Google data centers are the large data center facilities Google uses to provide their services, which combine large drives, computer nodes organized in aisles of racks, internal and external networking, environmental controls (mainly cooling and humidification control), and operations software (especially as concerns load balancing and fault tolerance).

Former Google data center in Eemshaven, Netherlands
External videos
YouTube logo
video icon Google Data Center 360° Tour

There is no official data on how many servers are in Google data centers, but Gartner estimated in a July 2016 report that Google at the time had 2.5 million servers. This number is changing as the company expands capacity and refreshes its hardware.[1]

Locations edit

The locations of Google's various data centers by continent are as follows:[2][3]

Continent Location Geo Products Location Cloud Location Timeline Description
North America Arcola (VA), USA 38°56′35.99″N 77°31′27.61″W / 38.9433306°N 77.5243361°W / 38.9433306; -77.5243361 Loudoun County N. Virginia (us-east4) 2017 - announced[4][5]
North America Atlanta (GA), USA 33°44′59.04″N 84°35′5.33″W / 33.7497333°N 84.5848139°W / 33.7497333; -84.5848139 Douglas County - 2003 - launched 350 employees
South America Cerrillos, Santiago, Chile 33°31′14″S 70°43′18″W / 33.520515°S 70.721695°W / -33.520515; -70.721695[6] - Santiago (southamerica-west1) 2020 - announced[7]

2021 - launched[8]

Asia Changhua County, Taiwan 24°08′18.6″N 120°25′32.6″E / 24.138500°N 120.425722°E / 24.138500; 120.425722 Changhua County Taiwan


2011 - announced

2013 - launched

60 employees
North America Clarksville (TN), USA 36°37′16″N 87°15′47″W / 36.6211599°N 87.2630735°W / 36.6211599; -87.2630735 Montgomery County - 2015 - announced
North America Columbus (OH), USA - Columbus (us-east5) 2022 - launched[9]
North America Council Bluffs (IA), USA 41°13′17.7″N 95°51′49.92″W / 41.221583°N 95.8638667°W / 41.221583; -95.8638667 Council Bluffs 2007 - announced

2009 - completed first phase completed

2012 and 2015 - expanded

130 employees
North America Council Bluffs (IA), USA 41°10′06″N 95°47′46″W / 41.1682533°N 95.7961246°W / 41.1682533; -95.7961246 Iowa (us-central1)
Asia Delhi, India - Delhi (asia-south2) 2020 - announced

2021 - launched[10]

Middle East Doha, Qatar - Doha (me-central1) 2023 - launched[11]
Europe Dublin, Ireland 53°19′12.39″N 6°26′31.43″W / 53.3201083°N 6.4420639°W / 53.3201083; -6.4420639 Dublin - 2011 - announced

2012 - launched

150 employees[12]
Europe Eemshaven, Netherlands 53°25′31″N 6°51′44″E / 53.4252171°N 6.8622574°E / 53.4252171; 6.8622574 Eemshaven 2014 - announced

2016 - launched

2018, 2019 - expansion

200 employees
Europe Frankfurt, Germany 50°07′21″N 8°58′27″E / 50.1226299°N 8.9741678°E / 50.1226299; 8.9741678[13] - Frankfurt (europe-west3) 2022 - expanded[14]
Europe Fredericia, Denmark 55°33′29.5″N 9°39′20.8″E / 55.558194°N 9.655778°E / 55.558194; 9.655778 Fredericia - 2018 - announced[15]

2020 - launched

€600M building costs
Europe Ghlin, Hainaut, Belgium 50°28′09.6″N 3°51′55.7″E / 50.469333°N 3.865472°E / 50.469333; 3.865472 Saint-Ghislain Belgium (europe-west1) 2007 - announced

2010 - launched

12 employees
Europe Hamina, Finland 60°32′11.68″N 27°7′1.21″E / 60.5365778°N 27.1170028°E / 60.5365778; 27.1170028 Hamina Finland


2009 - announced

2011 - first phase completed

2022 - expansion

6 buildings, 400 employees [16]
North America Henderson (NV), USA 36°03′20″N 115°00′37″W / 36.0556248°N 115.0102258°W / 36.0556248; -115.0102258 Henderson Las Vegas (us-west4) 2019 - announced[17]

2020 - launched

64-acres; $1.2B building costs[18][19]
Asia Hong Kong, Hong Kong - Hong Kong (asia-east2) 2017 - announced[20]

2018 - launched[21]

Asia Inzai, Japan 35°49′04″N 140°07′57″E / 35.8177804°N 140.1323916°E / 35.8177804; 140.1323916 Inzai - 2023 - launched
Asia Jakarta, Indonesia - Jakarta (asia-southeast2) 2020 - launched[22]
Asia Koto-Ku, Tokyo, Japan - Tokyo


