Giant slalom

Giant slalom (GS) is an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline. It involves skiing between sets of poles (gates) spaced at a greater distance from each other than in slalom but less than in Super-G.

A skier attacks a gate in GS

Giant slalom and slalom make up the technical events in alpine ski racing. This category separates them from the speed events of Super-G and downhill. The technical events are normally composed of two runs, held on different courses on the same ski run.

CourseEdit

The vertical drop for a GS course must be 250–450 m (820–1,480 ft) for men, and 250–400 m (820–1,310 ft) for women. The number of gates in this event is 56–70 for men and 46–58 for women. The number of direction changes in a GS course equals 11–15% of the vertical drop of the course in metres, 13–18% for children. As an example, a course with a vertical drop of 300 m (984 ft) would have 33–45 direction changes for an adult race.[1]

SpeedEdit

 
Olympian Lotte Smiseth Sejersted
in a GS race

Although giant slalom is not the fastest event in skiing, on average a well-trained racer may reach average speeds of 40 km/h (25 mph).

EquipmentEdit

 
Top: giant slalom skis from 2006,
bottom: slalom skis.

Giant slalom skis are shorter than super-G and downhill skis, and longer than slalom skis.

In an attempt to increase safety for the 2003–04 season, the International Ski Federation (FIS) increased the minimum sidecut radius for giant slalom skis to 21 m (69 ft) and for the first time imposed minimum ski lengths for GS: 185 cm (72.8 in) for men and 180 cm (70.9 in) for women. A maximum stand height (the distance from the snow to the sole of the boot) of 55 mm (2.17 in) was also established for all disciplines.

In May 2006, the FIS announced further changes to the rules governing equipment. Beginning with the 2007–08 season, the minimum radius for GS skis was increased to 27 m (89 ft) for men and 23 m (75 ft) for women. Additionally, the minimum ski width at the waist was increased from 60 to 65 mm (2.36 to 2.56 in), and the maximum stand height for all disciplines was reduced to 50 mm (1.97 in).[1] The best skiers tended to use a bigger sidecut radius, like Ted Ligety at 29 m (95 ft), and Lindsey Vonn at 27 m (89 ft).

For the 2012–13 season, the FIS increased the sidecut radius to 35 m (115 ft) and the minimal length to 195 cm (76.8 in). Many athletes criticized this decision. Often David Dodge was cited. Dodge argues that FIS used studies which do not represent a scientific proof. He states that it is well known that if one tips the ski 7° more the 35 m ski will have the same turning radius as the 28 m ski. He states as well that knee injuries are decreasing since the 1990s, when carving skis started to be used.[2][3][4][5][6]

HistoryEdit

The first giant slalom was set in 1935 on the Mottarone in Italy, over the Lake Maggiore, near Stresa, on January 20.[7] After one month, the second giant slalom was set on the Marmolada in Italy's Dolomite mountains, by Guenther Langes.[8]

The giant slalom was added to the world championships in 1950 at Aspen, Colorado, and debuted at the Winter Olympics in 1952 at Oslo, Norway, run at Norefjell. The GS has been run in every world championships and Olympics since. Originally a one-run event, a second run was added for men at the world championships in 1966, run on consecutive days, and at the Olympics in 1968. The second run for women was added at the world championships in 1978, and made its Olympic debut in 1980.

The world championships changed to a one-day format for the giant slalom in 1974, but the Olympics continued the GS as a two-day event through 1980. Also scheduled for two days in 1984, both giant slaloms became one-day events after repeated postponements of the downhills. Following the extra races added to the program in 1988, the GS has been scheduled as a one-day event at the Olympics.

Upon its introduction, giant slalom briefly displaced the combined event at the world championships; it was absent in 1950 and 1952. The combined returned in 1954 in Åre, Sweden, but as a "paper race," using the results of the three events (downhill, giant slalom, and slalom), a format used through 1980. The combined returned as a stand-alone event at the world championships in 1982 at Schladming, Austria, and at the 1988 Calgary Olympics. It was changed to the super-combined format (one run of slalom on same day as downhill) at the world championships in 2007 and the Olympics in 2010.

Men's World Cup podiumsEdit

In the following table men's giant slalom World Cup podiums from the World Cup first edition in 1967.[9]

