Giro di Lombardia

The Giro di Lombardia (English: Tour of Lombardy), officially Il Lombardia, is a cycling race in Lombardy, Italy.[1] It is traditionally the last of the five 'Monuments' of the season, considered to be one of the most prestigious one-day events in cycling, and one of the last events on the UCI World Tour calendar. Nicknamed the Classica delle foglie morte ("the Classic of the falling (dead) leaves"), it is the most important Autumn Classic in cycling. The race's most famous climb is the Madonna del Ghisallo in the race finale.

Giro di Lombardia
Giro di Lombardia logo.svg
DateEarly October
RegionLombardy, Italy
English nameTour of Lombardy
Local name(s)Giro di Lombardia
Il Lombardia
Nickname(s)La classica delle foglie morte (in Italian)
Race of the Falling Leaves (in English)
DisciplineRoad
CompetitionUCI World Tour
TypeOne-day Classic
OrganiserRCS Sport
Race directorMichele Acquarone
Web sitewww.ilombardia.it Edit this at Wikidata
First edition1905 (1905)
Editions113 (as of 2019)
First winner Giovanni Gerbi (ITA)
Most wins Fausto Coppi (ITA)
(5 wins)
Most recent Bauke Mollema (NED)

The first edition was held in 1905. Since its creation, the Giro di Lombardia has been the classic with the fewest interruptions in cycling; only the editions of 1943 and 1944 were cancelled for reasons of war. Italian Fausto Coppi won a record five times.

Because of its demanding course, the race is considered a climbers classic, favouring climbers with a strong sprint finish.

HistoryEdit

Milan–MilanEdit

The Tour of Lombardy was created as an idea of journalist Tullo Morgagni. Morgagni wanted to give Milanese rider Pierino Albini the opportunity to take revenge for his defeat against Giovanni Cuniolo in the short-lived Italian King's Cup. His newspaper la Gazzetta dello Sport organized a new race as a 'rematch' on 12 November 1905, called Milano–Milano. The race attracted vast crowds along the course and ended in Milan with the victory of Giovanni Gerbi, at the time one of the stars of cycling. Gerbi won the race 40 minutes ahead of Giovanni Rossignoli and Luigi Ganna.[2]

 
Frenchman Henri Pélissier won the 1911 Giro di Lombardia in the sprint.

The race soon became a fixture as the closing race of the Italian and European cycling season. It was renamed Giro di Lombardia in 1907. After the pioneering years, the race was dominated alternately by Frenchman Henri Pélissier and local heroes Gaetano Belloni and Costante Girardengo, all winning the race three times.

Race of the ChampionsEdit

 
Record winner Fausto Coppi won the race five times between 1946 and 1954.

From the 1930s to the 1950s, Alfredo Binda, Gino Bartali and Fausto Coppi, icons of Italian cycling, were the main protagonists and immortalized the race with their exploits. Coppi won the race 5 times (of which 4 consecutive wins) and Binda 4 times. Coppi finished solo on every win, following a successful strategy of attacking on the Madonna del Ghisallo and maintaining his lead to the finish in Milan. Gino Bartali was the king of the podium with 9 top-3 finishes (3 wins, 4 second places and 2 third places).

The race of 1956 was a particularly fascinating battle. At 60 km from the finish a breakaway was formed with Fausto Coppi, seeking his sixth victory. Italian rider Fiorenzo Magni had missed the break, and as he fell further behind, a car passed him with Giulia Occhini, Coppi's infamous mistress, sitting in the back. The two did not get on and as her car passed, Magni saw her sneer at him. Infuriated, Magni set out in an improbable solo pursuit of the breakaway and caught the leaders in the final kilometres. He and Coppi openly argued and André Darrigade, sensing their indecisiveness, attacked to claim the victory, thereby relegating Coppi and Magni to second and third place.[3]

In 1961, the finish of the Tour of Lombardy was moved from Milan to Como and the identity of the race changed fundamentally. The previous flat finale towards the finish in Milan was replaced with a spectacular finish by Lake Como, just 6 km after the top of the last climb. Despite an occasional return to finishing in Milan, the race had developed a new personality, defined by a series of arduous climbs amid a mountainous scenery.[4]