2016 - launched[23]
North America Leesburg (VA), USA 39°3′6.38″N 77°32′20.38″W / 39.0517722°N 77.5389944°W / 39.0517722; -77.5389944 Loudoun County N. Virginia (us-east4) 2017 - announced[4][5]
North America Lenoir (NC), USA 35°53′54.78″N 81°32′50.58″W / 35.8985500°N 81.5473833°W / 35.8985500; -81.5473833 Lenoir - 2007 - announced

2009 - launched

over 110 employees
Asia Lok Yang Way, Pioneer, Singapore 1°19′26″N 103°41′36″E / 1.3239859°N 103.693253°E / 1.3239859; 103.693253[24] Singapore Singapore (asia-southeast1) 2022 - launched
Europe London, UK - London


2017 - launched[25]
North America Los Angeles (CA), USA - Los Angeles (us-west2)
Europe Madrid, Spain 40°31′10″N 3°20′27″W / 40.5195333°N 3.3409366°W / 40.5195333; -3.3409366 - Madrid (europe-southwest1) 2022 - launched[26]
Pacific Melbourne, Australia - Melbourne


2021 - launched[27]
Europe Middenmeer, Noord-Holland, The Netherlands 52°47′24″N 5°01′45″E / 52.7901053°N 5.0292193°E / 52.7901053; 5.0292193[28] Middenmeer Netherlands (europe-west4) 2019 - announced[29]
North America Midlothian (TX), USA 32°26′35″N 97°03′44″W / 32.443170°N 97.062324°W / 32.443170; -97.062324 Midlothian Dallas (us-south1) 2019 - announced

2022 - launched[30]

375-acres; $600M building costs[31]
Europe Milan, Italy - Milan (europe-west8) 2022 - launched[32]
North America Moncks Corner (SC), USA 33°03′50.8″N 80°02′36.1″W / 33.064111°N 80.043361°W / 33.064111; -80.043361 Berkeley County South Carolina (us-east1) 2007 - launched

2013 - expanded

150 employees
North America Montreal, Quebec, Canada[33] - Montréal (northamerica-northeast1) 2018 - launched[34] 62.4-hectares; $600M building costs[35]
Asia Mumbai, India - Mumbai (asia-south1) 2017 - launched[36]
North America New Albany (OH), USA 40°03′41″N 82°45′31″W / 40.0613352°N 82.7586278°W / 40.0613352; -82.7586278 New Albany - 2019 - announced 400-acres; $600M building costs[37][38]
Asia Osaka, Japan - Osaka


2019 - launched[39]
South America Osasco, São Paulo, Brazil - São Paulo (southamerica-east1) 2017 - launched[40]
North America Papillion (NE), USA 41°08′00″N 96°08′39″W / 41.1332915°N 96.144178°W / 41.1332915; -96.144178 Papillion - 2019 - announced 275-acres; $600M building costs[41][42]
Europe Paris, France - Paris (europe-west9) 2022 - launched[43]
North America Pryor Creek (OK), USA 36°14′28.1″N 95°19′48.22″W / 36.241139°N 95.3300611°W / 36.241139; -95.3300611 Mayes County - 2007 - announced

2012 - expanded

over 400 employees,[44] land at MidAmerica Industrial Park
South America Quilicura, Santiago, Chile 33°21′30.5″S 70°41′50.4″W / 33.358472°S 70.697333°W / -33.358472; -70.697333 Quilicura - 2012 - announced

2015 - launched

up to 20 employees expected. A million dollar investment plan to increase capacity at Quilicura was announced in 2018.[45]
North America Reno (NV), USA 39°30′04″N 119°25′46″W / 39.5011558°N 119.4295537°W / 39.5011558; -119.4295537 Storey County - 2017 - 1,210 acres of land bought in the Tahoe Reno Industrial Center[46]

2018 - announced

2018 November - project approved by the state of Nevada[47][48]

North America Salt Lake City (UT), USA - Salt Lake City (us-west3) 2020 - launched[49]
Asia Seoul, South Korea - Seoul


2020 - launched[50]
Pacific Sydney, Australia - Sydney


2017 - launched[51]
Middle East Tel Aviv, Israel[52] - Tel Aviv (me-west1) 2022 - launched[53]
North America The Dalles (OR), USA 45°37′57.04″N 121°12′8.16″W / 45.6325111°N 121.2022667°W / 45.6325111; -121.2022667 The Dalles Oregon (us-west1) 2006 - launched 80 full-time employees
North America Toronto, Canada - Toronto (northamerica-northeast2) 2021 - launched[54]
Europe Turin, Italy 45°08′48″N 7°44′32″E / 45.146729°N 7.742147°E / 45.146729; 7.742147 - Turin (europe-west12) 2023 - launched[55]
South America Vinhedo, São Paulo, Brazil São Paulo (southamerica-east1)
Europe Warsaw, Poland - Warsaw (europe-central2) 2019 - announced