Season 1st 2nd 3rd
1967   Jean-Claude Killy   Georges Mauduit   Jimmy Heuga
1968   Jean-Claude Killy   Edmund Bruggmann   Herbert Huber
1969   Karl Schranz   Reinhard Tritscher   Jean-Noel Augert
1970   Gustav Thöni   Patrick Russel
  Dumeng Giovanoli
1971   Gustav Thöni
  Patrick Russel
  Edmund Bruggmann
1972   Gustav Thöni   Edmund Bruggmann   Rogers Rossat-Mignod
1973   Hans Hinterseer   Erik Håker   Adolf Rösti
1974   Piero Gros   Hans Hinterseer   Gustav Thöni
1975   Ingemar Stenmark   Piero Gros   Erik Håker
1976   Ingemar Stenmark   Gustav Thöni   Piero Gros
1977   Ingemar Stenmark
  Heini Hemmi
  Klaus Heidegger
1978   Ingemar Stenmark   Andreas Wenzel   Phil Mahre
1979   Ingemar Stenmark   Peter Lüscher   Bojan Križaj
1980   Ingemar Stenmark   Hans Enn   Jacques Lüthy
1981   Ingemar Stenmark   Alexander Zhirov   Phil Mahre
1982   Phil Mahre   Ingemar Stenmark   Marc Girardelli
1983   Phil Mahre   Ingemar Stenmark
  Max Julen
1984   Ingemar Stenmark
  Pirmin Zurbriggen
  Hans Enn
1985   Marc Girardelli   Pirmin Zurbriggen   Thomas Bürgler
1986   Joël Gaspoz   Ingemar Stenmark   Hubert Strolz
1987   Pirmin Zurbriggen
  Joël Gaspoz
  Richard Pramotton
1988   Alberto Tomba   Hubert Strolz   Helmut Mayer
1989   Ole Kristian Furuseth
  Pirmin Zurbriggen
  Rudolf Nierlich
1990   Günther Mader
  Ole Kristian Furuseth
  Hubert Strolz
1991   Alberto Tomba   Rudolf Nierlich   Marc Girardelli
1992   Alberto Tomba   Hans Pieren   Paul Accola
1993   Kjetil André Aamodt   Alberto Tomba   Marc Girardelli
1994   Christian Mayer   Kjetil André Aamodt   Franck Piccard
1995   Alberto Tomba   Jure Košir   Harald Strand Nilsen
1996   Michael von Grünigen   Urs Kälin   Lasse Kjus
1997   Michael von Grünigen   Kjetil André Aamodt   Hans Knauß
1998   Hermann Maier   Michael von Grünigen   Christian Mayer
1999   Michael von Grünigen   Stephan Eberharter   Hermann Maier
2000   Hermann Maier   Christian Mayer   Michael von Grünigen
2001   Hermann Maier   Michael von Grünigen   Erik Schlopy
2002   Frederic Covili   Benjamin Raich   Stephan Eberharter
2003   Michael von Grünigen   Bode Miller   Hans Knauß
2004   Bode Miller   Kalle Palander   Massimiliano Blardone
2005   Benjamin Raich   Bode Miller   Thomas Grandi
2006   Benjamin Raich   Massimiliano Blardone   Fredrik Nyberg
2007   Aksel Lund Svindal   Massimiliano Blardone   Benjamin Raich
2008   Ted Ligety   Benjamin Raich   Manfred Mölgg
2009   Didier Cuche   Benjamin Raich   Ted Ligety
2010   Ted Ligety   Carlo Janka   Benjamin Raich
2011   Ted Ligety   Aksel Lund Svindal   Cyprien Richard
2012   Marcel Hirscher   Ted Ligety   Massimiliano Blardone
2013   Ted Ligety   Marcel Hirscher   Alexis Pinturault
2014   Ted Ligety   Marcel Hirscher   Alexis Pinturault
2015   Marcel Hirscher   Alexis Pinturault   Ted Ligety
2016   Marcel Hirscher   Alexis Pinturault   Henrik Kristoffersen
2017   Marcel Hirscher   Mathieu Faivre   Alexis Pinturault
2018   Marcel Hirscher   Henrik Kristoffersen   Alexis Pinturault
2019   Marcel Hirscher   Henrik Kristoffersen   Alexis Pinturault
2020   Henrik Kristoffersen   Alexis Pinturault   Filip Zubčić

Men's most podiums in World CupEdit

Skiers having most podium in FIS Alpine Ski World Cup.[10]

  Still active

Updated to 10 March 2021.

# Skier Total Last
1   Ingemar Stenmark 72 19-02-1989
2   Marcel Hirscher 59 24-02-2019
3   Michael von Grünigen 46 15-03-2003
4   Ted Ligety 41 28-01-2018
5   Alexis Pinturault 36 28-02-2021
6   Benjamin Raich 35 01-03-2015
7   Alberto Tomba 31 06-01-1998
8   Hermann Maier 28 23-10-2005
9   Phil Mahre 26 05-03-1984
10   Gustav Thöni 26 02-01-1977
11   Marc Girardelli 26 27-03-1993
12   Massimiliano Blardone 25 13-02-2016
13   Bode Miller 21 08-12-2013
14   Fredrik Nyberg 20 17-03-2006

Women's World Cup podiumsEdit

In the following table women's giant slalom World Cup podiums from the World Cup first edition in 1967.

