Ghost in the Shell (2017 film)
Ghost in the Shell is a 2017 American science fiction action film directed by Rupert Sanders and written by Jamie Moss, William Wheeler, and Ehren Kruger, based on the Japanese manga of the same name by Masamune Shirow. It stars Scarlett Johansson, Takeshi Kitano, Michael Pitt, Pilou Asbæk, Chin Han and Juliette Binoche. Set in a near future when the line between humans and robots is blurring, the plot follows the Major (Johansson), a cyborg supersoldier who yearns to learn her past.
|Ghost in the Shell|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Rupert Sanders|
|Based on||Ghost in the Shell
by Masamune Shirow
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
|Box office||$169.8 million|
Ghost in the Shell premiered in Tokyo on March 16, 2017, and was released in the United States on March 31, 2017, in 2D, 3D, IMAX 3D and 4DX. It received mixed reviews, with praise for its faithful visual style, acting, exciting and elaborately designed future settings, approach on practical effects, action sequences, cinematography and musical score but received criticism for its story and lack of character development. The casting of Johansson also drew accusations of whitewashing from some critics. It grossed $169 million worldwide against a production budget of $110 million, and is considered a box office bomb.
In the near future, the vast majority of humans are augmented with cybernetics, enhancing various traits like vision, strength, and intelligence. Hanka Robotics, the world's leading developer of augmentative technology, establishes a secret project to develop a mechanical body, or "shell", that can integrate a human brain rather than an AI. Mira Killian, a young woman who is the sole survivor of the cyberterrorist attack which killed her parents, is chosen as the test subject after her body is apparently damaged beyond repair. Over the objections of her designer, Dr. Ouelet, Hanka CEO Cutter decides to use Killian as a counter-terrorism operative.
A year later, Killian has attained the rank of Major in the anti-terrorist bureau Section 9, working alongside operatives Batou and Togusa under Chief Daisuke Aramaki. The team successfully thwarts a terrorist attack on a Hanka business conference, and Killian destroys a rogue mechanical geisha after it murders a hostage. Killian, who has been experiencing hallucinations that Ouelet dismisses as glitches, is becoming increasingly bothered by how little she remembers about her past. After learning that the geisha was hacked by an unknown entity, known only as Kuze, Killian breaks protocol and "dives" into its AI for answers. The entity attempts a counter-hack, and Batou is forced to disconnect her. Using the information she was able to gather, the two trace the hacker to a Yakuza nightclub, where they are lured into a trap. The resulting explosion destroys Batou's eyes, and leaves Killian's body severely damaged. Cutter is enraged by Killian's actions, and threatens to have Section 9 shut down unless Aramaki keeps her in line.
Kuze tracks down Section 9's Hanka consultant, Dr. Dahlin, and kills her. The team links her murder to the deaths of other senior company researchers, and realize that Dr. Ouelet is the next target. Kuze takes control of two sanitation workers and sends them to kill Ouelet. Batou, now with cybernetic eyes, kills one of them while the repaired Killian subdues the other. During interrogation, Kuze briefly speaks through the surviving worker before compelling him to commit suicide. Togusa traces the hack to a secret location, where the team discovers a large number of humans mentally linked together as a makeshift signal network. Killian is captured, and Kuze reveals that he is a failed Hanka test subject from the same project that created Killian, otherwise known as 2571. He urges her to question her own memories before freeing her and escaping.
Killian confronts Ouelet, who admits there were 98 test subjects before Killian but she was the only one to survive the process and that her memories are fake implanted ones. Cutter has decided that Killian is too much of a liability, and orders Ouelet to euthanize her after she returns to Hanka Robotics. Instead, Ouelet gives Killian an address and helps her escape. Cutter kills Ouelet, but blames Killian, saying that she has gone rogue. He subsequently informs Aramaki and the team that Killian must be terminated by any means necessary.
Killian follows the address to an apartment occupied by a widowed mother, who reveals that her daughter, Motoko Kusanagi, ran away from home a year ago and was arrested, before taking her own life while in custody. Unable to process her emotions, Killian leaves and contacts Aramaki, who intentionally allows Cutter to eavesdrop on their conversation. Batou, Togusa, and Aramaki each eliminate Cutter's men trying to ambush them, while Killian follows her memories to the hideaway where Motoko was last seen. There, she and Kuze meet, and recall their past lives as anti-augmentation radicals who were abducted by Hanka for use as test subjects.
