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The Finnish Government (Finnish: Suomen valtioneuvosto; Swedish: Finlands statsråd; lit. Finland's council of state)[2][3] is the executive branch and cabinet of Finland, which directs the politics of Finland and is the main source of legislation proposed to the Parliament. The Government has collective ministerial responsibility and represents Finland in the Council of the European Union. In the incumbent Rinne Cabinet, the Government comprises 19 ministers leading 12 ministries.

Finnish Government
Finnish: Suomen valtioneuvosto
Swedish: Finlands statsråd
Finnish Government logo.png
Overview
Established27 November 1917; 101 years ago (1917-11-27)
StateRepublic of Finland
LeaderPrime Minister of Finland
Appointed byPresident of Finland
Main organPrime Minister's Office
Ministries12 (list)
Responsible toParliament of Finland
Annual budget55.8 billion[1] (2018)
HeadquartersGovernment Palace
Snellmaninkatu 1 A, Helsinki, Finland
Websitegovernment.fi

Majority coalition governments have become the foundation of the Finnish Government; apart from a few historical exceptions, a Government is usually assembled by the representatives of two major parties and a number of smaller parties.[4]

CompositionEdit

The Government is the most important executive body of Finland composed of the ministers.[5][6][7] Its supreme powers are based on Section 3, Chapter 1 of the Constitution of Finland (and the subordinate Government Act of 2003[8]):

The governmental powers are exercised by the President of the Republic and the Government, the members of which shall have the confidence of the Parliament.[9]

Cabinet, ministers, ministriesEdit

The Government is led by the Prime Minister, considered practically the most powerful single office holder in Finland and often the leader of the largest political party.

The Government is composed of 11 ministries plus the Prime Minister's Office. Each ministry is led by at least one minister. Unlike the varying number and portfolios of ministers, the number and names of the ministries are fixed in an act.[10][11] All ministers sit in the Government.

The Government itself proposes the number of ministers and their roles which the Parliament of Finland confirms, and it is possible to reshuffle portfolios during the life of a Government. There are no senior or junior ministers, and ministers without portfolio are no longer permitted under the 2000 constitution. Ministers are not required to be Members of Parliament (MPs), although they often are. Each minister is assisted by a secretary of state (Finnish: valtiosihteeri; Swedish: statssekreterare), a political appointee who serves at the pleasure of the minister.[5][6][7]

Although ministers' portfolios are divided among the participating political parties, the Government has collective ministerial responsibility, and the ministers are expected to follow a government programme agreed upon during government formation talks.

List of the ministriesEdit

Ministry Finnish name[12] Swedish name
Prime Minister's Office valtioneuvoston kanslia statsrådets kansli
Ministry for Foreign Affairs ulkoministeriö utrikesministeriet
Ministry of Justice oikeusministeriö justitieministeriet
Ministry of the Interior sisäministeriö inrikesministeriet
Ministry of Defence puolustusministeriö försvarsministeriet
Ministry of Finance valtiovarainministeriö finansministeriet
Ministry of Education and Culture opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriö undervisnings- och kulturministeriet
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry maa- ja metsätalousministeriö jord- och skogsbruksministeriet
Ministry of Transport and Communications liikenne- ja viestintäministeriö kommunikationsministeriet
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment työ- ja elinkeinoministeriö arbets- och näringsministeriet
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health sosiaali- ja terveysministeriö social- och hälsovårdsministeriet
Ministry of the Environment ympäristöministeriö miljöministeriet

Ministerial committeesEdit

The Prime Minister may sit with a subset of the Government in a ministerial committee (cabinet committee), when it is not necessary or desirable to have the entire Government convene. There are government-specific and optional ministerial committees in addition to the four statutory ministerial committees:[5][6][7]

  • Ministerial Finance Committee (raha-asiainvaliokunta);
  • Ministerial Committee on Foreign and Security Policy (ulko- ja turvallisuuspoliittinen ministerivaliokunta; officially since 1922 and unofficially before that);
  • Ministerial Committee on Economic Policy (talouspoliittinen ministerivaliokunta; officially since 1977 and unofficially before that); and
  • Ministerial Committee on European Union Affairs (Euroopan unionia koskevien asioiden ministerivaliokunta; established in 1995 to replace the Ministerial Committee on European Economic Community Affairs).