Over the years the race has been dominated mainly by Italian riders. Frenchman Henri Pelissier and Ireland's Sean Kelly were the only non-Italian riders to win the race three times. Cycling legend Eddy Merckx won three consecutive victories from 1971 to 1973, but his last win was stripped after a positive doping test and awarded to second-place finisher Felice Gimondi.[5]

The race of 1974 gave birth to another memorable anecdote. Eddy Merckx wanted to get his revenge, but fellow Belgian Roger De Vlaeminck attacked early in the race, inducing Merckx to make his team work in pursuit. De Vlaeminck, not really intending to go solo, stopped and hid behind a bush to let the peloton pass. He rode back to the front of the peloton and jokingly asked a baffled Merckx whom they were chasing. De Vlaeminck won the race ahead of Merckx.[6]

The Autumn ClassicEdit

For nearly 70 years the race was called "il Mondiale d'Autunno" in Italy ("the World Championship of Autumn"), as the real World Championship was held at the end of summer. It lost this particular role in 1995 when the UCI revolutionized the international cycling calendar and moved the World Championship from August to October, one week before the Giro di Lombardia.

From 1988 to 2004 the Tour of Lombardy was the final leg of the UCI Road World Cup and was often the decisive race in that competition. In 1997 Michele Bartoli needed to finish ahead of Rolf Sørensen in the race to be the winner of the 1997 World Cup. For 30 km he did solo work in a four-man breakaway, so sacrificing his chances to win the sprint. The edition was won by Frenchman Laurent Jalabert, Bartoli finished fourth and won the World Cup.[7]

The race had become the most important Autumn Classic together with Paris–Tours in France, which was mainly won by sprinters or escapees. By the early 21st century however, Paris–Tours lost its status as a World Tour race, and the Tour of Lombardy was the one remaining major Classic in autumn, the only Monument in the latter part of the year. Damiano Cunego imposed himself as the Lord of Lombardy with three victories.

In 2006, the race celebrated its 100th edition, won by Paolo Bettini, one week after becoming world champion. The edition was particularly emotional because Bettini's brother had died in a car accident just five days before the race, and the Italian was overcome with emotion when he crossed the finish line.[8] Bettini is one of seven riders to win the Tour of Lombardy after becoming world champion earlier the same year. The other six are Alfredo Binda, Tom Simpson, Eddy Merckx, Felice Gimondi, Giuseppe Saronni and Oscar Camenzind.

Since 2012 both the World Championship and the Giro di Lombardia have a new, earlier date on the calendar at the end of September, and the name officially became Il Lombardia. It was the beginning of a remarkable revival for the Monument race. The Tour of Lombardy is now the classic par excellence for riders to take revenge for the world championship or to achieve an "Autumn Double win". In recent years Philippe Gilbert, Joaquim Rodríguez and Vincenzo Nibali all won the race twice.

RouteEdit

 
Church of "Madonna del Ghisallo".

Like most of cycling's classics, the route has developed over the years, and the Tour of Lombardy has undergone more changes than any other cycling monument. Since the 1960s it has been notable for its hilly and varied course around Lake Como, to the northeast of Milan, with a flat finish in one of the cities on the shores of the lake.

Its signature symbol is the climb of the Madonna del Ghisallo, one of the iconic sanctuaries in cycling. The climb starts near Bellagio at the shore of the Como Lake, and heads up until the church of Madonna del Ghisallo (754m), the patroness of cyclists. Over the years, it has become indelibly linked with the race and with cycling in general. It was the favourite climb of cycling greatnesses Fausto Coppi and Gino Bartali, who immortalized it. The church also serves as a museum containing religious and cycling-related objects.[9]

Course changesEdit

Originally the Tour of Lombardy was raced from Milan to Milan, and like many cycling classics, climbs were gradually introduced to the course, in a bid to make the race more demanding. In 1961, the finish was moved to Como and the character of the race changed fundamentally. The long and flat run-in to the finish in Milan was abandoned; in its place came a mountainous lake-side finish, just 6 km from the top of the last climb. The route usually has some changes every year, sometimes a complete restyling, only to be altered again the next edition.

 
Route of the 2008 edition

From 1984 to 1989 the finish returned to Milan and in 1990 to its suburb Monza, inviting attackers for long-distance breakaways. From 1995 to 2003 the finish was in Bergamo, with the Colle del Gallo (Col Gàl in Bergamasque) as the last climb of the day. The Colle del Gallo, with its sanctuary of the Madonna dei ciclisti at the top, often proved to be decisive.