Cutter deploys a "spider-tank" to kill them, and Kuze nearly dies before Killian is able to tear off the tank's motor, losing her left arm in the process. Mortally wounded, Kuze offers to merge his "ghost" with Killian's before a Hanka sniper kills him. Batou and the team rescue Killian, while Aramaki executes Cutter with Killian's consent.
The next day, Killian, now repaired and embracing her true identity as Motoko, reconnects with her mother before returning to work with Section 9.
- Scarlett Johansson as Major Mira Killian / Motoko Kusanagi
- Kaori Yamamoto as young Motoko Kusanagi
- "Beat" Takeshi Kitano as Chief Daisuke Aramaki
- Michael Carmen Pitt as Kuze / Hideo
- Andrew Morris as young Hideo
- Pilou Asbæk as Batou
- Chin Han as Togusa
- Juliette Binoche as Dr. Ouelet
- Peter Ferdinando as Cutter
- Kaori Momoi as Motoko's mother
- Lasarus Ratuere as Carlos Ishikawa
- Danusia Samal as Ladriya
- Anamaria Marinca as Dr. Dahlin
- Michael Wincott as Dr. Osmond (uncredited)
- Yutaka Izumihara as Saito
- Tawanda Manyimo as Borma
- Daniel Henshall as Skinny Man
- Rila Fukushima as a geisha robot
- Pete Teo as Tony
- Yuta Kazama as Data Host
- Chris Obi as Ambassador Kiyoshi
- Adwoa Aboah as Lia
- Tricky (deleted scene)
In 2008, DreamWorks (who handled U.S. theatrical distribution of Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence through its Go Fish Pictures banner) and Steven Spielberg acquired the rights to produce a live-action film adaptation of the original manga. Avi Arad and Steven Paul were later confirmed as producers, with Jamie Moss to write the screenplay. In October 2009, it was announced that Laeta Kalogridis had replaced Moss as writer. On January 24, 2014, it was reported that Rupert Sanders would direct the film, with a screenplay by William Wheeler. Wheeler worked on the script for approximately a year and a half, later saying, "It's a vast enterprise. I think I was second or third in the mix, and I know there have been at least six or seven writers." Jonathan Herman also worked on the screenplay. Ultimately, credit for the screenplay was given to Moss, William Wheeler and Ehren Kruger.
On September 3, 2014, Margot Robbie was in early talks for the lead role. On October 16, it was announced that DreamWorks had made a $10 million offer to Scarlett Johansson for the lead role after Robbie's talks for the role fell apart when she was cast as Harley Quinn in Suicide Squad. In May 2015, Paramount Pictures agreed to co-produce and co-finance the film. On November 10, 2015, Pilou Asbæk was cast in the film for the role of Batou. According to TheWrap, Matthias Schoenaerts was circling the role of Batou that went to Asbæk. On November 19, 2015, it was reported that Sam Riley was in early talks to join the film for the villain role as Kuze, the leader of most dangerous criminals and extremists. But, on February 4, 2016, Variety reported that Michael Pitt was in talks for the role. On March 3, 2016, TheWrap reported that Japanese actor Takeshi Kitano had been cast as Daisuke Aramaki, the founder and leader of the elite unit Section 9 tasked with protecting the world from the most dangerous technological threats.
Principal photography on the film began on location in Wellington, New Zealand, on February 1, 2016. In April 2016, the full cast was announced, which included Juliette Binoche, Chin Han, Lasarus Ratuere and Kaori Momoi. In May 2016, Rila Fukushima was cast in a role. Filming wrapped up in New Zealand on June 3, 2016. Filming also took place in the Yau Ma Tei and Jordan areas of Hong Kong, around Pak Hoi Street and Woosung Street on June 7, 8 and 10 or 14–16.