2021 - launched[56]

Asia Wenya, Jurong West, Singapore 1°21′04.8″N 103°42′35.2″E / 1.351333°N 103.709778°E / 1.351333; 103.709778 Singapore Singapore (asia-southeast1) 2011 - announced

2013 - launched

2015 - expanded

North America Widows Creek (Bridgeport) (AL), USA 34°54′48.4″N 85°44′53.1″W / 34.913444°N 85.748083°W / 34.913444; -85.748083[57] Jackson County - 2018 - broke ground
Europe Zürich, Switzerland 47°26′45″N 8°12′39″E / 47.4459257°N 8.2109085°E / 47.4459257; 8.2109085[58] - Zurich (europe-west6) 2018 - announced

2019 - launched[59]

Europe Austria 2022 - announced[60]
Europe Berlin, Germany[61] 2021 - announced[62] 2023 August - launch expected[63]
Middle East Dammam, Saudi Arabia 2021 - announced[64]
Europe Greece 2022 - announced[60]
North America Kansas City, Missouri 2019 - announced[65]
Middle East Kuwait 2023 - announced[66]
Asia Malaysia 2022 - announced[67]
Pacific New Zealand 2022 - announced[67]
Europe Norway 2022 - announced[60]
North America Querétaro, Mexico 2022 - announced[68]
Africa South Africa 2022 - announced[60]
Europe Sweden 2022 - announced[60]
Asia Tainan City, Taiwan - Taiwan


2019 September - announced[69][70][71]
Asia Thailand 2022 - announced[67]
Asia Yunlin County, Taiwan - Taiwan (asia-east1) 2020 September - announced[72]

Hardware edit

Original hardware edit

Google's first production server rack, circa 1998

The original hardware (circa 1998) that was used by Google when it was located at Stanford University included:[73]

  • Sun Microsystems Ultra II with dual 200 MHz processors, and 256 MB of RAM. This was the main machine for the original Backrub system.
  • 2 × 300 MHz dual Pentium II servers donated by Intel, they included 512 MB of RAM and 10 × 9 GB hard drives between the two. It was on these that the main search ran.
  • F50 IBM RS/6000 donated by IBM, included 4 processors, 512 MB of memory and 8 × 9 GB hard disk drives.
  • Two additional boxes included 3 × 9 GB hard drives and 6 x 4 GB hard disk drives respectively (the original storage for Backrub). These were attached to the Sun Ultra II.
  • SDD disk expansion box with another 8 × 9 GB hard disk drives donated by IBM.
  • Homemade disk box which contained 10 × 9 GB SCSI hard disk drives.

Production hardware edit

As of 2014, Google has used a heavily customized version of Debian Linux. They migrated from a Red Hat-based system incrementally in 2013.[74]

The customization goal is to purchase CPU generations that offer the best performance per dollar, not absolute performance. How this is measured is unclear, but it is likely to incorporate running costs of the entire server, and CPU power consumption could be a significant factor.[75] Servers as of 2009–2010 consisted of custom-made open-top systems containing two processors (each with several cores[76]), a considerable amount of RAM spread over 8 DIMM slots housing double-height DIMMs, and at least two SATA hard disk drives connected through a non-standard ATX-sized power supply unit.[77] The servers were open top so more servers could fit into a rack. According to CNET and a book by John Hennessy, each server had a novel 12-volt battery to reduce costs and improve power efficiency.[76][78]

According to Google, their global data center operation electrical power ranges between 500 and 681 megawatts.[79][80] The combined processing power of these servers might have reached from 20 to 100 petaflops in 2008.[81]

Network topology edit

Details of the Google worldwide private networks are not publicly available, but Google publications[82][83] make references to the "Atlas Top 10" report that ranks Google as the third largest ISP behind Level 3.

In order to run such a large network, with direct connections to as many ISPs as possible at the lowest possible cost, Google has a very open peering policy.[84]

From this site, we can see that the Google network can be accessed from 67 public exchange points and 69 different locations across the world. As of May 2012, Google had 882 Gbit/s of public connectivity (not counting private peering agreements that Google has with the largest ISPs). This public network is used to distribute content to Google users as well as to crawl the internet to build its search indexes. The private side of the network is a secret, but a recent disclosure from Google[85] indicate that they use custom built high-radix switch-routers (with a capacity of 128 × 10 Gigabit Ethernet port) for the wide area network. Running no less than two routers per datacenter (for redundancy) we can conclude that the Google network scales in the terabit per second range (with two fully loaded routers the bi-sectional bandwidth amount to 1,280 Gbit/s).

