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Giorgio Bassani (4 March 1916 – 13 April 2000) was an Italian novelist, poet, essayist, editor, and international intellectual.
Giorgio Bassani in 1974
|Born||4 March 1916|
|Died||13 April 2000 (aged 84)|
|Occupation||Author, editor, poet, essayist|
Bassani was born in Bologna into a prosperous Jewish family of Ferrara, where he spent his childhood with his mother Dora, father Enrico (a doctor), brother Paolo, and sister Jenny. In 1934 he completed his studies at his secondary school, the liceo classico L. Ariosto in Ferrara. Music had been his first great passion and he considered a career as a pianist; however literature soon became the focus of his artistic interests.
In 1935 he enrolled in the Faculty of Letters of the University of Bologna. Commuting to lectures by train (third class) from Ferrara, he studied under the art historian Roberto Longhi. His ideal of the "free intellectual" was the liberal historian and philosopher Benedetto Croce. Despite the anti-Semitic race laws which were introduced from 1938, he was able to graduate in 1939, writing a thesis on the nineteenth-century writer, journalist, radical and lexicographer Niccolò Tommaseo. As a Jew in 1939, however, work opportunities were now limited and he became a schoolteacher in the Jewish School of Ferrara in via Vignatagliata.
In 1940 his first book, Una città di pianura ("A City of the Plain"), was published under the pseudonym "Giacomo Marchi" in order to evade the race laws. During this period, along with friends he had made in Ferrara's intellectual circle, he became a clandestine political activist. His activity in the anti-fascist resistance led to his arrest in May 1943; he was released on 26 July, the day after Benito Mussolini was ousted from power.
A little over a week later he married Valeria Sinigallia, whom he had met playing tennis. They moved to Florence for a brief period, living under assumed names, then at the end of the year, to Rome, where he would spend the rest of his life. His first volume of poems, Storie dei poveri amanti e altri versi, appeared in 1944; a second, Te lucis ante, followed in 1947. He edited the literary review Botteghe oscure for Princess Marguerite Caetani from its founding in 1948 until it ceased publication in 1960.
In 1953 La passeggiata prima di cena appeared and in 1954 Gli ultimi anni di Clelia Trotti. In the same year he became editor of Paragone, a journal founded by Longhi and his wife Anna Banti. Bassani's writings reached a wider audience in 1956 with the publication of the Premio Strega-winning book of short stories, Cinque storie ferraresi (the five stories are Lida Mantovani, La passeggiata prima di cena, Una lapide in via Mazzini, Gli ultimi anni di Clelia Trotti, and Una notte del '43).
As an editorial director of Feltrinelli Bassani was responsible for the posthumous publication in 1958 of Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa's Il Gattopardo, a novel which had been rejected by Elio Vittorini at Mondadori, and Einaudi. It became one of the great successes of post-war Italian literature. Bassani's enthusiastic editing of the text, following instructions from Elena Croce (daughter of Benedetto) who had offered him the manuscript, later became controversial, however; recent editions have been published which follow the manuscript more closely.
Also in 1958 Bassani's novel Gli occhiali d'oro (made into a film in 1987) was published, an examination, in part, of the marginalisation of Jews and homosexuals. Together with stories from Cinque storie ferraresi (reworked and under the new title Dentro le mura (1973)) it was to form part of a series of works known collectively as Il romanzo di Ferrara, which explored the city, with its Christian and Jewish elements, its perspectives and its landscapes. The series includes: Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini (The Garden of the Finzi-Continis) (1962, Premio Viareggio prizewinner); Dietro la porta (1964); L'airone (1968) and L'odore del fieno (1972). These works realistically document the Italian Jewish community under Fascism in a style that manifests the difficulties of searching for truth in the meanderings of memory and moral conscience. In 1960 one of his short stories (Una notte del '43, from Cinque storie ferraresi) was adapted as the film Long Night in 1943.
Bassani died in 2000 and was buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Ferrara. He was survived by his estranged wife Valeria and their two children Paola (born 1945-09-01) and Enrico (born 1949-06-29). He had been with his companion Portia Prebys, since shortly after they met in 1977.
- Within the Walls (Dentro le mura) - 1956
- The Gold-rimmed Spectacles (Gli occhiali d'oro) – 1958
- A Prospect of Ferrara (Cinque storie ferraresi) – 1962
- The Garden of the Finzi-Continis (Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini) – 1962
- The Heron (L'airone) – 1970
- Five Stories of Ferrara (Cinque storie ferraresi) – 1971
- The Smell of Hay (L'odore del fieno) – 1972
- Behind the Door (Dietro la porta) – 1972
- Rolls Royce and Other Poems (extracts from Epitaffio and In gran segreto) – 1982
- Giorgio Bassani tra verità e realtà: Testimonianza di Portia Prebys, a cura di Renzo Ricchi, in Nuova Antologia – n. 2214, Aprile–Giugno 2000 (pub. Le Monnier), pp 169–176
- Barolini, Helen, "The Shadowy Lady of the Street of Dark Shops", Virginia Quarterly Review (Spring 1998)
- Tomasi di Lampedusa Giuseppe: Il Gattopardo Archived 31 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- "Malta: Former President of Italia Nostra Giorgio Bassani commemorated". Europanostra.org. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
- Guia Risari, The Document within the Walls. The Romance of Bassani, Troubador Publishing, Leics, I. ed. 1999, II ed. 2004, ISBN 1 899293 66 3
- Alessandro Giardino, Giorgio Bassani. Percorsi dello sguardo nelle arti visive,Fernandel, 2011 Giorgio Pozzi Editore, 2013
- Paola Polito, L'officina dell'ineffabile. Ripetizione, memoria e non detto in Giorgio Bassani, Giorgio Pozzi Editore, 2014
- Giorgio Bassani, Lezioni americane di Giorgio Bassani, a cura di Valerio Cappozzo, Ravenna, Giorgio Pozzi Editore, 2016
- www.italialibri.net :: Il romanzo di Ferrara – Bassani (in Italian)
- Poscritto a Giorgio Bassani. Saggi in Memoria del Decimo Anniversario della Morte [Postscriptum: Critical Essays on Giorgio Bassani in Memory of the Tenth Anniversary of his Death], R. Antognini e R. Diaconescu Blumenfeld (edd.), LED Edizioni Universitarie, Milano 2012, ISBN 978-88-7916-510-5