Ghost in the Shell was originally scheduled by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures for an April 14, 2017, release through their Touchstone Pictures banner. The film was part of DreamWorks' distribution deal with Walt Disney Studios, which began in 2009. In April 2015, Disney moved the film's release date in North America to March 31, 2017, with Paramount Pictures handling international distribution. However, it was reported in September 2015 that DreamWorks and Disney would not renew their distribution deal, which was set to expire in August 2016. In January 2016, Disney dropped the film from its release slate after DreamWorks' distribution deal with Universal Pictures was finalized in December 2015. Disney's distribution rights for the film were transferred completely to Paramount instead of Universal, with Paramount retaining Disney's release date of March 31, 2017. Unusually, the film was not screened for critics before its release.
Ghost in the Shell grossed $40.5 million in the United States and Canada and $129.2 million in other territories for a worldwide gross of $169.8 million, against a production budget of $110 million.
In North America, Ghost in the Shell opened alongside The Boss Baby and The Zookeeper's Wife, and was projected to gross around $25 million from 3,440 theaters in its opening weekend. It made $1.8 million from Thursday night previews and $7.7 million on Friday. It opened to a less-than-expected $19 million, finishing third at the box office behind The Boss Baby and Beauty and the Beast. Deadline.com attributed the poor opening to below-average critical reviews, an unclear marketing campaign, and no social media presence by Johansson. In its second weekend the film grossed $7.4 million, dropping 60.4% and finishing 5th at the box office.
Kyle Davies, domestic distribution chief for Paramount, felt the controversy around the casting had damaged reviews, and said: "You're always trying to thread that needle between honoring the source material and make a movie for a mass audience. That's challenging, but clearly the reviews didn't help." Conversely, Deadline argued that the negative critical assessment was instead due to the film being "cold, boring, thoughtless, and the same old same old next to its futuristic ancestors The Matrix and Blade Runner" and suggested that Paramount held the film from review because they "knew they had a lame duck." Deadline also reported that the film is expected to lose at least $60 million against its total advertising and production costs of $250 million.
Compared to its U.S. gross during the same period, Japanese box office reception since the official release in the country in April 7 has been more positive, earning a modest $3.3 million in Japan during its first three days in theaters. In Japan, Ghost in the Shell is currently tracking in second place just behind Sing, which has topped the Japanese box office for the last four weeks.
In China, the film debuted at number one, grossing in $22.1 million and claiming the spot from Kong: Skull Island which held it for three weeks. Nevertheless, it performed below already muted expectations, making the Chinese media call it a flop.
On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, Ghost in the Shell has an approval rating of 45% based on 223 reviews, with an average rating of 5.6/10. The site's consensus reads, "Ghost in the Shell boasts cool visuals and a compelling central performance from Scarlett Johansson, but the end result lacks the magic of the movie's classic source material." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 52 out of 100, based on 42 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B" on an A+ to F scale.
Justin Chang of the Los Angeles Times praised the film's visuals and production, saying: "Some of that ravishment arrives courtesy of the movie's setting, a stunning pan-Asian metropolis that makes boldly inventive use of the Hong Kong skyline, its tightly stacked buildings tricked out with enormous holographic billboards. (The cinematography and production design, both staggering, are by Jess Hall and Jan Roelfs, respectively.)" Michael Phillips of Chicago Tribune gave the film 3/4 and said, "This isn't jokey, quippy science fiction; true to the source material, it's fairly grave about the implications of an android-dominated culture, though of course Ghost in the Shell is also about giant mecha spiders equipped with machine guns."
Richard Roeper of Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 2.5 out of 4 stars, saying: "Just about every scene in Ghost in the Shell is a visual wonder to behold—and you'll have ample to time to soak in all that background eye candy, because the plot machinations and the action in the foreground are largely of the ho-hum retread variety." Evan Narcisse of io9 commented that the film failed to capture the feel of the source material, with the biggest problem being the Major asking the wrong sort of existential questions about herself.
Cecilia D'Anastasio of Kotaku commented on the film's failure to adhere to the source material, saying: "Somebody misjudged how poorly American superhero movie tropes would map onto Ghost in the Shell", and that "[the] final scene tried to do that 'satisfying our need for closure' thing American directors think is kind, but is actually condescending." Brian Truitt of USA Today gave the film 1.5/4, stating: "Ghost in the Shell is a defective mess with lifeless characters, missed chances for thematic exploration and a minefield of political incorrectness."