In 2004, after twenty years, the finish returned to the lakefront in Como, with the short but steep San Fermo della Battaglia climb just before the arrival. The 2010 edition saw the re-introduction of the Muro di Sormano, a spectacular climb with a maximum gradient of 25%, which replaced the Civiglio after the Ghisallo.[10]

In 2011 the route was fully renewed, with a first-time finish in Lecco. The Sormano was included again, but was climbed before the Ghisallo. After the Ghisallo, a flat stretch led to the final climb of the race: the steep Villa Vergano in Galbiate. After the descent only 3 km remained until the finish in Lecco. The 3,4 km climb of Villa Vergano was the decisive site in the 2011 and 2012 edition.[11]

In 2014 the finish was moved to Bergamo. Organizer RCS announced that from 2014 to 2017 the finish of the Tour of Lombardy will alternate between Bergamo and Como.

Race characteristicsEdit

The Giro di Lombardia is considered a climbers classic and one of the most arduous races of the season, because of its distance (ca. 255 km) and several famous climbs. Nowadays the route usually features five or six significant climbs. The best-known of them is the Madonna del Ghisallo, one of the few fixed locations of the race. The climb is 10,6 kilometres long, with an average gradient of 5.2% and stretches of over 10%.

 
Profile of the 2015 Tour of Lombardy

Because the race usually has a downhill or flat run-in to the finish, the main contenders are riders with a broad range of skills. As such, the course favours climbers with a strong sprint finish and even Grand Tour specialists. Time trial specialist Tony Rominger won the Tour of Lombardy twice in the 1990s and Tour de France winner Vincenzo Nibali won the 2015 edition after a downhill attack on the penultimate descent.[12][13] The race is often compared to Liège–Bastogne–Liège, the monument race in Belgium earlier in the year. Both classics have a similar hilly course and show a similar palmarès since the 1960s, but are different in character. The hills in Lombardy are usually longer than those in the Belgian Ardennes and are more spread out over the course. Liège–Bastogne–Liège has 12 categorized climbs, usually shorter and steeper, coming in faster succession than in the Tour of Lombardy, and has an uphill-finish.[14]

 
Panoramic view of Lake Como with Bellagio at the foot of the Ghisallo

Because of its position in autumn as one of the last classics of the year, the race is commonly nicknamed the Race of the Falling Leaves. Consequently, the weather repeatedly plays a decisive role in the nature of the race. In bad weather - common to mountainous Lombardy - the race is often a grueling contest where the strongest riders attack well ahead of the finish. The editions of 2006, 2010, and 2012 were exceptionally rainy. In 2010 Philippe Gilbert and Michele Scarponi attacked with 40 km to go; Gilbert distanced Scarponi on the San Fermo della Battaglia and won the race. In 2012 Gilbert crashed on a wet descent.

When the weather conditions are good, teams are able to control the race more easily and decisive attacks come later in the race. On sunny days, the leaves on the trees typically blaze a golden trail around Lombardy, and TV coverage displays extensive aerial footage of the scenery around the Como Lake. The Italian press, never shy to introduce a poetic epithet, has also coined the phrase The Romantic Classic to denote the race.[4]

Significant climbsEdit

An overview of climbs featured in the Giro di Lombardia. As the course changes every year, not all climbs are included in the same edition.

Climb Distance Average Grade Max Grade
Civiglio 5,7 km 6,9% 10%
Colle Brianza 4,2 km 6,9% 7,5%
Colma di Sormano 9,6 km 6,5% 8,4%
Colle del Gallo 6 km 6,8% 10,4%
Madonna del Ghisallo 10,6 km 5,2% 11%
Climb Distance Average Grade Max Grade
Muro di Sormano 1,7 km 16% 27%
San Fermo della Battaglia 2,2 km 8,2% 8,3%
Valcava 11,8 km 8% 12%
Villa Vergano 3,2 km 7,4% 15%