Season 1st 2nd 3rd
1967   Nancy Greene   Erika Schinegger   Annie Famose
1968   Nancy Greene   Fernande Bochatay   Florence Steurer
1969   Marilyn Cochran   Michèle Jacot   Gertrud Gabl
1970   Michèle Jacot
  Françoise Macchi
  Annemarie Moser-Pröll
1971   Annemarie Moser-Pröll   Michèle Jacot   Françoise Macchi
1972   Annemarie Moser-Pröll   Monika Kaserer   Britt Lafforgue
1973   Monika Kaserer   Annemarie Moser-Pröll   Hanni Wenzel
1974   Hanni Wenzel   Fabienne Serrat   Monika Kaserer
1975   Annemarie Moser-Pröll   Fabienne Serrat   Monika Kaserer
1976   Lise-Marie Morerod   Monika Kaserer   Rosi Mittermaier
1977   Lise-Marie Morerod   Monika Kaserer   Annemarie Moser-Pröll
1978   Lise-Marie Morerod   Hanni Wenzel   Maria Epple
1979   Christa Kinshofer   Hanni Wenzel   Irene Epple
1980   Hanni Wenzel   Marie-Thérèse Nadig
  Perrine Pelen
1981   Tamara McKinney   Marie-Thérèse Nadig   Irene Epple
  Erika Hess
  Hanni Wenzel
1982   Irene Epple   Maria Epple   Erika Hess
1983   Tamara McKinney   Cindy Nelson   Maria Epple
1984   Erika Hess   Christin Cooper   Tamara McKinney
1985   Michela Figini
  Marina Kiehl
  Vreni Schneider
1986   Vreni Schneider   Traudl Hächer   Mateja Svet
1987   Vreni Schneider
  Maria Walliser
  Blanca Fernández Ochoa
1988   Mateja Svet   Catherine Quittet   Vreni Schneider
1989   Vreni Schneider   Mateja Svet   Maria Walliser
1990   Anita Wachter   Mateja Svet   Petra Kronberger
1991   Vreni Schneider   Anita Wachter   Pernilla Wiberg
1992   Carole Merle   Vreni Schneider   Diann Roffe
1993   Carole Merle   Anita Wachter   Martina Ertl
1994   Anita Wachter   Vreni Schneider   Deborah Compagnoni
1995   Vreni Schneider   Heidi Zeller-Bähler   Špela Pretnar
1996   Martina Ertl   Katja Seizinger   Anita Wachter
1997   Deborah Compagnoni   Katja Seizinger   Anita Wachter
1998   Martina Ertl   Deborah Compagnoni   Alexandra Meissnitzer
1999   Alexandra Meissnitzer   Anita Wachter   Andrine Flemmen
2000   Michaela Dorfmeister   Sonja Nef   Anita Wachter
2001   Sonja Nef   Anja Pärson   Michaela Dorfmeister
2002   Sonja Nef   Michaela Dorfmeister   Anja Pärson
2003   Anja Pärson   Karen Putzer   Janica Kostelić
2004   Anja Pärson   Denise Karbon   María José Rienda
2005   Tanja Poutiainen   Anja Pärson   María José Rienda
2006   Anja Pärson   María José Rienda   Janica Kostelić
2007   Nicole Hosp   Tanja Poutiainen   Michaela Kirchgasser
2008   Denise Karbon   Elisabeth Görgl   Manuela Mölgg
2009   Tanja Poutiainen   Kathrin Zettel   Tina Maze
2010   Kathrin Hölzl   Kathrin Zettel   Tina Maze
2011   Viktoria Rebensburg   Tessa Worley   Tanja Poutiainen
2012   Viktoria Rebensburg   Lindsey Vonn   Tessa Worley
2013   Tina Maze   Anna Fenninger   Viktoria Rebensburg
2014   Anna Fenninger   Jessica Lindell-Vikarby   Maria Pietilä Holmner
2015   Anna Fenninger   Eva-Maria Brem   Mikaela Shiffrin
2016   Eva-Maria Brem   Viktoria Rebensburg   Lara Gut-Behrami
2017   Tessa Worley   Mikaela Shiffrin   Sofia Goggia
2018   Viktoria Rebensburg   Tessa Worley   Mikaela Shiffrin
2019   Mikaela Shiffrin   Petra Vlhová   Tessa Worley
2020   Federica Brignone   Petra Vlhová   Mikaela Shiffrin

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "The International Ski Competition Rules" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-03-25. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  2. ^ Ted Ligety, Skiing's Most Outspoken Critic, Is Still the Best in the World, bleacher report, 2012-10-28.
  3. ^ A Letter To FIS, David Dodge, 2011.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Update on Injury Trends in Alpine Skiing, Johnson, Etlinger, Shealy, Update on Injury Trends in Alpine Skiing, 2009
  6. ^ Unfälle und Verletzungen im alpinen Skisport Archived 2011-11-25 at the Wayback Machine, David Schulz, Auswertungsstelle für Skiunfälle, Stiftung Sicherheit im Skisport, 2011.
  7. ^ Francesco Vida. La storia dello sci in Italia.
  8. ^ Allen, John (2010-01-31). "First Giant Slalom". Skiing Heritage. International Skiing History Assoc. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  9. ^ "Winter Sports Chart - Alpine Skiing". wintersport-charts.info. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  10. ^ "GIANT SLALOM - COMPETITORS HAVING MORE THAN ONE PODIUM". fis-ski.com. Retrieved 5 February 2018.

External linksEdit