the United Kingdom.
|Selby rail crash|
|Date||28 February 2001 |
|Location||Great Heck, Selby, North Yorkshire, England|
|Line||East Coast Main Line|
|Operator||Great North Eastern Railway|
|Cause||Obstruction on line|
|List of UK rail accidents by year|
The crash occurred at approximately 06:13 (GMT), when a Land Rover Defender, driven by Gary Neil Hart and towing a loaded trailer (carrying a Renault Savanna estate car), left the carriageway of the westbound M62 motorway just before a bridge over the East Coast Main Line. The vehicle ran 30 yards (27 m) down an embankment and onto the southbound railway track. Hart tried to reverse it off the track but could not. He exited the vehicle and, while he was using a mobile telephone to contact emergency services, the Land Rover was hit by a southbound Great North Eastern Railway (GNER) InterCity 225 heading from Newcastle to London King's Cross.
The InterCity 225 was propelled by a Class 91 locomotive (No.91023) and led by Driving Van Trailer (DVT) No.82221. After striking the Land Rover, the leading bogie of the DVT derailed but the train stayed upright. Points to nearby sidings then deflected it into the path of an oncoming Freightliner freight train carrying coal and travelling from Immingham to Ferrybridge, hauled by a Class 66 locomotive (No.66521).
The freight train hit the wreckage approximately 2,106 feet (642 m) from the passenger train's impact with the Land Rover, resulting in the near destruction of the lightweight DVT and moderate to severe damage to all nine of the InterCity 225's Mark 4 coaches, which mostly overturned and came to rest down an embankment to the east side of the track, in a field adjacent to the railway line just south of overbridge ECM 2/7. The trailing locomotive was derailed, remained upright, and suffered minor damage. The Class 66 freight locomotive lost its bogies after impact, with debris of the DVT jammed underneath rupturing its fuel tank. It overturned onto its left side coming to rest in the garden of a residence adjacent to the line to the north of the bridge. The locomotive sustained major damage to its cab area and right side. The first nine wagons following it were derailed and damaged to varying extents.
Immediately before the impact of the two trains, the speed of the InterCity 225 was estimated as 88 mph (142 km/h) and that of the freight train as 54 mph (87 km/h). With an estimated closing speed of 142 mph (229 km/h), the collision between the trains was the highest-speed railway incident that had occurred in the UK since the 1999 Ladbroke Grove crash.
Both train drivers, two additional train crew on board the InterCity 225, and six passengers were killed, all as a result of the second collision. Survivors of the accident included a train-driving instructor, Andrew Hill, who was travelling in the cab of 66521 and teaching a new route to the driver of the Class 66, a driver with 24 years of experience.
The coaches of the InterCity 225 were carrying 99 passengers and train staff. The early morning 04:45 time departure from Newcastle resulted in reduced passenger numbers. As it was, 45 of the 52 seriously injured passengers, and all eight fatalities (excluding the two locomotive drivers) were travelling in the first five coaches, which included a restaurant car and two first class coaches with less densely packed seating than standard coaches. In total 82 survivors were taken to hospital. The official incident report praised the crashworthiness of the InterCity 225's Mark 4 coaches.
Locomotive No. 66526 has since been named "Driver Steve Dunn (George)", in memory of the Freightliner driver killed in the accident. It carries a plaque commemorating the accident: "In remembrance of a dedicated engineman Driver Steve (George) Dunn was tragically killed in the accident at Great Heck on 28th February 2001". Dunn's son James, who was nine at the time of the crash, later became a train driver. Barry Needham, another Freightliner employee killed in the crash, was also commemorated by the naming of 56115 after him. The nameplates and plaques were transferred to 60087 and later to 60091. The locomotives mentioned above also carried an explanatory plaque.
John Weddle, the GNER driver killed in the accident, was honoured by way of a new driver-training school in his home city of Newcastle, which was named after him. In a ceremony attended by members of his family, his 16-year-old daughter Stephanie unveiled a plaque dedicating the school to his memory.
Coincidentally, No. 91023 was also involved in the Hatfield rail crash four months earlier. The locomotive escaped with only slight damage on both occasions. Following technical upgrade of the Class 91 fleet, which led to all locomotives having 100 added to the number (91001 became 91101, etc.), 91023 was renumbered 91132, not 91123.
A memorial was created at the point where the carriages came to rest at.
Hart escaped the incident unscathed and was later tried at Leeds Crown Court on ten counts of causing death by dangerous driving. He denied the charges, claiming that his car had suffered a mechanical fault or had collided with an object on the road. An investigation, including reconstruction of the Land Rover to demonstrate that it was not mechanically defective, concluded that Hart had been driving in a sleep-deprived condition, and had not applied the brakes as it went down the embankment. It later transpired that Hart had stayed up the previous night talking on the telephone to a woman he had met through an internet dating agency. He was found guilty on 13 December 2001, and was sentenced to five years in prison and a five-year driving ban. He was released from prison in July 2004 after serving half of his sentence.
