UNESCO Global Geoparks
The 195 Member States of UNESCO ratified the creation of a new label, the UNESCO Global Geoparks, on 17 November 2015. This expressed governmental recognition of the importance of managing outstanding geological sites and landscapes in a holistic manner. This new designation formalized UNESCO's relationship with the Global Geoparks Network (GGN), which received ad hoc support from UNESCO since 2001. The network was set up to conserve earth's geological heritage, as well as to promote the sustainable research and development by the concerned communities. The GGN membership is formed by geoparks—local areas focused on the protection of geological features and the celebration of that and the wider heritage.
The first batch of members to the GGN were announced during the first International Conference on Geoparks in 2004. Since 2015, the application and designation process is defined by the Statutes and Operational Guidelines of the UNESCO Global Geoparks. As of July 2020, there were 161 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 44 countries There are now GGN member sites situated in 5 of 7 continents and there being none currently in either Antarctica or Australasia. Notably there are not yet (2020) any global geoparks in the United States or South Asia and most of Africa (except Morocco, Tanzania and Canarias). China is the country with the largest number of global geoparks.
The Global Geoparks Network (GGN) (also known as the Global Network of National Geoparks) is UNESCO assisted network established in 1998. Managed under the body's Ecological and Earth Sciences Division, the GGN seeks the promotion and conservation of the planet's geological heritage, as well as encourages the sustainable research and development by the concerned communities. Since 2015, its members are officially designated as UNESCO Global Geoparks.
The international network seeks the membership geoparks—geographical areas where geological heritage is the focus of local protection, education and development.
A set of criteria as established by UNESCO must first be met for a geopark, as nominated by the corresponding government, to be included in the GGN:
- the existence of a management plan designed to foster socio-economic development that is sustainable (most likely to be based on agritourism and geotourism);
- demonstrate methods for conserving and enhancing geological heritage and provide means for teaching geoscientific disciplines and broader environmental issues;
- joint-proposals submitted by public authorities, local communities and private interests acting together, which demonstrate the best practices with respect to Earth heritage conservation and its integration into sustainable development strategies
Criteria satisfaction is evaluated during biennial meetings (every even year) by the Geoparks Committee, known as the International Conference on Geoparks, which is also in charge with the periodic review of projects related to geological awareness. The first members of the GGN were named during the first conference in 2004, and it has continued to grow since then:
|1st||2004||Beijing, China||27 June –7 July|
|2nd||2006||Belfast, United Kingdom||17–21 September|
|3rd||2008||Osnabrück, Germany||22–26 June|
|4th||2010||Langkawi, Malaysia||12–16 April|
|5th||2012||Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark (Shimabara, Japan)||12–15 May|
|6th||2014||Stonehammer Geopark (Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada)||19–22 September|
|7th||2016||English Riviera Geopark (Torquay, Devon, England)||24–30 September|
|8th||2018||Adamello Brenta UNESCO Global Geopark (Madonna di Campiglio, Trentino, Italy)||11–14 September|
|9th||2020||Jeju Island UNESCO Global Geopark, Republic of Korea (did not take place due to Covid)||17–20 September|
The GGN works closely with another project under UNESCO's Ecological and Earth Sciences Division—the Man and Biosphere (MAB) World Network of Biosphere Reserves—to come up with and establish different means of sustainable development in promoting the local communities’ relationship with the natural environment.
List by continent/UNESCO regionEdit
This section needs to be updated.(December 2015)
The following table contains the detailed articles on the UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGG) and further international recognition frameworks of the geoheritage of each continents and their representative regional geopark networks.
|List of UGGs by continent||UNESCO region||Regional geopark network||Number of UGGs in the network||Number of countries in the network|
|Africa||Africa||African Geoparks Network||2||2|
|Asia||Asia Pacific Geoparks Network||57||8|
|Europe||Europe and North America||European Geoparks Network||75||26|
|Central America||Latin America and the Caribbean||Latin America and the Caribbean Geoparks Network||7||6|
List by countryEdit
Many of the names in the list below appear in slightly different forms in different documents or webpages, particularly where they have been anglicised. Dates of accession to network, where not otherwise referenced are taken from UNESCO website.
Note * Kula Volcanic Geopark designated in 2013 was extended and renamed as Kula Salihli in 2020
Former members of the GGNEdit
Whilst the length of the list has grown year on year, some members drop out from time to time, either by choice or by failing the network's revalidation procedures. UNESCO Global Geoparks are given this designation for a period of four years after which the functioning and quality of each UNESCO Global Geopark is thoroughly re-examined during a revalidation process.
|Germany||Europe||Mecklenburg Ice Age Landscape||2005||?|
|Austria||Europe||Carnic Alps Geopark||2012|
^ A. Names and spellings used for the elements were based on the official List as published.
- "UNESCO Press release: UNESCO gives Global Geoparks a new label". UNESCO. UNESCO. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "UNESCO Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences". UNESCO. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- "Earth Science for Society". UNESCO. UNESCO. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "Statutes and Operational Guidelines of the UNESCO Global Geoparks". UNESCO Global Geoparks. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "UNESCO Global Geoparks". UNESCO. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- UNESCO Media Services 17 April 2018
- Distribution of GGN Members
- UNESCO Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences
- Global Geoparks Network
- Application Guidelines and Self-Evaluation form for Membership in the Global Geoparks Network
- "9th International Conference on UNESCO Global Geoparks". 9th International Conference on UNESCO Global Geoparks.
- "Famenne-Ardenne UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "UNESCO designates 15 new Geoparks in Asia, Europe, and Latin America". UNESCO. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
- "Percé UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Eleven sites and extensions in Asia, Europe, and South America receive UNESCO Global Geopark Label". unesco.org. UNESCO. April 17, 2019. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
- "Fangshan Geopark". globalgeopark.org. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- "Guangwushan Nuoshuihe UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Huanggang Dabieshan UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- UN News Centre, 21 September 2012
- UNESCO Media Services 19 September 2011
- "UNESCO designates 15 new Geoparks in Asia, Europe, and Latin America". UNESCO. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- "Beaujolais UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Unesco designates Mount Rinjani as global geopark". Antara News. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "Rinjani Lombok UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Ciletuh Palabuhanratu UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Ciletuh officially declared as UNESCO Global Geopark". Antara News. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- "Toba Caldera Geopark" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- "Izu Peninsula UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Mudeungsan Area UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Conca de Tremp Montsec UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Ngorongoro Lengai UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Satun UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Non nuoc Cao Bang UNESCO Global Geopark". UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "Revalidation Process of UNESCO Global Geoparks". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Lochaber loses Unesco geopark status, BBC News, 17 November 2011
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