These custom switch-routers are connected to DWDM devices to interconnect data centers and point of presences (PoP) via dark fiber.

From a datacenter view, the network starts at the rack level, where 19-inch racks are custom-made and contain 40 to 80 servers (20 to 40 1U servers on either side, while new servers are 2U rackmount systems.[86] Each rack has an Ethernet switch). Servers are connected via a 1 Gbit/s Ethernet link to the top of rack switch (TOR). TOR switches are then connected to a gigabit cluster switch using multiple gigabit or ten gigabit uplinks.[87] The cluster switches themselves are interconnected and form the datacenter interconnect fabric (most likely using a dragonfly design rather than a classic butterfly or flattened butterfly layout[88]).

From an operation standpoint, when a client computer attempts to connect to Google, several DNS servers resolve into multiple IP addresses via Round Robin policy. Furthermore, this acts as the first level of load balancing and directs the client to different Google clusters. A Google cluster has thousands of servers, and once the client has connected to the server additional load balancing is done to send the queries to the least loaded web server. This makes Google one of the largest and most complex content delivery networks.[89]

Google has numerous data centers scattered around the world. At least 12 significant Google data center installations are located in the United States. The largest known centers are located in The Dalles, Oregon; Atlanta, Georgia; Reston, Virginia; Lenoir, North Carolina; and Moncks Corner, South Carolina.[90] In Europe, the largest known centers are in Eemshaven and Groningen in the Netherlands and Mons, Belgium.[90] Google's Oceania Data Center is located in Sydney, Australia.[91]

Data center network topology edit

To support fault tolerance, increase the scale of data centers and accommodate low-radix switches, Google has adopted various modified Clos topologies in the past.[92]

Project 02 edit

Google data center in The Dalles, Oregon

One of the largest Google data centers is located in the town of The Dalles, Oregon, on the Columbia River, approximately 80 miles (129 km) from Portland. Codenamed "Project 02", the complex was built in 2006 and is approximately the size of two American football fields, with cooling towers four stories high.[93][94] The site was chosen to take advantage of inexpensive hydroelectric power, and to tap into the region's large surplus of fiber optic cable, a remnant of the dot-com boom. A blueprint of the site appeared in 2008.[95]

Summa papermill edit

In February 2009, Stora Enso announced that they had sold the Summa paper mill in Hamina, Finland to Google for 40 million Euros.[96][97] Google invested 200 million euros on the site to build a data center and announced additional 150 million euro investment in 2012.[98][99] Google chose this location due to the availability and proximity of renewable energy sources.[100]

Modular container data centers edit

In 2005,[101] Google was researching a containerized modular data center. Google filed a patent application for this technology in 2003.[102]

Floating data centers edit

In 2013, the press revealed the existence of Google's floating data centers along the coasts of the states of California (Treasure Island's Building 3) and Maine. The development project was maintained under tight secrecy. The data centers are 250 feet long, 72 feet wide, 16 feet deep. The patent for an in-ocean data center cooling technology was bought by Google in 2009[103][104] (along with a wave-powered ship-based data center patent in 2008[105][106]). Shortly thereafter, Google declared that the two massive and secretly-built infrastructures were merely "interactive learning centers, [...] a space where people can learn about new technology."[107]

Google halted work on the barges in late 2013 and began selling off the barges in 2014.[108][109]

Software edit

Most of the software stack that Google uses on their servers was developed in-house.[110] According to a well-known Google employee, C++, Java, Python and (more recently) Go are favored over other programming languages.[111] For example, the back end of Gmail is written in Java and the back end of Google Search is written in C++.[112] Google has acknowledged that Python has played an important role from the beginning, and that it continues to do so as the system grows and evolves.[113]

The software that runs the Google infrastructure includes:[114]

Google has developed several abstractions which it uses for storing most of its data:[122]

  • Protocol Buffers – "Google's lingua franca for data",[123] a binary serialization format which is widely used within the company.
  • SSTable (Sorted Strings Table) – a persistent, ordered, immutable map from keys to values, where both keys and values are arbitrary byte strings. It is also used as one of the building blocks of Bigtable.[124]
  • RecordIO – a sequence of variable sized records.[122][125][126]

Software development practices edit

Most operations are read-only. When an update is required, queries are redirected to other servers, so as to simplify consistency issues. Queries are divided into sub-queries, where those sub-queries may be sent to different ducts in parallel, thus reducing the latency time.[86]

To lessen the effects of unavoidable hardware failure, software is designed to be fault tolerant. Thus, when a system goes down, data is still available on other servers, which increases reliability.