LegislationEdit

 
Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.

The Government initiates the majority of legislation. A proposed act (Finnish: laki; Swedish: lag) is drafted in the respective ministry under the direction of its minister, after which it is reviewed by the Government and forwarded as a government proposal (Finnish: hallituksen esitys; Swedish: regeringens proposition) to Parliament for processing and possible amendments. However, since coalition governments have become the norm in Finland, the parties represented in the Government usually form the majority in the parliament, making the process somewhat more harmonious. Since 1957, all governments have been majority governments. Before a proposal is enacted into law, it must be confirmed by the President of Finland. As such, the president has the power of a delaying veto as a check against majority politics and potential violations of international agreements. Periods of cohabitation, wherein the president and the government represent different political positions, can create strife. The president's veto can be overridden by the Parliament, although this is in practice not done. Parties can also agree to not to vote along party lines but to leave the decision to individual MPs, although this is uncommon.[5]

While the Parliament passes acts, the Government or an individual ministry issues decrees (Finnish: asetus; Swedish: förordning) as delegated legislation. Decrees clarify, specify, and guide the implementation of an act of Parliament, but cannot contradict it. They are similar to US standing executive orders. A typical example is specifying the actual monetary sums for benefits described in general terms in an act.[5] Decrees form an important body of law alongside acts of Parliament.

BudgetEdit

State funds can be spent only in the framework of the state budget (Finnish: valtion talousarvio; Swedish: statsbudget), which must be confirmed by Parliament. The Government drafts the annual budget and introduces it to Parliament for discussion and approval. If the Government requires more funds mid-year, they have to submit an additional budget proposal to Parliament.[5] For 2018, the central state budget was €55.8 billion, not including municipal budgets and non-departmental bodies like state-owned enterprises.[13]

Incumbent GovernmentEdit

The current Rinne cabinet is Finland's 75th Government, which was inaugurated on 6 June 2019. It consists of 19 ministers and 5 parties: Social Democratic Party, Centre Party, Green League, Left Alliance and Swedish People's Party.[14]

MinistersEdit

The incumbent ministers and their associated portfolios are listed below.[15]

Portfolio Minister Took office Left office Party
Prime Minister Antti Rinne6 June 2019Social Democratic
Minister for Foreign Affairs Pekka Haavisto6 June 2019Green League
Minister of Finance Mika Lintilä6 June 2019Centre
Minister of the Interior Maria Ohisalo6 June 2019Green League
Minister for Development Cooperation and Foreign Trade Ville Skinnari6 June 2019Social Democratic
Minister of Justice Anna-Maja Henriksson6 June 2019Swedish People's
Minister of Employment Timo Harakka6 June 2019Social Democratic
Minister of Defence Antti Kaikkonen6 June 2019Centre
Minister of Local Government and Ownership Steering Sirpa Paatero6 June 2019Social Democratic
Minister of Transport and Communications Sanna Marin6 June 2019Social Democratic
Minister of Education Li Andersson6 June 2019Left Alliance
Minister of Science and Culture Hanna Kosonen9 August 2019Centre
Minister for European Affairs Tytti Tuppurainen6 June 2019Social Democratic
Minister of the Environment and Climate Change Krista Mikkonen6 June 2019Green League
Minister of Agriculture and Forestry Jari Leppä6 June 2019Centre
Minister of Economic Affairs Katri Kulmuni6 June 2019Centre
Minister of Social Affairs and Health Aino-Kaisa Pekonen6 June 2019Left Alliance
Minister of Family Affairs and Social Services Krista Kiuru6 June 2019Social Democratic
Minister of Nordic Cooperation and Equality Thomas Blomqvist6 June 2019Swedish People's

List of GovernmentsEdit

The following is a list of all Finnish Governments since 1917.[16]

Government Took office Seats Parties
Svinhufvud's senate 27 November 1917 103/200 Young Finnish Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish Party
Agrarian League
Paasikivi's senate 27 May 1918 103/200 Young Finnish Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish Party
Agrarian League
Ingman's cabinet 27 November 1918 77/200