Start and finish placesEdit

Years Start Finish
1905–1960 Milano Milano
1961–1984 Milano Como
1984–1989 Como Milano (Duomo)
1990–1994 Milano Monza
1995–2001 Varese Bergamo
2002 Cantu Bergamo
2003 Como Bergamo
2004–2006 Mendrisio   Como
2007–2009 Varese Como
2010 Milano Como
2011 Milano Lecco
2012–2013 Bergamo Lecco
2014 Como Bergamo
2015 Bergamo Como
2016 Como Bergamo
2017–2019 Bergamo Como

WinnersEdit

Year Country Rider Team
1905   Italy Giovanni Gerbi Maino
1906   Italy Cesare Brambilla Bianchi
1907   France Gustave Garrigou Peugeot–Wolber
1908   Luxembourg François Faber Peugeot–Wolber
1909   Italy Giovanni Cuniolo Rudge
1910   Italy Giovanni Micheletto Stucchi
1911   France Henri Pélissier
1912   Italy Carlo Oriani Stucchi
1913   France Henri Pélissier Alcyon–Soly
1914   Italy Lauro Bordin Bianchi–Dei
1915   Italy Gaetano Belloni
1916   Italy Leopoldo Torricelli Maino
1917   Belgium Philippe Thys Peugeot–Wolber
1918   Italy Gaetano Belloni Bianchi
1919   Italy Costante Girardengo Stucchi–Dunlop
1920   France Henri Pélissier J.B. Louvet
1921   Italy Costante Girardengo Stucchi–Pirelli
1922   Italy Costante Girardengo Bianchi
1923   Italy Giovanni Brunero Legnano–Pirelli
1924   Italy Giovanni Brunero Legnano–Pirelli
1925   Italy Alfredo Binda Legnano–Pirelli
1926   Italy Alfredo Binda Legnano–Pirelli
1927   Italy Alfredo Binda Legnano–Pirelli
1928   Italy Gaetano Belloni Wolsit–Pirelli
1929   Italy Pietro Fossati Maino–Clément
1930   Italy Michele Mara Bianchi
1931   Italy Alfredo Binda Legnano–Hutchinson
1932   Italy Antonio Negrini Maino–Clément
1933   Italy Domenico Piemontesi Génial Lucifer–Hutchinson
1934   Italy Learco Guerra Maino–Clément
1935   Italy Enrico Mollo Gloria
1936   Italy Gino Bartali Legnano–Wolsit
1937   Italy Aldo Bini Bianchi
1938   Italy Cino Cinelli Fréjus
1939   Italy Gino Bartali Legnano
1940   Italy Gino Bartali Legnano
1941   Italy Mario Ricci Legnano
1942   Italy Aldo Bini Bianchi
1943 No race
1944 No race
1945   Italy Mario Ricci Legnano
1946   Italy Fausto Coppi Bianchi
1947   Italy Fausto Coppi Bianchi
1948   Italy Fausto Coppi Bianchi
1949   Italy Fausto Coppi Bianchi–Ursus
1950   Italy Renzo Soldani Thomann
1951   France Louison Bobet Stella–Dunlop
1952   Italy Giuseppe Minardi Legnano
1953   Italy Bruno Landi Fiorelli
1954   Italy Fausto Coppi Bianchi–Pirelli
1955   Italy Cleto Maule Torpado
1956   France André Darrigade Bianchi–Pirelli
1957   Italy Diego Ronchini Bianchi–Pirelli
1958   Italy Nino Defilippis Carpano
1959   Belgium Rik Van Looy Faema–Guerra
1960   Belgium Emile Daems Philco
1961   Italy Vito Taccone Atala
1962   Netherlands Jo de Roo Saint-Raphaël–Helyett–Hutchinson
1963   Netherlands Jo de Roo Saint-Raphaël–Gitane–R. Geminiani
1964   Italy Gianni Motta Molteni
1965   Great Britain Tom Simpson Peugeot–BP–Michelin
1966   Italy Felice Gimondi Salvarani
1967   Italy Franco Bitossi Filotex
1968   Belgium Herman van Springel Dr. Mann–Grundig
1969   Belgium Jean-Pierre Monseré Flandria–De Clerck–Krüger
1970   Italy Franco Bitossi Filotex
1971   Belgium Eddy Merckx Molteni
1972   Belgium Eddy Merckx Molteni
1973   Italy Felice Gimondi Bianchi–Campagnolo
1974   Belgium Roger De Vlaeminck Brooklyn
1975   Italy Francesco Moser Filotex
1976   Belgium Roger De Vlaeminck Brooklyn
1977   Italy Gianbattista Baronchelli Scic
1978   Italy Francesco Moser Sanson–Campagnolo
1979   France Bernard Hinault Renault–Gitane
1980   Belgium Fons De Wolf Boule d'Or–Studio Casa
1981   Netherlands Hennie Kuiper DAF Trucks–Côte d'Or
1982   Italy Giuseppe Saronni Del Tongo
1983   Ireland Sean Kelly Sem–Reydel–Mavic
1984   France Bernard Hinault La Vie Claire
1985   Ireland Sean Kelly Skil–Sem–Kas–Miko
1986   Italy Gianbattista Baronchelli Supermercati Brianzoli
1987   Italy Moreno Argentin Gewiss–Bianchi
1988   France Charly Mottet Système U–Gitane
1989    Switzerland Tony Rominger Chateau d'Ax
1990   France Gilles Delion Helvetia–La Suisse
1991   Ireland Sean Kelly PDM–Concorde
1992    Switzerland Tony Rominger Ariostea
1993    Switzerland Pascal Richard CLAS–Cajastur
1994   Russia Vladislav Bobrik Gewiss–Ballan
1995   Italy Gianni Faresin Lampre–Panaria
1996   Italy Andrea Tafi Mapei–GB
1997   France Laurent Jalabert ONCE
1998    Switzerland Oscar Camenzind Mapei–Bricobi
1999   Italy Mirko Celestino Team Polti
2000   Lithuania Raimondas Rumšas Fassa Bortolo
2001   Italy Danilo Di Luca Cantina Tollo–Acqua e Sapone
2002   Italy Michele Bartoli Fassa Bortolo
2003   Italy Michele Bartoli Fassa Bortolo
2004   Italy Damiano Cunego Saeco Macchine per Caffè
2005   Italy Paolo Bettini Quick-Step–Innergetic
2006   Italy Paolo Bettini Quick-Step–Innergetic
2007   Italy Damiano Cunego Lampre–Fondital
2008   Italy Damiano Cunego Lampre
2009   Belgium Philippe Gilbert Silence–Lotto
2010   Belgium Philippe Gilbert Omega Pharma–Lotto
2011    Switzerland Oliver Zaugg Leopard Trek
2012   Spain Joaquim Rodríguez Team Katusha
2013   Spain Joaquim Rodríguez Team Katusha
2014   Ireland Daniel Martin Garmin–Sharp
2015   Italy Vincenzo Nibali Astana
2016   Colombia Esteban Chaves Orica–BikeExchange
2017   Italy Vincenzo Nibali Bahrain–Merida
2018   France Thibaut Pinot Groupama–FDJ
2019   Netherlands Bauke Mollema Trek–Segafredo