Search infrastructure edit

Google data center in The Dalles, Oregon

Index edit

Like most search engines, Google indexes documents by building a data structure known as inverted index. Such an index obtains a list of documents by a query word. The index is very large due to the number of documents stored in the servers.[89]

The index is partitioned by document IDs into many pieces called shards. Each shard is replicated onto multiple servers. Initially, the index was being served from hard disk drives, as is done in traditional information retrieval (IR) systems. Google dealt with the increasing query volume by increasing number of replicas of each shard and thus increasing number of servers. Soon they found that they had enough servers to keep a copy of the whole index in main memory (although with low replication or no replication at all), and in early 2001 Google switched to an in-memory index system. This switch "radically changed many design parameters" of their search system, and allowed for a significant increase in throughput and a large decrease in latency of queries.[127]

In June 2010, Google rolled out a next-generation indexing and serving system called "Caffeine" which can continuously crawl and update the search index. Previously, Google updated its search index in batches using a series of MapReduce jobs. The index was separated into several layers, some of which were updated faster than the others, and the main layer wouldn't be updated for as long as two weeks. With Caffeine, the entire index is updated incrementally on a continuous basis. Later Google revealed a distributed data processing system called "Percolator"[128] which is said to be the basis of Caffeine indexing system.[120][129]

Server types edit

Google's server infrastructure is divided into several types, each assigned to a different purpose:[86][89][130][131][132]

  • Web servers coordinate the execution of queries sent by users, then format the result into an HTML page. The execution consists of sending queries to index servers, merging the results, computing their rank, retrieving a summary for each hit (using the document server), asking for suggestions from the spelling servers, and finally getting a list of advertisements from the ad server.
  • Data-gathering servers are permanently dedicated to spidering the Web. Google's web crawler is known as GoogleBot. They update the index and document databases and apply Google's algorithms to assign ranks to pages.
  • Each index server contains a set of index shards. They return a list of document IDs ("docid"), such that documents corresponding to a certain docid contain the query word. These servers need less disk space, but suffer the greatest CPU workload.
  • Document servers store documents. Each document is stored on dozens of document servers. When performing a search, a document server returns a summary for the document based on query words. They can also fetch the complete document when asked. These servers need more disk space.
  • Ad servers manage advertisements offered by services like AdWords and AdSense.
  • Spelling servers make suggestions about the spelling of queries.

Security edit

External videos
  Google Data Center Security: 6 Layers Deep

In October 2013, The Washington Post reported that the U.S. National Security Agency intercepted communications between Google's data centers, as part of a program named MUSCULAR.[133][134] This wiretapping was made possible because, at the time, Google did not encrypt data passed inside its own network.[135] This was rectified when Google began encrypting data sent between data centers in 2013.[136]

Environmental impact edit

Google data center in Mayes County, Oklahoma at MidAmerica Industrial Park

Google's most efficient data center runs at 35 °C (95 °F) using only fresh air cooling, requiring no electrically powered air conditioning.[137]

In December 2016, Google announced that—starting in 2017—it would purchase enough renewable energy to match 100% of the energy usage of its data centers and offices. The commitment will make Google "the world's largest corporate buyer of renewable power, with commitments reaching 2.6 gigawatts (2,600 megawatts) of wind and solar energy".[138][139][140]

