Government of the 1st Dáil

The Government of the 1st Dáil was the executive of the unilaterally declared Irish Republic. At the 1918 Westminster election, candidates for Sinn Féin stood on an abstentionist platform, declaring that they would not still in the Parliament of the United Kingdom but instead form a unicameral, revolutionary parliament for Ireland called Dáil Éireann.

The first meeting of the First Dáil was held on 21 January 1919 in the Round Room of the Mansion House in Dublin and made a Declaration of Independence. It also approved the Dáil Constitution. Under Article 2 of this Constitution, there would be a Ministry of Dáil Éireann led by a President, with five Secretaries leading government departments. There were two Ministries of Dáil Éireann during the First Dáil. The 1st Ministry (22 January to 1 April 1919) was led by Cathal Brugha and lasted for 69 days; it was formed when a large number of those elected for Sinn Féin were in prison. The 2nd Ministry (1 April 1919 to 26 August 1921) was led by Éamon de Valera, leader of Sinn Féin, and lasted for 878 days.

1st MinistryEdit

Government of the 1st Dáil
1st Ministry
 
Date formed22 January 1919
Date dissolved1 April 1919
People and organisations
President of Dáil ÉireannCathal Brugha
Total no. of members4
Member partySinn Féin
Status in legislatureGovernment
History
Election(s)1918 general election
Legislature term(s)1st Dáil
Successor2nd Ministry

The 1st Ministry was a temporary cabinet headed by Cathal Brugha, because Éamon de Valera, the leader of Sinn Féin, was in prison at the time.[1]

Office Name
President of Dáil Éireann Cathal Brugha
Minister for Finance Eoin MacNeill
Minister for Home Affairs Michael Collins
Minister for Foreign Affairs Count Plunkett
Minister for National Defence Richard Mulcahy

2nd MinistryEdit

Government of the 1st Dáil
2nd Ministry
 
Date formed1 April 1919
Date dissolved26 August 1921
People and organisations
President of Dáil ÉireannÉamon de Valera
Deputy PresidentArthur Griffith (from June 1919)
Total no. of members12 (inc. 4 non-members of the cabinet)
Member partySinn Féin
Status in legislatureGovernment
History
Legislature term(s)1st Dáil
Predecessor1st Ministry
Successor3rd Ministry

On 1 April, the 1st Ministry resigned.[2] On a motion proposed by Cathal Brugha and seconded by Pádraic Ó Máille, Éamon de Valera was declared elected as President of Dáil Éireann (Príomh Aire).[3] The Constitution was amended to allow for up to nine members of the Ministry, as well as the President.[4] The following day, he formed the 2nd Ministry. Countess Markievicz became the first Irish female Cabinet minister. She served until 26 August 1921, and the next woman appointed to cabinet was Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, who was appointed as Minister for the Gaeltacht in 1979.

De Valera travelled to the United States in June 1919, and by letter requested that Arthur Griffith be appointed as Deputy President in his absence and that Ernest Blythe take a place at cabinet.[5] De Valera resumed his position in the Dáil on 25 January 1921.[6]

Office Name
President of Dáil Éireann Éamon de Valera
Secretary for Home Affairs[7] Arthur Griffith
Secretary for Defence[8] Cathal Brugha
Secretary for Foreign Affairs[9] Count Plunkett
Secretary for Labour[10] Constance Markievicz
Secretary for Industries[11] Eoin MacNeill
Secretary for Finance[12] Michael Collins
Secretary for Local Government[13] W. T. Cosgrave

Ministers not in cabinetEdit

Office Name
Director of Propaganda[14] Laurence Ginnell
Director of Agriculture[14] Robert Barton

Changes on 17 June 1919Edit

Office Name
Deputy President[15] Arthur Griffith
Director of Trade and Commerce[16] Ernest Blythe
Substitute Director of Propaganda[17] Desmond FitzGerald

Changes on 27 October 1919Edit

On the arrest of Ernest Blythe.[18]

Office Name
Substitute Director of Trade and Commerce Joseph McGuinness

Changes on 29 June 1920Edit

Appointment of new ministries and substitute ministries.[19]

Office Name
Minister for Irish John J. O'Kelly
Acting Minister at the Ministry of Home Affairs Austin Stack
Substitute Minister for Local Government Kevin O'Higgins
Substitute Minister for Agriculture Art O'Connor
Director of Fisheries Seán Etchingham

Change on 17 September 1920Edit

Office Name
Assistant Minister for Irish[20] Frank Fahy

Resignation of MinistryEdit

In May 1921, the Dáil passed a resolution declaring that elections to the House of Commons of Northern Ireland and the House of Commons of Southern Ireland would be used as the election for the Second Dáil.[21]

The members of the 2nd Dáil first met on 16 August 1921.[22] The outgoing Ministry did not resign immediately. On 26 August 1921, Éamon de Valera resigned as President.[23] De Valera was then re-elected, taking the new title of President of the Republic, and formed the 3rd Ministry of Dáil Éireann.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "DAIL MINISTRY – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 22 January 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  2. ^ "RESIGNATION OF MINISTRY – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 1 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  3. ^ "ELECTION OF PRESIDENT OF DÁIL – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 1 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  4. ^ "AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION - AMENDMENT TO ARTICLE 2 (b) – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 1 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  5. ^ "LETTER FROM PRESIDENT DE VALERA – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 17 June 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  6. ^ "PRESIDENT'S STATEMENT – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 25 January 1921". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  7. ^ "NOMINATION OF MINISTRY. - Secretary for Home Affairs – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 2 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  8. ^ "NOMINATION OF MINISTRY. - Secretary for Defence – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 2 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  9. ^ "NOMINATION OF MINISTRY. - Secretary for Foreign Affairs – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 2 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  10. ^ "NOMINATION OF MINISTRY. - Secretary for Labour – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 2 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  11. ^ "NOMINATION OF MINISTRY. - Secretary for Industries – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 2 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  12. ^ "NOMINATION OF MINISTRY. - Secretary for Finance – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 2 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  13. ^ "NOMINATION OF MINISTRY. - Secretary for Local Government – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 2 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  14. ^ a b "HEADS OF DEPARTMENT – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Wednesday, 2 April 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  15. ^ "APPOINTMENT OF DEPUTY PRESIDENT – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 17 June 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  16. ^ "INCLUSION IN THE MINISTRY OF THE DIRECTOR OF TRADE AND COMMERCE – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 17 June 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  17. ^ "APPOINTMENT OF SUBSTITUTE-DIRECTOR OF PROPAGANDA – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 17 June 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  18. ^ "APPOINTMENT OF SUBSTITUTE DIRECTOR OF TRADE AND COMMERCE – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Monday, 27 October 1919". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  19. ^ "RATIFICATION OF MINISTERS – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 29 June 1920". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  20. ^ "RATIFICATION OF ASSISTANT MINISTER FOR IRISH – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Friday, 17 September 1920". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  21. ^ "PRESIDENT'S STATEMENT. - ELECTIONS – Dáil Éireann (1st Dáil) – Tuesday, 10 May 1921". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  22. ^ "Prelude – Dáil Éireann (2nd Dáil) – Tuesday, 16 August 1921". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  23. ^ "RESIGNATION OF MINISTRY – Dáil Éireann (2nd Dáil) – Friday, 26 August 1921". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 31 August 2019.