Multiple winnersEdit

Wins Rider Nationality Editions
5 Fausto Coppi   Italy 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1954
4 Alfredo Binda   Italy 1925, 1926, 1927, 1931
3 Henri Pélissier   France 1911, 1913, 1920
Costante Girardengo   Italy 1919, 1921, 1922
Gaetano Belloni   Italy 1915, 1918, 1928
Gino Bartali   Italy 1936, 1939, 1940
Seán Kelly   Ireland 1983, 1985, 1991
Damiano Cunego   Italy 2004, 2007, 2008
2 Giovanni Brunero   Italy 1923, 1924
Aldo Bini   Italy 1937, 1942
Mario Ricci   Italy 1941, 1945
Jo de Roo   Netherlands 1962, 1963
Franco Bitossi   Italy 1967, 1970
Eddy Merckx   Belgium 1971, 1972
Felice Gimondi   Italy 1966, 1973
Roger De Vlaeminck   Belgium 1974, 1976
Francesco Moser   Italy 1975, 1978
Bernard Hinault   France 1979, 1984
Gianbattista Baronchelli   Italy 1977, 1986
Tony Rominger    Switzerland 1989, 1992
Michele Bartoli   Italy 2002, 2003
Paolo Bettini   Italy 2005, 2006
Philippe Gilbert   Belgium 2009, 2010
Joaquim Rodríguez   Spain 2012, 2013
Vincenzo Nibali   Italy 2015, 2017