References edit

  1. ^ "How Many Servers Does Google Have?". Data Center Knowledge. March 16, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  2. ^ "Google data centers, locations". Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  3. ^ "ISO/IEC 27001 - Compliance". Google Cloud. Retrieved July 11, 2023.
  4. ^ a b Report, Times-Mirror Staff (June 19, 2019). "Google 'caps off' $600M investment in Loudoun County". Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Google Plans 2 Loudoun Data Centers". November 29, 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  6. ^ Arellano (CIPER), Alberto (May 25, 2020). "Las zonas oscuras de la evaluación ambiental que autorizó "a ciegas" el megaproyecto de Google en Cerrillos". CIPER Chile (in Spanish). Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  7. ^ "Google instalará un nuevo data center en Chile". (in Spanish). Archived from the original on September 22, 2021. Retrieved September 28, 2019.
  8. ^ "Una nueva Región de Google Cloud en Santiago, todo el potencial de la nube ahora más cerca". Google. December 1, 2021. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  9. ^ "A Google Cloud region now available in Columbus, Ohio". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  10. ^ "Namaste, India. Our new cloud region in Delhi NCR is now live".
  11. ^ "New Google Cloud region now open in Qatar". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  12. ^ "Dublin, Ireland – Data Centers – Google". Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  14. ^ "Google Cloud investing in Germany with new infrastructure and sustainable energy". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  15. ^ "Breaking ground for Google's first data center in Denmark". Google. November 20, 2018. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  16. ^ "Google gets green light for its sixth data center in Hamina, Finland". September 11, 2020.
  17. ^ "Investing in Google infrastructure, investing in Nevada". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  18. ^ Torres-Cortez, Ricardo (September 16, 2020). "Google to invest additional $600M at Henderson data center – Las Vegas Sun Newspaper". Retrieved February 12, 2021. "With this latest announcement, Google will bring their total investment in the city of Henderson to $1.2 billion," said Mayor Debra March in the release
  19. ^ Baxtel. "Google Henderson NV Data Center". Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  20. ^ "Coming soon: GCP's Hong Kong region". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  21. ^ "Growing our presence in Asia Pacific: New GCP regions in Hong Kong and Jakarta". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  22. ^ "The new Google Cloud region in Jakarta is now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  23. ^ "Google Cloud Platform Tokyo region now open for business". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  24. ^ "Google - Singapore". Retrieved July 11, 2023.
  25. ^ "Google Cloud Platform now open in London". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  26. ^ "New Google Cloud region in Madrid, Spain now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  27. ^ "The Google Cloud region in Melbourne is now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  28. ^ "Welcome". Agriport A7 (in Dutch). Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  29. ^ "Google to Spend $1.1 Billion on New Data Centers in Netherlands". Data Center Knowledge. June 24, 2019.
  30. ^ "A Google Cloud region now available in Dallas, Texas". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  31. ^ "Google's massive $600M data center takes shape in Ellis County as tech giant ups Texas presence". Dallas News. June 14, 2019. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  32. ^ "New Google Cloud region in Milan, Italy now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  33. ^ "Project to expand Google's activities in Quebec - Future computer data center in Beauharnois". (in French). Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  34. ^ "GCP arrives in Canada with launch of Montréal region". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  35. ^ "Google's ongoing commitment in Quebec". Google Blog - Company News. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  36. ^ Stiver, Dave (November 1, 2017). "GCP arrives in India with launch of Mumbai region". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  37. ^ Williams, Mark. "Google joins New Albany high-tech crowd with $600 million data center". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  38. ^ "New Albany, Ohio – Data Centers – Google". Google Data Centers. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  39. ^ "Google Cloud launches new Osaka region to support growing customer base in Japan". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  40. ^ "GCP arrives in South America with launch of São Paulo region!". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  41. ^ "Google confirms it is behind $600m Papillion data center project". Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  42. ^ "Papillion, Nebraska – Data Centers – Google". Google Data Centers. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  43. ^ "Google Cloud region in Paris France now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  44. ^ Dawn-Hiscox, Tanwen (February 20, 2018). "Google to spend m on Pryor data center expansion". Data Centre Dynamics. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  45. ^ "Google ha decido de invertir millones de dólares en su centro de datos en Chile". (in Spanish). September 28, 2018. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  46. ^ Tanwen Dawn-Hiscox (April 18, 2017). "Google is planning a massive data center in Nevada". Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  47. ^ Jason Hidalgo (November 16, 2018). "Nevada approves Google's M data center near Las Vegas, M in tax incentives". Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  48. ^ Jason Hidalgo (September 16, 2020). "Google to invest $600 million in data center near Reno, gets tax break". Reno Gazette Journal. Retrieved October 26, 2020. With our new data center in Storey County and our expanded investment in our Henderson site, Google will have two facilities in Nevada, bringing our total investment to over $1.88 billion.
