Open main menu

Golmud (Chinese: 格尔木; pinyin: Gé'ěrmù; Tibetan: ན་གོར་མོ།, Wylie: Na-gor-mo), also transliterated as Ge'ermu, Geermu or Nagormo, is a county-level city in Qinghai Province, China, bordering Xinjiang to the northwest and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the southwest. Administrated by Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, it is the second largest city in Qinghai and the third largest in the Tibetan Plateau (after Xining and Lhasa). The population is now about 205,700.[1] The name of the city derives from Mongolian, and its literal meaning in the local Western Mongolian is "Rivers".

Golmud

格尔木市 · ᠭᠣᠯᠮᠣᠣᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ · ན་གོར་མོ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར།
Golmud Railway Station
Location of Golmud City (red) in Haixi Prefecture (yellow) and Qinghai
Location of Golmud City (red) in Haixi Prefecture (yellow) and Qinghai
Golmud is located in Qinghai
Golmud
Golmud
Location of the city centre in Qinghai
Coordinates (Golmud government): 36°24′26″N 94°55′42″E / 36.4072°N 94.9283°E / 36.4072; 94.9283Coordinates: 36°24′26″N 94°55′42″E / 36.4072°N 94.9283°E / 36.4072; 94.9283
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceQinghai
Prefecture-level cityHaixi
Area
 • County-level & Sub-prefectural city124,500 km2 (48,100 sq mi)
 • Urban
72 km2 (28 sq mi)
Elevation
2,809 m (9,216 ft)
Population
 (2010)
 • County-level & Sub-prefectural city186,341
 • Density1.5/km2 (3.9/sq mi)
 • Urban
156,779
 • Urban density2,200/km2 (5,600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Websitegem.gov.cn
Golmud
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese格尔木
Traditional Chinese格爾木
Tibetan name
Tibetanན་གོར་མོ།
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillicᠭᠣᠯᠮᠤᠳ

Contents

GeographyEdit

Golmud covers a total area of 124,500 square kilometres (48,100 sq mi). This includes an urban area of 72 km2 (28 sq mi). Golmud is located in the central-south part of the Qaidam Basin with an elevation of 2,809 metres (9,216 ft). Around the city there are more than 20 salt lakes of various sizes.

A large part of the county-level city of Golmud forms an exclave, separated from the rest of the county by the western "panhandle" of the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Administratively, the exclave forms the so-called Tanggula Town.

Administrative DivisionsEdit

DemographicsEdit

In 2017, the population of the total area of Golmud was approximately 240494, with ethnic Han Chinese comprising 69.82% and minority ethnic group comprising 30.18%.

EconomyEdit

Due to its location, Golmud abounds with natural resources from nearby salt lakes. Thus, industries involving salt lake chemicals have sprung up. Qarham Salt Lake to the northeast of Golmud proper boasts an area of 5,856 km2 (2,261 sq mi), making it the biggest inland salt lake in the world. Qarham Salt Lake resources are estimated to be worth over 15 trillion yuan. The lake is also China's largest production base for potassium, magnesium, and salt. Golmud also possesses natural gas reserves of 1 trillion m³ (35 trillion cu. ft.) plus over 50 varieties of minerals like gold, copper, jade and precious stones, lead, and zinc. Other important industries in Golmud include petrochemicals, oil refineries, and gas fields. Statistics for 2001 show that the city's nominal GDP totalled 2.213 billion yuan, a rise of 31.9% from the previous year and the highest growth rate since 1990. The Golmud Kunlun Economic Development Zone, which consists of an area of 28 km2 (11 sq mi), was built in 1992. Golmud is planned to become "China's Salt Lake City".[5][6]

TransportationEdit

RailwayEdit

Golmud lies along the Qinghai–Tibet Railway, a 1,956 km (1,215 mi) railroad that starts from Xining and ends at Lhasa in the Tibet Autonomous Region. The Golmud-Lhasa section, with a length of 1,142 km (710 mi), was the last and most challenging part of the railway to be completed. After construction of 5 years, the first train for Lhasa left Golmud on 1 July 2006.

In October 2012 construction started on the Golmud–Dunhuang Railway. It will actually branch off the Qinghai–Tibet Railway at the Yinmaxia station north of Golmud, and will cross the Qaidam Basin and the Altyn-Tagh/Qilian system on the way to Dunhuang in the neighboring Gansu province.[7]

A planned Golmud-Korla Railway running north west from Golmud into Xinjiang province began construction in November 2014.[8]