77/108

National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
National Progressive Party
K. Castrén's cabinet 17 April 1919 90/200 Swedish People's Party
National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Vennola's cabinet 15 August 1919 68/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Erich's cabinet 15 March 1920 118/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Vennola's second cabinet 9 April 1921 68/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Cajander's cabinet 2 June 1922
Kallio's cabinet 14 November 1922 60/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Cajander's second cabinet 18 January 1924
Ingman's second cabinet 31 May 1924 122/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Tulenheimo's cabinet 31 March 1925 82/200 Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Kallio's second cabinet 31 December 1925 82/200 Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Tanner's cabinet 13 December 1926 52/200 Social Democratic Party
Sunila's cabinet 17 December 1927 52/200 Agrarian League
Mantere's cabinet 22 December 1928 10/200 National Progressive Party
Kallio's third cabinet 16 August 1929 60/200 Agrarian League
Svinhufvud's second cabinet 4 July 1930 132/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Sunila's second cabinet 21 March 1931 132/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Kivimäki's cabinet 14 December 1932 85/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Kallio's fourth cabinet 7 October 1936 60/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Cajander's third cabinet 3 March 1937 164/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Ryti's cabinet 1 December 1939 165/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Ryti's second cabinet 27 March 1940 190/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
Rangell's cabinet 4 January 1941 198/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
Patriotic People's Movement
Linkomies' cabinet 5 March 1943 190/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
Hackzell's cabinet 8 September 1944 190/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
U. Castrén's cabinet 21 October 1944 190/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
National Coalition Party
Paasikivi's second cabinet 17 November 1944 165/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Finnish People's Democratic League
Paasikivi's third cabinet 17 April 1945 171/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Finnish People's Democratic League
Pekkala's cabinet 26 March 1946 162/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Finnish People's Democratic League
Fagerholm's cabinet 29 August 1948 54/200 Social Democratic Party
Kekkonen's cabinet 17 March 1950 75/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Kekkonen's second cabinet 17 January 1951 129/200 National Progressive Party
Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Kekkonen's third cabinet 20 October 1951 119/200 Agrarian League
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Kekkonen's fourth cabinet 9 August 1953 66/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Sakari Tuomioja's cabinet 17 November 1953 53/200
Törngren's cabinet 5 May 1954 120/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Kekkonen's fifth cabinet 20 October 1954 107/200 Agrarian League
Social Democratic Party
Fagerholm's second cabinet 3 March 1956 120/200 Agrarian League
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Sukselainen's cabinet 27 April 1957 79/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People'Party
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders
Finnish People's Party
von Fieandt's cabinet 29 November 1957
Kuuskoski's cabinet 26 April 1958
Fagerholm's third cabinet 29 September 1958 152/200 Social Democratic Party
Agrarian League
National Coalition Party
Finnish People's Party
Swedish People's Party
Sukselainen's second cabinet 13 January 1959 62/200 Agrarian League
Swedish People's Party
Miettunen's cabinet 14 August 1961 48/200 Agrarian League
Karjalainen's cabinet 13 April 1962 114/200 Agrarian League
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders
Swedish People's Party
National Coalition Party
Finnish People's Party
Lehto's cabinet 18 December 1963
Virolainen's cabinet 12 October 1964 112/200 Centre Party
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish People's Party
Paasio's cabinet 27 May 1966 152/200 Finnish People's Democratic League
Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders
Centre Party
Koivisto's cabinet 22 March 1968 164/200 Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders
Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish People's Democratic League
Aura's cabinet 14 May 1970
Karjalainen's second cabinet 15 August 1970 144/200 Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Aura's second cabinet 29 October 1971
Paasio's second cabinet 23 February 1972 55/200 Social Democratic Party
Sorsa's cabinet 4 October 1972 109/200 Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Social Democratic Party
Liinamaa's cabinet 13 June 1975
Miettunen's second cabinet 30 November 1975 152/200 Finnish People's Democratic League
Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Social Democratic Party
Miettunen's third cabinet 29 October 1976 58/200 Centre Party
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Sorsa's second cabinet 15 May 1977 152/200 Finnish People's Democratic League
Swedish People's Party
Liberals
Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Koivisto's second cabinet 26 May 1979 133/200 Finnish People's Democratic League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Sorsa's third cabinet 19 February 1982 133/200