  49. ^ "Google Cloud region in Salt Lake City now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  50. ^ "New GCP Region in Seoul". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  51. ^ "Google Cloud expands to Australia with new Sydney region". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  52. ^ "Google launches GCP region in Tel Aviv, Israel".
  53. ^ "Google Cloud region in Tel Aviv Israel now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  54. ^ "Google Cloud Toronto region now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  55. ^ "New Google Cloud region in Turin, Italy now open". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  56. ^ "Google to Build Cloud Data Centers in Poland". Data Center Knowledge. September 27, 2019.
  57. ^ "Google kicks off construction on M Alabama data center". Made in Alabama. April 9, 2018. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  58. ^ "Die Schweizer Google Cloud Platform zieht zu Green in den Aargau". Swiss IT Magazine (in German). Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  59. ^ <<Cite web|url=[permanent dead link] Building Cloud Data Centers Close to Swiss Banks||
  60. ^ a b c d e "Introducing 5 new Google Cloud regions". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  61. ^ "Google plant ein großes Rechenzentrum südlich des Flughafens BER". Der Spiegel (in German). September 30, 2022. ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  62. ^ "Google Cloud investing in Germany with new infrastructure and sustainable energy". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  63. ^ "Berlin-Brandenburg Region Launch". Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  64. ^ "Google Cloud Platform region updates". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  65. ^ "Google affiliate's latest move signals selection of KC for $600M data center". Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  66. ^ "Bringing a new Google Cloud region to Kuwait". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  67. ^ a b c "Announcing new Google Cloud regions in Asia Pacific". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  68. ^ "Announcing a new Google Cloud region in Mexico". Google Cloud Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2023.
  69. ^ "Google purchases land for new data center in Tainan". Taipei Times. September 12, 2019. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  70. ^ "Google to set up data center in Tainan". Focus Taiwan. September 11, 2019. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  71. ^ "Google to set up second data center in Taiwan". Taiwan News. September 11, 2019. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  72. ^ "Google confirms plans to build 3rd data center in Taiwan". Taiwan News. September 3, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
  73. ^ ""Google Stanford Hardware"". Archived from the original on February 9, 1999. Retrieved March 23, 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). Stanford University (provided by Internet Archive). Retrieved on July 10, 2006.
  74. ^ Merlin, Marc (2013). "Case Study: Live upgrading many thousand of servers from an ancient Red Hat distribution to a 10 year newer Debian based one" (PDF). Linux Foundation. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  75. ^ Tawfik Jelassi; Albrecht Enders (2004). "Case study 16 — Google". Strategies for E-business. Pearson Education. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-273-68840-2.
  76. ^ a b Computer Architecture, Fifth Edition: A Quantitative Approach, ISBN 978-0123838728; Chapter Six; 6.7 "A Google Warehouse-Scale Computer" page 471 "Designing motherboards that only need a single 12-volt supply so that the UPS function could be supplied by standard batteries associated with each server"
  77. ^ Google's secret power supplies on YouTube
  78. ^ Google uncloaks once-secret server, April 1, 2009.
  79. ^ "Google Sustainability". Google Sustainability.
  80. ^ "Analytics Press Growth in data center electricity use 2005 to 2010". Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  81. ^ Google Surpasses Supercomputer Community, Unnoticed?, May 20, 2008.
  82. ^ Lam, Cedric F.; Liu, Hong; Koley, Bikash; Zhao, Xiaoxue; Kamalov, Valey; Gill, Vijay (2010), "Fiber Optic Communication Technologies: What's Needed for Datacenter Network Operations", Research, vol. 48
  83. ^ Lam, Cedric F. (2010), FTTH look ahead — technologies & architectures (PDF), p. 4
  84. ^ "kumara ASN15169", Peering DB
  85. ^ "Urs Holzle", Speakers, Open Network Summit, archived from the original on May 10, 2012, retrieved May 22, 2012
  86. ^ a b c Web Search for a Planet: The Google Cluster Architecture (Luiz André Barroso, Jeffrey Dean, Urs Hölzle)
  87. ^ "Warehouse size computers" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 19, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  88. ^ Denis Abt High Performance Datacenter Networks: Architectures, Algorithms, and Opportunities
  89. ^ a b c Fiach Reid (2004). "Case Study: The Google search engine". Network Programming in .NET. Digital Press. pp. 251–253. ISBN 978-1-55558-315-6.
  90. ^ a b Rich Miller (March 27, 2008). "Google Data Center FAQ". Data Center Knowledge. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  91. ^ Brett Winterford (March 5, 2010). "Found: Google Australia's secret data network". ITNews. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  92. ^ Singh, Arjun; Ong, Joon; Agarwal, Amit; Anderson, Glen; Armistead, Ashby; Bannon, Roy; Boving, Seb; Desai, Gaurav; Felderman, Bob; Germano, Paulie; Kanagala, Anand (2015). "Jupiter Rising: A Decade of Clos Topologies and Centralized Control in Google's Datacenter Network". Sigcomm '15. doi:10.1145/2785956.2787508. S2CID 2817692.
  93. ^ Markoff, John; Hansell, Saul. "Hiding in Plain Sight, Google Seeks More Power." New York Times. June 14, 2006. Retrieved on October 15, 2008.
  94. ^ Google "The Dalles, Oregon Data Center" Retrieved on January 3, 2011.
  95. ^ Strand, Ginger. "Google Data Center" Harper's Magazine. March 2008. Retrieved on October 15, 2008. Archived August 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  96. ^ "Stora Enso divests Summa Mill premises in Finland for million". Stora Enso. February 12, 2009. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