Manohla Dargis of The New York Times expressed disappointment at the absence of the original's "big, human, all-too-human questions" in contrast to the retention of action clichés such as chases and gun fights. Dargis also criticized the absence of the unique setting, stating that "The original manga takes place in what's described as a "strange corporate conglomerate-state called 'Japan,' while this movie unwinds nowhere in particular, just a universal megalopolis filled with soaring gray towers."
Peter Suderman of Vox and Emily Yoshida of Vulture criticized the removal of philosophical ideas from the story, feeling the movie westernized the story and changed the search for the idea of a soul to just finding individuality and memories. Others call it an action movie that for once doesn't throw philosophy overboard.
The film currently has a 3.48 star (out of 5) rating on Yahoo Movies Japan, with four stars for its visuals and three for its story. On April 10, The Hollywood Reporter noted that the adaptation's rating on Yahoo Movies Japan was higher than the 3.2 rating of the 1995 original anime film.
The casting of Scarlett Johansson as Major Killian brought accusations of whitewashing. Pavan Shamdasani of Asia Times wrote: "The original is about as Asian as things get: Japanese cult manga, ground-breaking anime, Hong Kong-inspired locations, Eastern philosophy-based story. Most of that's been downright ignored with its big-screen adaptation, and Scarlett Johansson's casting as the dark-haired, obviously originally Asian lead sent netizens into a rage." In April 2016, ScreenCrush reported that the filmmakers had commissioned the use of CGI and other visual effects testing to alter Johansson's appearance to make her appear Asian, spurring further backlash. Paramount stated the tests were short-lived and did not involve Johansson. Some fans and industry employees argued that the controversy is a symptom of a bigger issue: that modern Hollywood fears casting non-white actors would bring less profit. Marc Bernardin of Los Angeles Times wrote that "the only race Hollywood cares about is the box office race".
In Japan, fans were surprised that the casting had caused controversy, as they had assumed that a Hollywood production would choose a white actress. They felt the appearance of the protagonist was immaterial due to the franchise's themes of self-identity and the blurring of artificial and natural bodies. The Hollywood Reporter spoke to a group of female Japanese American actors, including Keiko Agena, about the film; the actresses argued that Japanese natives are not upset by the film because of white beauty standards held in Japan. According to Justin Charity of Ringer, "your average Japanese citizen's outlook on diversity is much less influenced by pluralism than the outlooks of many Asian Americans, who live in a country where popular culture rarely represents them well, if at all. Hence, many Japanese Americans may find Johansson's casting in a Ghost in the Shell movie distressing, while native Japanese observers make nothing of it."
Paramount released a featurette of Mamoru Oshii (director of the 1995 and 2004 original anime films) visiting the studio, in which he says that Johansson exceeded his expectations for the role. Oshii told IGN that as the Major uses an assumed body and name, there was no basis for saying an Asian woman must portray her, and stated: "I can only sense a political motive from the people opposing it, and I believe artistic expression must be free from politics." During a launch event in Tokyo, director Rupert Sanders said of Johansson: "There are very few actresses with 20 years' experience who have the cyberpunk ethic already baked in. I stand by my decision—she's the best actress of her generation." Addressing the controversy, producer Steven Paul referred to the film's setting as "an international world" with characters of numerous nationalities.
Sam Yoshiba, director of the international business division at Kodansha's Tokyo headquarters, which holds the rights to the Ghost in the Shell series, said: "Looking at her career so far, I think Scarlett Johansson is well cast. She has the cyberpunk feel. And we never imagined it would be a Japanese actress in the first place... this is a chance for a Japanese property to be seen around the world." Johansson said of the criticism: "I certainly would never presume to play another race of a person. Diversity is important in Hollywood, and I would never want to feel like I was playing a character that was offensive. Also, having a franchise with a female protagonist driving it is such a rare opportunity. Certainly, I feel the enormous pressure of that—the weight of such a big property on my shoulders."
