Grand Orient of Italy
The Grand Orient of Italy (GOI) (Italian: Grande Oriente d'Italia) is an Italian masonic grand lodge founded in 1805; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment. It was based at the Palazzo Giustiniani, Rome, Italy from 1901 until 1985 and is now located at the Villa del Vascello. Its current Grand Master is Italian journalist Stefano Bisi.
|Type||Masonic Grand Lodge|
Via San Pancrazio 8,
The international influence of the Grand Orient has decreased since it lost the official recognition of the "Home Grand Lodges" (of England, Ireland, and Scotland) owing to alleged corruption, although it remains regular in government and practice.
Past Grand Masters have included:
- Giuseppe Garibaldi,
- Adriano Lemmi,
- Sculptor Ettore Ferrari,
- Mayor of Rome Ernesto Nathan
Recognition by the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is a key factor in maintaining the status of a Regular Masonic jurisdiction. The Grand Orient of Italy was once a significant player within international Freemasonry, and in 1972 it was recognised as regular by the UGLE. However, this recognition was withdrawn in 1993, due to accusations of corruption and Mafia involvement. Today the Regular Grand Lodge of Italy is the only Italian Grand Lodge recognized by the UGLE, or the other home constitutions of Ireland and Scotland. However, the Grand Orient is fully recognised by a large majority of the other regular masonic jurisdictions, both in Europe and worldwide.
This situation is highly unusual, in that most regular authorities recognise the Grand Orient, but its status is complicated by the lack of recognition from the three most senior jurisdictions, which normally give a lead in terms of international recognition. To further complicate the situation, the United Grand Lodge of England has publicly stated that the Grand Orient of Italy is regular in both origins and practices, but that it must remain unrecognised due to the issues surrounding alleged corruption.
Propaganda Due, the lodge that investigative journalists have identified as being implicated in the murder of Roberto Calvi, was originally chartered by the Grand Orient, although the Grand Orient revoked its charter in 1974.
List of Grand MastersEdit
Prior to Gustavo Raffi's grand mastership two terms of five years was the maximum tenure for a grand master. This, however was changed during Raffi's time, and his three-term grand mastership which began in 1999 ended in 2014.
|1||Eugène de Beauharnais
|1805||1814||Paris, France||Viceroy of Italy (1805–1814)|
|December 20, 1859||May 20, 1860 †||Genoa, Piedmont-Sardinia||Patriot|
|May 21, 1860||October 3, 1861||Bologna, Papal States||Naturalist, patriot|
|October 8, 1861||January 31, 1862||Castelnuovo, Piedmont-Sardinia||Italy Ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1885–1887)|
|March 1, 1862||August 6, 1863||Aidone, Kingdom of Naples||Minister of Justice (1862)|
|August 6, 1863||May 24, 1864||Palestro, Lombardy-Venetia||Teacher|
|May 24, 1864||August 8, 1864||Nice, Piedmont-Sardinia||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1861–1882)|
|8||Francesco De Luca
|September 1864||June 20, 1867||Cardinale, Kingdom of Naples||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1861–1874)|
|June 21, 1867||August 2, 1867||Aidone, Kingdom of Naples||Minister of Justice (1867)|
|August 2, 1867||September 7, 1870||Milan, Lombardy-Venetia||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1860–1874)|
|September 7, 1870||May 11, 1880 †||Prato, Tuscany||Founder of P2; Senator of the Kingdom (1876–1880)|
|May 12, 1880||January 16, 1885||Bologna, Papal States||Lawyer|
|January 17, 1885||May 31, 1896||Livorno, Tuscany||Banker, businessman|
|June 1, 1896||February 14, 1904||London, UK||Co-founder of Dante Alighieri Society; later Mayor of Rome (1907–1913)|
|February 15, 1904||November 25, 1917||Rome, Papal States||Sculptor|
|November 26, 1917||June 22, 1919||London, UK||Co-founder of Dante Alighieri Society; later Mayor of Rome (1907–1913)|
|June 23, 1919||23 aprile 1927||Lamporecchio, Italy||Lawyer|
|January 12, 1930||June 22, 1930 †||Milan, Italy||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1904–1929)|
|June 23, 1930||November 29, 1931||Naples, Italy||Member of the Chamber of Deputies (1913–1929)|
|32 August 1932||August 19, 1940 †||Livorno, Italy||Surgeon|
|17||Davide Augusto Albarin
|August 19, 1940||June 10, 1944||Paris, French Empire||Anti-fascist activist|
|September 18, 1945||November 5, 1948 †||Messina, Italy||Journalist, politician|
|March 19, 1949||April 21, 1953 †||Bologna, Italy||Lawyer|
|October 4, 1953||September 27, 1956||Rome, Italy||Businessman, engineer|
|November 30, 1957||May 28, 1960 †||Lanciano, Italy||Lawyer|
|May 29, 1960||April 28, 1961||Villar Pellice, Italy||Surgeon|
|July 17, 1961||March 21, 1970||Ravenna, Italy||Writer, politician|
|March 22, 1970||November 18, 1978||Florence, Italy||Writer, politician|
|November 18, 1978||March 27, 1982||Urbino, Italy||Businessman, military officer|
|March 28, 1982||March 10, 1990||Villaputzu, Italy||Businessman, politician|
|27||Giuliano Di Bernardo
|March 11, 1990||April 16, 1993||Penne, Italy||Philosopher, writer|
|December 18, 1993||March 21, 1999||Naples, Italy||Lawyer|
|March 21, 1999||April 6, 2014||Bagnacavallo, Italy||Lawyer|
|April 6, 2014||Incumbent||Siena, Italy||Journalist, writer|
- "Nel 1805 fu costituito il Grande Oriente d’Italia." Tran. "In 1805 the Grand Orient of Italy was founded." La storia 1805–1860 Archived December 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, from the GOI Official website
- Headquarters detailed.
- See section "Government", on GOI about us page.
- See Members & Lodges.
- Ponziano, Giorgio (March 30, 2012). "Tremila massoni al Palacongresso" [Three thousand Masons at Palacongresso]. Italia Oggi (in Italian). Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Garibaldi — the mason Translated from Giuseppe Garibaldi Massone by the Grand Orient of Italy
- Entry "Giuseppe Mazzini" in Volume III K – P of 10,000 Famous Freemasons, William R. Denslow, 1957, Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). Encyclopædia Britannica. 31 (12th ed.). London & New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. p. 1059. .
- Centuries of Secrecy, Time, June 8, 1981
- What was the P2 Lodge?, Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions, Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) UGLE: Recognised Grand Lodges in Europe
- "Grand Lodge of Albania is recognised". United Grand Lodge of England. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
UGLE...has publicly stated that it accepts the Grand Orient's regularity of origin...
- Enrico Simoni, Bibliografia della Massoneria in Italia, Foggia, Edizioni Bastogi, 1° volume 1992 (3471 schede), 2° volume 1993 (indici sistematici degli articoli delle Riviste massoniche del dopoguerra; 3762 schede), 1° volume di aggiornamento 1997 (schede da 3472 a 4584), 3° volume 2006 (indici sistematici degli articoli della "Rivista della Massoneria Italiana" e della "Rivista Massonica"; 1870–1926; 6478 schede), 2° volume di aggiornamento 2010 (schede da 4585 a 6648)