  97. ^ [dead link] "Stooora yllätys: Google ostaa Summan tehtaan". Kauppalehti (in Finnish). Helsinki. February 12, 2009. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2009.
  98. ^ "Google investoi 200 miljoonaa euroa Haminaan". Taloussanomat (in Finnish). Helsinki. February 4, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  99. ^ "Hamina, Finland". Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  100. ^ Finland – First Choice for Siting Your Cloud Computing Data Center. Archived July 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Accessed August 4, 2010.
  101. ^ Metz, Cade (April 10, 2009). "Google streams data center pods to world+dog". The Register.
  102. ^ "United States Patent: 7278273". Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  103. ^ Rory Carroll (October 30, 2013). "Google's worst-kept secret: floating data centers off US coasts". Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  104. ^ Rich Miller (April 29, 2009). "Google Gets Patent for Data Center Barges". Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  105. ^ Martin Lamonica (September 8, 2008). "Google files patent for wave-powered floating data center". Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  106. ^ "Google's ship based datacenter patent application surfaces". September 7, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  107. ^ "Google barge mystery solved: they're for 'interactive learning centers'". November 6, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  108. ^ Brandon Bailey (August 1, 2014). "Google confirms selling a mystery barge". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
  109. ^ Chris Morran (November 7, 2014). "What Happened To Those Google Barges?". Consumerist. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  110. ^ Mark Levene (2005). An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. Pearson Education. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-321-30677-7.
  111. ^ "Python Status Update". Artima. January 10, 2006. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  112. ^ "Warning". Panela. Blog-city. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  113. ^ "Quotes about Python". Python. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  114. ^ "Google Architecture". High Scalability. November 22, 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  115. ^ a b c Fikes, Andrew (July 29, 2010), "Storage Architecture and Challenges", TechTalk (PDF)[permanent dead link]
  116. ^ "Colossus: Successor to the Google File System (GFS)". SysTutorials. November 29, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  117. ^ Dean, Jeffrey 'Jeff' (2009), "Design, Lessons and Advice from Building Large Distributed Systems", Ladis (keynote talk presentation), Cornell
  118. ^ Shute, Jeffrey 'Jeff'; Oancea, Mircea; Ellner, Stephan; Handy, Benjamin 'Ben'; Rollins, Eric; Samwel, Bart; Vingralek, Radek; Whipkey, Chad; Chen, Xin; Jegerlehner, Beat; Littlefield, Kyle; Tong, Phoenix (2012), "F1 — the Fault-Tolerant Distributed RDBMS Supporting Google's Ad Business", Research (presentation), Sigmod{{citation}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  119. ^ "Google alums rev up a new search engine". Los Angeles Times. July 28, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  120. ^ a b The Register. Google Caffeine jolts worldwide search machine
  121. ^ "Google official release note". Retrieved September 28, 2013.
  122. ^ a b "Google Developing Caffeine Storage System | TechWeekEurope UK". August 18, 2009. Archived from the original on November 15, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  123. ^ "Developer Guide – Protocol Buffers – Google Code". Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  124. ^[bare URL PDF]
  125. ^ windley on (June 24, 2008). "Phil Windley's Technometria | Velocity 08: Storage at Scale". Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  126. ^ "Message limit – Protocol Buffers | Google Groups". Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  127. ^ "Jeff Dean's keynote at WSDM 2009" (PDF). Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  128. ^ Daniel Peng, Frank Dabek. (2010). Large-scale Incremental Processing Using Distributed Transactions and Notifications. Proceedings of the 9th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation.
  129. ^ The Register. Google Percolator – global search jolt sans MapReduce comedown
  130. ^ Chandler Evans (2008). "Google Platform". Future of Google Earth. Madison Publishing Company. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-4196-8903-1.
  131. ^ Chris Sherman (2005). "How Google Works". Google Power. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-07-225787-8.
  132. ^ Michael Miller (2007). "How Google Works". Googlepedia. Pearson Technology Group. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-7897-3639-0.
  133. ^ Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (October 30, 2013). "NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
  134. ^ Savage, Charlie; Miller, Claire Cain; Perlroth, Nicole (October 30, 2013). "N.S.A. Said to Tap Google and Yahoo Abroad". The New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  135. ^ Gallagher, Sean (October 31, 2013). "How the NSA's MUSCULAR tapped Google's and Yahoo's private networks". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  136. ^ Miller, Claire Cain (October 31, 2013). "Angry Over U.S. Surveillance, Tech Giants Bolster Defenses". The New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  137. ^ Humphries, Matthew (March 27, 2012). "Google's most efficient data center runs at 95 degrees". Archived from the original on June 13, 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
  138. ^ Hölzle, Urs (December 6, 2016). "We're set to reach 100% renewable energy — and it's just the beginning". The Keyword Google Blog. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  139. ^ Statt, Nick (December 6, 2016). "Google just notched a big victory in the fight against climate change". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  140. ^ Etherington, Darrell (December 7, 2016). "Google says it will hit 100% renewable energy by 2017". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved December 8, 2016.

Further reading edit

External links edit