Wins per countryEdit

Wins Country
69   Italy
12   Belgium
  France
5    Switzerland
4   Ireland
  Netherlands
2   Spain
1   Colombia
  Lithuania
  Luxembourg
  Russia
  United Kingdom

Trittico di AutunnoEdit

The Trittico di Autunno (Autumn Triptych) is an unofficial trio of cycling classics held in the Lombardy and Piedmont regions of Northern Italy, in early October. Three one-day races, Milano–Torino, the Giro del Piemonte (Tour of Piedmont) and the Tour of Lombardy, are held within a four-day timeframe in the week following the World Championship. Milan-Turin is held on the Thursday after the World Championship, the Giro del Piemonte on Friday and the Tour of Lombardy is the closing race on Sunday. The Tour of Lombardy is the pinnacle, the hardest and unequivocally most important race of this unofficial trio.

All three races have a rich history, dating back more than a century. Milan-Turin, with its first running in 1876, is the oldest classic in the world, three decades older than the Tour of Lombardy. Until 1986, and again from 2005 to 2007, Milan-Turin was organized in the spring. Since 1987 the three races are held as an "Autumn Trio", initially mid-October and since 2012 two weeks earlier. Both Milan-Turin and the Giro del Piemonte have suffered some continuity problems in the past, but are on back on the calendar of 2015.[15] For many, particularly Italian riders, Milan-Turin and the Giro del Piemonte (both 200-km races) are the ultimate races to prepare for the Tour of Lombardy.

Milan–San Remo and Tour of Lombardy DoubleEdit

The Tour of Lombardy is one of five Monuments in cycling, one of two Italian Monuments together with Milan–San Remo. Milan–San Remo is called the Spring Classic and considered a sprinters race, whereas the Tour of Lombardy is called the Autumn Classic and considered a climbers race. In total, 21 riders have won both races at least once in their career. Following Paolo Bettini, the most recent one to do this was Vincenzo Nibali who won the Primavera in 2018 and the Tour of Lombardy in 2015 and 2017.

Winning Milan–San Remo and the Tour of Lombardy in the same year is considered as something of a "holy grail" in Italian cycling, dubbed by Italian press as La Doppietta (The Double).[16] Seven riders have achieved this feat, on ten occasions. Fausto Coppi did it three consecutive times, Eddy Merckx is the last rider as yet.

TriplettaEdit

Even rarer is the combination of winning all three of Italy's great cycling races, Milan–San Remo, the Tour of Lombardy and the Giro d'Italia in one year. This Italian Treble happened twice:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Giro di Lombardia 2012". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  2. ^ "History of the Giro di Lombardia". gazzetta.it.
  3. ^ "Cycling Revealed Timeline". cyclingrevealed.com.
  4. ^ a b "Daily Peloton - Pro Cycling News". dailypeloton.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-05-21.
  5. ^ Gianni Pignata (9 November 1973). "Merckx, doping nel "Lombardia"" [Merckx, doping in "Lombardia"]. La Stampa (in Italian). Editrice La Stampa. p. 19. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  6. ^ "sporza video: Roger De Vlaeminck klopt Eddy Merckx in de Ronde van Lombardije (1974)". sporza. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-05-22.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-05-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Cycling News. "Bettini's brother dies". Cyclingnews.com.
  9. ^ "Museo del Ghisallo". Museo del Ghisallo.
  10. ^ "Muro di Sormano returns to Tour of Lombardy route". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
  11. ^ Stephen Farrand. "New Giro di Lombardia route unveiled". Cyclingnews.com.
  12. ^ O'Shea, Sadhbh (4 October 2015). "Nibali wins Il Lombardia". Cyclingnews.com. Immediate Media Company. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  13. ^ Wynn, Nigel (4 October 2015). "Watch: Vincenzo Nibali's amazing descending in Il Lombardia". Cycling Weekly. Time Inc. UK. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  14. ^ "The Hardest Monument Classic » Irish Peloton". irishpeloton.com.
  15. ^ agoravox (ed.). "Vogliono cancellare la corsa ciclistica più antica del mondo" (in Italian). Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  16. ^ "19 marzo 1952 - Milano-Sanremo". museociclismo.it.

External linksEdit