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The Grand Duchy of Kraków[1][2] (German: Großherzogtum Krakau, Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Krakowskie) was created after the incorporation of the Free City of Cracow into Austria on 16 November 1846. From 1846 to 1918 the title, Grand Duke of Kraków, was part of the official titulary of the Emperor of Austria.[citation needed]

Grand Duchy of Kraków
Großherzogtum Krakau
Wielkie Księstwo Krakowskie
Grand Duchy of Austria (Austria-Hungary)

Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Kraków (Krakau, Cracow)
50°4′N 19°56′E / 50.067°N 19.933°E / 50.067; 19.933Coordinates: 50°4′N 19°56′E / 50.067°N 19.933°E / 50.067; 19.933
Grand Duke of Kraków
 •  1846–48 Ferdinand I
 •  1848–1916 Franz Joseph I
 •  1916–18 Karl I
Historical era Modern Age
 •  Free City May 3, 1815
 •  Annexed November 16, 1846
 •  Ausgleich 1867
 •  Collapse of Austria-Hungary October 31, 1918
 •  Treaty of St Germain September 10, 1919
¹ Also the Emperor of Austria.


Plan of the Free City of Kraków, 1815-1846

The Free City, a remnant of the Duchy of Warsaw, had been made a protectorate, however functionally independent, as a result of the Congress of Vienna (1815). It was under Prussian, Austrian, and Russian trilateral influence until, in the aftermath of the unsuccessful Kraków Uprising, it was annexed by the Austrian Empire in 1846.[3]

At the same time the official name of the Austrian administrative entity containing approximately Galicia, and some Polish areas west of it, was changed to the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Kraków with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator.

These entities (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Kraków, Duchy of Oświęcim, and Duchy of Zator) were formally separate; they were listed each in the Austrian emperor's titles, each had its distinct coat of arms and flag. For administrative purposes, however, they formed a single province.

The Duchy had its own local government, Governorate Commission (Polish: Komisja Gubernialna).


  1. ^ Frederic Austin Ogg: The Governments of Europe, Volume 2, 2009 p. 89
  2. ^ Google Books search: "Grand Duchy of Cracow" used in many English language books.
  3. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana 1972- Volume 16 - Page 537 By the provisions of the Congress of Vienna (1815) it became the Republic of Krakow, a protectorate of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, but in 1846 it reverted to Austria as the Grand Duchy of Krakow."


  • Alfred Regele: Die Einverleibung des Freistaates Krakau 1846. Ungedr. Diss., Wien 1951