The film attracted further criticism for its ending, which reveals that Johansson's character was originally a Japanese girl, Motoko Kusanagi. The Media Action Network for Asian Americans accused Johansson of lying when she said she would never play the role of a person of a different race than her own. Japanese-American actress Ai Yoshihara, speaking to The Hollywood Reporter, said she felt the twist was "white people trying to justify the casting." Another Japanese-American actress, Atsuko Okatsuka, concluded: "Hanka Robotics [the corporation in the film] is making a being that's the best of human and the best of robotics. For some reason, the best stuff they make happens to be white."
- Adam Chitwood (November 14, 2016). "Clint Mansell to Score ‘Ghost in the Shell’". Collider.com. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- "Film releases". Variety Insight. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
- "Traditional Māori welcome for Ghost in the Shell". Scoop. February 25, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- "Ghost in the Shell (2017)". AMC Theatres. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- "Ghost in the Shell (2017)". AllMovie. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- "Box Office: Can ‘Boss Baby,’ ‘Ghost in the Shell’ Top ‘Beauty and the Beast’?". Variety. March 29, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- "The Ghost in the Shell (2017)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- "5 reasons why you need to experience Ghost in the Shell in mind-blowing 4DX". Cineworld.co.uk. 2017-03-17. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
- Anthony D'Alessandro (2017-04-05). "‘Ghost In The Shell’: Scarlett Johansson Movie Flop Will Lose $60 Million". Deadline. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
- Gavin J. Blair (2017-04-10). "Why Japan Won't Save 'Ghost in the Shell' From Being a Box-Office Flop". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
- Perez, Rodrigo (April 14, 2016). "First Look: Scarlett Johansson In Anime Adaptation ‘Ghost In The Shell’". Indie Wire. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Truffaut-Wong, Olivia (March 31, 2017). "The 'Ghost In The Shell' Twist Addresses Whitewashing Claims In A Disturbing Way". Bustle.com. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
- "Paramount Pictures and Dreamworks Pictures’ "Ghost in the Shell" Is in Production in New Zealand" (Press release). Paramount Pictures. April 15, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2017 – via Facebook.
- "Ghost in the Shell Photo Released as Production Begins". Comingsoon.net. April 14, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Frank, Guan (March 17, 2017). "Listen to the New Tricky Song From Ghost in the Shell". Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Hadfield, James (2017-04-12). "Hollywood's 'Ghost in the Shell' remake misses the mark". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
- Siegel, Tatiana; Fleming, Michael (April 14, 2008). "DreamWorks to make 'Ghost' in 3-D". Variety. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Siegel, Tatiana (October 22, 2009). "Kalogridis to adapt 'Ghost in the Shell'". Variety. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Bishop, Bryan (January 25, 2014). "Live-action 'Ghost in the Shell' movie signs the director of 'Snow White and the Huntsman'". The Verge. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- McKittrick, Christopher (September 30, 2016). "Queen of Katwe: Expanding What a Disney Film Can Be". Creative Screenwriting. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Siegel, Tatiana (October 23, 2015). "'Straight Outta Compton' Writer to Tackle Scarlett Johansson Thriller 'Ghost in the Shell'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
- Fleming Jr, Mike (September 3, 2014). "‘Wolf Of Wall Street’s Margot Robbie Eyes ‘Ghost In The Shell’". Deadline.com. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Gallagher, Brian (October 16, 2014). "'Ghost in the Shell' Movie Wants Scarlett Johansson for the Lead". MovieWeb. Retrieved October 17, 2014.
