Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a bacterium with a rod-like shape, has circular ends, and can be classified as a Gram-negative bacterium.[1][2] The bacterium is known for stimulating plant growth and being tolerant to acetic acid.[1][2] With one to three lateral flagella, and known to be found on sugarcane, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus was discovered in Brazil by Vladimir A. Cavalcante and Johanna Dobereiner.[2][3]

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus
Scientific classification
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G. diazotrophicus
Binomial name
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

CharacteristicsEdit

Originally found in Alagoas, Brazil, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a bacterium that has several interesting features and aspects which are important to note.[2] The bacterium was first discovered by Vladimir A. Cavalcante and Johanna Dobereiner while analyzing sugarcane in Brazil.[3] Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a part of the Acetobacteraceae family and started out with the name, Saccharibacter nitrocaptans, however, the bacterium is renamed as Acetobacter diazotrophicus because the bacterium is found to belong with bacteria that are able to tolerate acetic acid. [2][3] Again, the bacterium’s name was changed to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus when its taxonomic position was resolved using 16s ribosomal RNA analysis.[2] In addition to being a part of the Acetobacter family, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus belongs to the Proteobacteria phylum, the Alphaprotebacteria class, and the Gluconacetobacter genus while being a part of the Rhodosprillales order.[2] Other nitrogen-fixing species in this same genus include Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans and Gluconacetobacter johannae [4]

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus cells are shaped like rods, have ends that are circular or round, and have anywhere from one to three flagella that are lateral.[1][2] Based on these descriptions of the cell, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus can be classified with the bacillus genus.[3] The cells be viewed as darkish brown or orange colonies under a microscope.[1] In addition, the cells are aerobic which describes their need of oxygen.[2] Because the bacterium is found on sugar cane when first discovered, as explained prior, and reacts strongly to high amounts of sugar, Gram Negative is the correct classification for Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.[1][2] In addition to sugarcane, G. diazotrophicus has been found in different plants like coffee tree and pineapple. [5][6]Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is also known for nitrogen fixation.[2] This feature allows the bacteria to work on nitrogen in the air in order for the correct amount of nitrogen can be received by plants.[2] Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a notable microbe because studies have shown that the bacteria can help tomatoes and other crops grow.[7] Besides to be a nitrogen-fixing bacterium, G. diazotrophicus synthesizes Indole-3-acid acetic, that could contribute to promote the growth of the associated plant.[8] This microbe fights off Xanthomonas albilineans which is a pathogen found in sugar cane.[9] In regard to the ecology of this microorganisms, the numbers of G. diazotrophicus that colonize sugarcane decrease when the plant is grown under high nitrogen fertilization doses. [10] Overall, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, through the research restated, plays a significant role in the environment for plants specifically sugar cane, helps to grow crops, and can be found in areas that are acidic and contain oxygen.

GenomeEdit

The genome that was found to be closely sequenced with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus was the Pal5 genome.[2] This genome has one circular chromosome and two plasmids.[2] The two plasmids found in the genome are pGD01 and pGD02 which contain 38,818 and 16,610 base pairs respectively.[2] The G-C content for Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus could be calculated at 66.19%.[2] The Pal5 genome was found to have 583 proteins that can be used to depict the possible “metabolic pathways” in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.[2] The bacterium has been studied to move from different crops and also helpful in growing corn.[1] Because they create phytohormones, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has proven to stimulate other plant’s growth.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Chawla, Niti; Phour, Manisha; Suneja, Sunita; Sangwaan, Seema; Goyal, Sneh (2014-02-01). "Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: An overview". Res. Environ. Life Sci.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Eskin, N.; Vessey, K.; Tian, L. (2014). "Research Progress and Perspectives of Nitrogen Fixing Bacterium, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, in Monocot Plants". International Journal of Agronomy. 2014: 1–13. doi:10.1155/2014/208383. ISSN 1687-8159.
  3. ^ a b c d Cavalcante, Vladimir A.; Dobereiner, J. (1988-05-01). "A new acid-tolerant nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugarcane" (PDF). Plant and Soil. 108 (1): 23–31. doi:10.1007/bf02370096. ISSN 0032-079X. S2CID 32974659.
  4. ^ Fuentes-Ramirez, L.E.; Bustillos-Cristales, R.; Tapia-Hernández, A.; Jiménez-Salgado, T.; Wang, E.-T.; Martínez-Romero, E.; Caballero-Mellado, J. (2001). "Novel nitrogen-fixing acetic bacteria, Gluconacetobacter johannae sp. nov., and Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans sp. nov., associated with coffee plants". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 51 (4): 1305–1314. doi:10.1099/00207713-51-4-1305. ISSN 1466-5034. PMID 11491326.
  5. ^ Jimenez-Salgado, T.; Fuentes-Ramirez, L.E.; Tapia-Hernandez, A.; Mascarua-Esparza, M.A.; Caballero-Mellado, J. (1997). "Coffea arabica L., a new host plant for Acetobacter diazotrophicus, and isolation of other nitrogen-fixing acetobacteria". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 63 (9): 3676–3683. doi:10.1128/AEM.63.9.3676-3683.1997. ISSN 1098-5336. PMC 168673. PMID 9293018.
  6. ^ Tapia-Hernandez, A.; Bustillos-Cristales, R.; Jimenez-Salgado, T.; Caballero-Mellado, J.; Fuentes-Ramirez, L.E. (2000). "Natural endophytic occurrence of Acetobacter diazotrophicus in pineapple plants". Microbial Ecology. 39 (1): 49–55. doi:10.1007/s002489900190. ISSN 1432-184X. PMID 10790517. S2CID 8635722.
  7. ^ Luna, María Flavia; Aprea, Julieta; Crespo, Juan Manuel; Boiardi, José Luis (2012-10-01). "Colonization and yield promotion of tomato by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus". Applied Soil Ecology. 61: 225–229. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2011.09.002. ISSN 0929-1393.
  8. ^ Fuentes-Ramirez, L.E.; Abarca-Ocampo, I.; Jimenez-Salgado, T.; Caballero-Mellado, J. (1993). "Acetobacter diazotrophicus, an indole-acetic acid producing bacterium isolated from sugarcane cultivars of México". Plant and Soil. 154 (2): 145–150. doi:10.1007/BF00012519. ISSN 1573-5036. S2CID 20121110.
  9. ^ Piñón, Dolores; Casas, Mario; Blanch, Marı́a; Fontaniella, Blanca; Blanco, Yolanda; Vicente, Carlos; Solas, Marı́a-Teresa; Legaz, Marı́a-Estrella (2002-07-01). "Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, a sugar cane endosymbiont, produces a bacteriocin against Xanthomonas albilineans, a sugar cane pathogen". Research in Microbiology. 153 (6): 345–351. doi:10.1016/S0923-2508(02)01336-0. ISSN 0923-2508. PMID 12234008.
  10. ^ Fuentes-Ramirez, L.E.; Caballero‐Mellado, J.; Sepúlveda, J.; Martínez‐Romero, E. (1999). "Colonization of sugarcane by Acetobacter diazotrophicus is inhibited by high N‐fertilization". FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 29 (2): 117–128. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.1999.tb00603.x. ISSN 1574-6941.