102/200

Finnish People's Democratic League
Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Sorsa's fourth cabinet 6 May 1983 123/200 Swedish People's Party
Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Finnish Rural Party
Holkeri's cabinet 30 April 1987 131/200 National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Finnish Rural Party
Aho's cabinet 26 April 1991 115/200 Centre Party
National Coalition Party
Swedish People's Party
Christian Democrats
Lipponen's cabinet 13 April 1995 145/200 National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Left Alliance
Green League
Lipponen's second Cabinet 15 April 1999 140/200

129/200

National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Left Alliance
Green League (−2002)
Jäätteenmäki's Cabinet 17 April 2003 117/200 Centre Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Vanhanen's cabinet 24 June 2003 117/200 Centre Party
Social Democratic Party
Swedish People's Party
Vanhanen's second cabinet 19 April 2007 126/200 Centre Party
National Coalition Party
Green League
Swedish People's Party
Kiviniemi's cabinet 22 June 2010 126/200 Centre Party
National Coalition Party
Green League
Swedish People's Party
Katainen's cabinet 22 June 2011 124/200

112/200

National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Left Alliance (−2014)
Green League
Swedish People's Party
Christian Democrats
Stubb's cabinet 24 June 2014 112/200

102/200

National Coalition Party
Social Democratic Party
Green League (−2014)
Swedish People's Party
Christian Democrats
Sipilä's cabinet 29 May 2015 124/200

105/200

Centre Party
Finns Party (−2017)
National Coalition Party
Blue Reform (2017−)
Rinne's cabinet
Incumbent
6 June 2019 117/200 Social Democratic Party
Centre Party
Green League
Left Alliance
Swedish People's Party

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Valtion talousarvioesitys 2018" [Finnish Budget Proposal 2018]. budjetti.vm.fi. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  2. ^ "About the Government". Finnish Government. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  3. ^ "Finnish Government Glossary". mot.kielikone.fi. Finnish Government Termbank Valter. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018. Government : body which exercises general governmental power and must enjoy the confidence of Parliament, consisting of the prime minister, who is chosen by Parliament and appointed by the President of the Republic, and the other ministers, who are appointed by the president of the republic acting on a proposal by the prime minister
  4. ^ "Governments in chronological order". Valtioneuvosto. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Saukkonen, Pasi (2008). Suomen poliittinen järjestelmä [Political System of Finland]. fi-fe20041404 (in Finnish). University of Helsinki.
  6. ^ a b c Selovuori, Jorma, ed. (1996). Suomen keskushallinnon historia 1809–1996 [History of the Finnish Central Government 1809–1996] (in Finnish). Prime Minister's Office and Edita. ISBN 951-37-1976-6. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Savolainen, Raimo (2011). Valtioneuvoston kanslia 200 vuotta [200 years of the Prime Minister's Office] (PDF) (in Finnish). Prime Minister's Office and Edita. ISBN 978-952-5896-73-2. ISSN 1799-7828.
  8. ^ "Government Act 175/2003". www.finlex.fi. 28 February 2009. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  9. ^ "The Constitution of Finland" (PDF). Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  10. ^ Oy, Edita Publishing. "FINLEX ® - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö: Laki valtioneuvostosta 175/2003". www.finlex.fi.
  11. ^ Helopuro, Sanna; Lankinen, Timo (29 May 2019). "Ministerin käsikirja 2019 - Tietoa valtioneuvoston toiminnasta". julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi.
  12. ^ "Kielitoimiston ohjepankki". Kielitoimiston ohjepankki (in Finnish). Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  13. ^ "Tutki budjettia". tutkibudjettia.fi.
  14. ^ "Government of Prime Minister Rinne appointed". Valtioneuvosto.
  15. ^ "Ministers". Valtioneuvosto. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Finnish Governments and Ministers since 1917". Finnish Government. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018.

External linksEdit