- McNary, Dave (May 8, 2015). "Paramount Co-Financing Scarlett Johansson’s ‘Ghost in the Shell’". Variety. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Kroll, Justin (November 10, 2015). "Pilou Asbæk to Co-Star With Scarlett Johansson in ‘Ghost in the Shell’ (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Sneider, Jeff (November 10, 2015). "Scarlett Johansson to Reteam With ‘Lucy’ Co-Star for ‘Ghost in the Shell’". Variety. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
- Jaafar, Ali (November 19, 2015). "Sam Riley In Talks For ‘Ghost In The Shell’ Opposite Scarlett Johansson". Deadline.com. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- Kroll, Justin (February 4, 2016). "Michael Pitt to Play Villain in Scarlett Johansson’s ‘Ghost in the Shell’". Variety. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Snider, Jeff (March 2, 2016). "Scarlett Johansson’s ‘Ghost in the Shell’ Casts Its First Japanese Actor". TheWrap. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- Friedlander, Monique (February 2, 2016). "Fitness fan! Scarlett Johansson cuts a low-key figure on training session in New Zealand as she takes a break from filming Ghost In The Shell". Daily Mail. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- Kit, Borys; Galuppo, Mia (May 25, 2016). "'Wolverine' Actress Rila Fukushima Joins Scarlett Johansson in 'Ghost in the Shell' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Tsui, Stephanie (June 2, 2016). ""Ghost in the Shell" Will Film in Hong Kong—and There's Still No Asian Lead". HK Magazine. South China Morning Post. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- McNary, Dave (January 13, 2015). "Disney Sets Several 2016 Release Dates". Variety. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Pedersen, Erik (January 13, 2015). "Disney Dates 'Ghost In The Shell', Moves Jungle Book Back 6 Months". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Masters, Kim (September 2, 2015). "Steven Spielberg's DreamWorks to Split From Disney, in Talks With Universal (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 29, 2015). "Disney Moves ‘Ghost In The Shell’ Up Two Weeks". Deadline.com. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- McNary, Dave (September 2, 2015). "Steven Spielberg’s DreamWorks to Leave Disney, Possibly for Universal". Variety. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- Stedman, Alex (January 25, 2016). "'Ghost in the Shell' Moves to Paramount From Disney". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
- Lang, Brent (December 16, 2015). "Steven Spielberg, Jeff Skoll Bring Amblin Partners to Universal". Variety. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- Fuster, Jeremy (March 27, 2017). "'Boss Baby,' 'Ghost in the Shell' to Battle 'Beauty and the Beast' This Weekend". TheWrap. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Anthony D'Alessandro. "Boss Baby’ Bullies ‘Beast’ With $50M+ Opening; ‘Ghost’ Shell-Shocked With Low $18.6M". Deadline.com. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- "‘Boss Baby’ Crawls Ahead Of ‘Beauty’ With $26M+; ‘Smurfs’ Lost In 3rd With $14M". Deadline.com. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Zulekha Nathoo (April 2, 2017). "Casting controversy, reviews blamed for Ghost in the Shell failure at box office - Entertainment - CBC News". CBC News. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- Lammers, Timothy (April 8, 2017). "Ghost in the Shell: Japanese Response to Remake is More Positive". Screen Rant. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- Schilling, Mark (April 10, 2017). "‘Ghost in the Shell’ Opens Behind ‘Sing’". Variety. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- Frank, Allegra (April 10, 2017). "Ghost in the Shell Beloved in Japan, Despite Box Office Blowout in the West: People Don’t Seem to Mind ScarJo as Much in the East". Polygon. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- Blair, Gavin J. (April 8, 2017). "Japanese Fans React to ‘Ghost in the Shell’". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- Edwards, Rusell (April 11, 2017). "Shell Shock: Scarlett Vehicle Top in China But for How Long? Ghost in the Shell Dethrones Kong: Skull Island in Mainland China; Sing Still Dominant in Japan". Asian Film. The Asia Times. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- Papish, Jonathan (2017-04-10). "China Box Office: Meek 'Ghost' Stays In Shell". China Film Insider. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