HighwaysEdit

AirportEdit

ClimateEdit

Golmud has a cold arid climate (Köppen BWk), with long, cold winters, and warm summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature drops to −9.1 °C (15.6 °F) in January and rises to 17.9 °C (64 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 5.28 °C (41.5 °F). Precipitation is very low, totaling only 42 millimetres (1.65 in) per annum, falling on 28 days, most of which are during the summer. Relative humidity averages only 32%, with all months below 40%, some of the lowest levels nationally. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 62% in July to 81% in November, the city receives 3,096 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Golmud (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.9
(57.0)
18.0
(64.4)
24.3
(75.7)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
32.7
(90.9)
34.0
(93.2)
35.5
(95.9)
31.0
(87.8)
25.1
(77.2)
16.7
(62.1)
10.0
(50.0)
35.5
(95.9)
Average high °C (°F) −1.3
(29.7)
2.9
(37.2)
8.6
(47.5)
14.5
(58.1)
19.4
(66.9)
22.6
(72.7)
24.7
(76.5)
24.2
(75.6)
19.3
(66.7)
12.9
(55.2)
5.4
(41.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
12.8
(55.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.1
(15.6)
−5.0
(23.0)
0.7
(33.3)
6.8
(44.2)
12.2
(54.0)
15.8
(60.4)
17.9
(64.2)
17.2
(63.0)
12.3
(54.1)
5.1
(41.2)
−2.6
(27.3)
−7.9
(17.8)
5.3
(41.5)
Average low °C (°F) −15.3
(4.5)
−11.6
(11.1)
−6.1
(21.0)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.3
(41.5)
9.4
(48.9)
11.6
(52.9)
10.9
(51.6)
6.3
(43.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−8.9
(16.0)
−14
(7)
−1.1
(29.9)
Record low °C (°F) −33.6
(−28.5)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−26.1
(−15.0)
−13.4
(7.9)
−7.8
(18.0)
−5.2
(22.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−1.4
(29.5)
−8.2
(17.2)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−25.4
(−13.7)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−33.6
(−28.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) .6
(0.02)
.4
(0.02)
1.1
(0.04)
.9
(0.04)
3.7
(0.15)
8.5
(0.33)
13.5
(0.53)
7.8
(0.31)
3.4
(0.13)
.9
(0.04)
.7
(0.03)
.7
(0.03)
42.2
(1.67)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.4 .8 1.1 1.0 2.6 5.1 6.4 4.2 2.4 .7 .9 1.1 27.7
Average relative humidity (%) 39 30 27 24 27 33 37 34 33 29 32 38 32
Mean monthly sunshine hours 219.9 210.9 247.7 274.3 295.3 273.4 276.4 284.6 261.2 277.7 247.7 227.3 3,096.4
Percent possible sunshine 72 69 67 70 68 63 62 68 70 80 81 76 70
Source: China Meteorological Administration[9]

Twin citiesEdit

Popular cultural referencesEdit

The Golmud Railway (countryside near Golmud) is featured as an online multiplayer map in the video game Battlefield 4.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Reservoir nearing collapse poses threat to Qinghai Tibet railway". Phayul. Dharamsala. 9 July 2010.
  2. ^ 格尔木市历史沿革 [Goldmud City Historical Development] (in Chinese). XZQH. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2018. 2000年第五次人口普查,格尔木市总人口135897人,其中:昆仑路街道38214人,金峰路街道26567人,河西街道27417人,郭勒木德乡15771人,大格勒乡2106人,乌图美仁乡1808人,唐古拉山乡1880人,格尔木铁路12249人,格尔木农场9883人。{...}2005年,格尔木市调整乡镇行政区划:撤销郭勒木德乡,设立郭勒木德镇,镇政府驻地和镇区行政区划范围不变,实行镇管村体制。2、撤销唐古拉山乡,设立唐古拉山镇,镇政府驻地和镇区行政区划范围不变,实行镇管村体制。
  3. ^ 2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:格尔木市 [2017 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Golmud City] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2018. 统计用区划代码 名称 632801001000 昆仑路街道办事处 632801002000 黄河路街道办事处 632801003000 金峰路街道办事处 632801004000 河西街道办事处 632801005000 西藏路街道办事处 632801100000 郭勒木德镇 632801101000 唐古拉镇 632801200000 大格勒乡 632801201000 乌图美仁乡 632801400000 察尔汗工行委 632801401000 格尔木农垦有限公司
  4. ^ 世界盐湖城—青海格尔木市门户网站 概览 [World Salt Lake City - Qinghai Golmud City Web Portal Overview] (in Chinese). Golmud People's Government. Retrieved 27 November 2018. 昆仑经济开发区 东城区工行委 西城区工行委 察尔汗工行委 乌图美仁乡 大格勒乡 郭勒木德镇 唐古拉山镇 昆仑路街道办事处 黄河路街道办事处 河西办事处 金锋路办事处 西藏路办事处
  5. ^ "City in Gobi Desert aims high". SINA English / Shanghai Daily. 10 July 2002.
  6. ^ "Golmud City set to become China's Salt Lake City". Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections. Xinhua. 28 June 2002.
  7. ^ 格尔木至敦煌铁路开工. Huochepiao.com. 20 October 2012.Archived 9 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ http://www.peoplerail.com/rail/show-456-184719-1.html
  9. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
  10. ^ 格尔木市戮力打造丝路开放新高地. Haixi Prefecture Science and Technology Bureau. 11 April 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2018.

External linksEdit