Campaigners drew attention to what they said was the inadequate length of the crash barriers alongside the motorway. According to the Health and Safety Executive's final report, the Land Rover had left the road 30 yards before the barrier started and had easily broken through the simple wooden fence that lined the track. A 2003 Highways Agency review of crash barriers on bridges over railways concluded that only three bridges nationwide were in need of upgrading. The bridge at Great Heck was not one of them. By October 2003 Hart's insurers had paid out over £22 million. Gary Hart's insurers, through Hart's name, sued the Department for Transport for a contribution to the damages paid to GNER and the victims, alleging a degree of causation on the grounds that the safety barrier was inadequate (contributory negligence). The High Court judge ruled that the barrier length had been reasonable and there was no negligence.
- List of rail accidents in the United Kingdom
- Nocton rail crash – in similar circumstances, a year to the day after the Selby rail crash
- Ufton Nervet rail crash – a car parked on a level crossing by a suicidal man was struck by an InterCity 125, killing seven people
- Polmont rail accident – a train propelled from the rear by a locomotive struck a cow on the railway
- Hatfield rail crash – also involving an InterCity 225 powered by 91023
- Oxshott rail crash – a concrete mixer lorry fell from a bridge onto a train
- 2005 Glendale train crash – also involving a car on the track and collisions with other trains
- "Hart guilty of Selby rail crash deaths". The Telegraph. 13 December 2001. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- HSE 2002, pp. 9–10.
- RM April 2001, p. 4.
- HSE 2002, p. 10.
- "Respects paid on anniversary of Great Heck crash". The Yorkshire Post. 28 February 2016. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Piggott, Nick, ed. (July 2001). "Freightliner orders 17 more 66's". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 147 no. 1,203. London: IPC Media. p. 5. ISSN 0033-8923.
- HSE 2002, p. 11.
- HSE 2002, p. 15.
- HSE 2002, p. 27.
- Wainwright, Martin (5 December 2002). "Rail crash inquiry calls for monitors". Guardian Unlimited. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Selby rail crash car driver Gary Hart blames 'fate'" Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 28 February 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2014
- HSE 2002, p. 24.
- HSE 2002, p. 5.
- HSE 2002, p. 35.
- HSE 2002, p. 33.
- Marsden, Colin (November 2001). "Freightliner honours Great Heck driver...and twins with Enron". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 147 no. 1,207. London: IPC Media. p. 65. ISSN 0033-8923.
- "Courage of families praised at Great Heck memorial service". The York Press. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Dingle, Geoffrey. "60087 at Stafford". Railway Herald. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Selby rail driver honoured". BBC News. 10 July 2002. Archived from the original on 30 July 2004. Retrieved 4 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- RM April 2001, p. 7.
- Piggott, Nick, ed. (March 2002). "Twin crash loco's new identity". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 148 no. 1,211. London: IPC Media. p. 34. ISSN 0033-8923.
- "Selby rail crash car driver Gary Hart blames 'fate'". BBC News. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Selby crash motorist receives five year sentence". The Guardian. January 2002. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Crash driver's marathon phone chats". BBC. 13 December 2001. Archived from the original on 17 November 2005. Retrieved 25 August 2008. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Selby driver tells of death threats". BBC. 6 December 2001. Archived from the original on 27 July 2004. Retrieved 26 April 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Selby crash driver's jail release". 12 July 2004. Archived from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- "Call to boost barrier safety". BBC News. 13 December 2001. Archived from the original on 4 July 2004. Retrieved 6 March 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- HSE 2002, p. 30.
- "Selby insurer's compensation claim". BBC News. 7 October 2003. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Insurer loses Selby rail crash claim". The Telegraph. 30 October 2003. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- GNER v Hart,  EWHC 2450 (QB) (30 October 2003).
- Piggott, Nick; Mardsen, Colin; Milner, Chris; Longman, Jon (April 2001). "13[sic] Killed in ECML disaster at Heck". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 147 no. 1,200. London, UK: IPC magazines. ISSN 0033-8923.
- The track obstruction by a road vehicle and subsequent train collisions at Great Heck 28 February 2001 (Report). Health and Safety Executive. February 2002. ISBN 0-7176-2163-4.
- Final report - Health and Safety Executive, posted on the website of the Office of Rail Regulation
- BBC News reports on the crash and its aftermath
- Coverage at the Wayback Machine (archived 2001-06-04) - From The Guardian
- Highways Agency – crash report
- ONE life: Asleep at the Wheel at True North Productions
- Selby rail crash: 2001 disaster remembered