Giacomo Pylarini (Jacob) (1659–1718) was a Venetian physician and consul for the republic of Venice in Smyrna who in 1701 on the children of the English ambassador to Constantinople, gave the first smallpox inoculation outside of Asia. This early immunization effort was called "variolation".
He studied law and then physic at Padua before receiving his degree of MD. He traveled to different parts of Asia and Africa and practised both at Smyrna and Constantinople. In Moscow he was appointed physician to the Russian Tsar Peter the Great.
He returned to Smyrna for the second time and resided there as the Venetian Consul as well as practising physician.
- The Clockwork Universe 1583 ce–1819 ce ISBN 978-3-540-68831-0 (Print) 978-3-540-68832-7 (Online), Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- A New and safe Method of communicating the Small-pox by Inoculation, lately invented and brought into use. By Jacob Pylarini,* M.D. formerly Venetian Consul at Smyra. No347, p.393, Page 207 to 210 of The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, from Their Commencement, in 1665, to the Year 1800: 1713-1723, Volume 6 of The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, from Their Commencement, in 1665, to the Year 1800: Abridged, with Notes and Biographical Illustrations, Charles Hutton, Authors:Royal Society (Great Britain), Charles Hutton, George Shaw, Richard Pearson, Printed by and for C. and R. Baldwin, 1809
- The Cambridge illustrated history of medicine, Page 375, By Roy Porter
- History of Smallpox Vaccination, Baxter Vaccines
- Femininity and masculinity in eighteenth-century art and culture, By Gillian Perry, Michael Rossington, Page 120