- "Ghost in the Shell (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- "Ghost in the Shell Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- "Ghost in the Shell". CinemaScore on Twitter. March 31, 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- Chang, Justin (March 30, 2017). "The ravishing sci-fi noir 'Ghost in the Shell' is fascinating, and not without its glitches". LA Times. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Phillips, Michael (March 30, 2017). "'Ghost in the Shell' review: Scarlett Johansson gives life to controversial adaptation". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Richard Roeper (March 31, 2017). "In 'Ghost in the Shell,' dazzling visuals support a drab plot". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Narcisse, Evan (March 30, 2017). "Ghost in the Shell Delivers a Beautiful but Ultimately Empty Adaptation of an Anime Classic". Io9.gizmodo.com. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- D'Anastasio, Cecilia (March 31, 2017). "Ghost In The Shell Really Bummed Us Out". Kotaku. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Truitt, Brian (March 30, 2017). "Review: 'Ghost in the Shell' revamp is in need of a better upgrade". Usatoday.com. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Manohla Darqis (March 30, 2017). "Review: In ‘Ghost in the Shell,’ a Cyborg With Soul". The New York Times. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Barber, Nicholas. "How good is the new Ghost in the Shell?". Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Williams, Jennifer (April 4, 2017). "The original Ghost in the Shell is iconic anime, and a rich philosophical text". Vox. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Emily Yoshida (March 30, 2017). "'Ghost in the Shell' Movie Review: A Shoddy, Soulless Remake". Vulture. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- ""Ghost in the Shell": Was vom Menschen übrig blieb - WELT". DIE WELT. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Hadfield, James (2017-04-12). "Hollywood's 'Ghost in the Shell' remake misses the mark". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
- "Ghost in the Shell (2017)". Yahoo Japan Movies (in Japanese). Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- "Ghost in the Shell (2017)". DVD Release Dates. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- "GHOST IN THE SHELL (2017)". On DVD Releases. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- "Ghost In The Shell Blu-ray, DVD Release Date Announced". Comicbook.com. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
- Brown, Tracey (January 10, 2015). "‘Ghost in the Shell’: Scarlett Johansson casting called ‘whitewashing’". Hero Complex. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- Child, Ben (January 16, 2015). "DreamWorks accused of 'whitewashing' Ghost in the Shell by casting Scarlett Johansson". The Guardian. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- "Is Scarlett Johansson casting Hollywood 'whitewashing'?". BBC News. April 19, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Fuster, Jeremy (April 14, 2016). "‘Ghost In The Shell’ Fans Not Happy About ‘Whitewashed’ American Remake". TheWrap. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- Shamdasani, Pavan (January 28, 2017). "Whitewashing the Great Wall: A short history of cinematic whitewashing". Asia Times. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Sampson, Mike (April 14, 2016). "Exclusive: ‘Ghost in the Shell’ Producers Reportedly Tested Visual Effects That Would Make White Actors Appear Asian". ScreenCrush. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- Flint, Hanna (April 17, 2016). "Max Landis says ScarJo's Ghost In The Shell casting wasn't whitewashing". Metro. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Patch, Nick (April 18, 2016). "Ghost in the Shell just one example of all-white-everything Asian adaptations". Toronto Star. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Child, Ben (April 18, 2016). "Max Landis: there are ‘no A-list female Asian celebrities’ who could have taken Scarlett Johansson’s Ghost in a Shell role". The Guardian. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
- Chow, Keith (April 22, 2016). "Why Won’t Hollywood Cast Asian Actors?". The New York Times. Retrieved May 28, 2016.
- Bernardin, Marc (April 18, 2016). "Hollywood's glaring problem: White actors playing Asian characters". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- Charity, Justin (March 30, 2017). "Lost in Translation". The Ringer. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Blair, Gavin J. (April 19, 2016). "Scarlett Johansson in 'Ghost in the Shell': Japanese Industry, Fans Surprised by 'Whitewashing' Outrage". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
Some Japanese commentators on Twitter suggested that not too much attention should be paid to the physical appearance of the actress, because the dominant themes in Ghost in the Shell are the nature of identity and cyborgs used to host cyber-brains. 'There's been a lot of criticism from foreign fans about the casting of Scarlett Johansson as Motoko Kusanagi in the movie adaptation of Ghost in the Shell,' wrote @janyojanyo. 'It's about artificial bodies, so you may as well think of it as her using a white cyborg...'.
- Sun, Rebecca (March 21, 2017). "'Ghost in the Shell': 4 Japanese Actresses Dissect the Movie and Its Whitewashing Twist". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
The movie opened Friday, and The Hollywood Reporter invited four actresses of Japanese descent to watch Ghost in the Shell on opening weekend and participate in a candid discussion about the film, its whitewashing charges and working conditions for actresses of color in Hollywood.
- Sheridan, Wade (November 11, 2016). "'Ghost in the Shell' featurette: Original director Mamoru Oshii praises Scarlett Johansson". UPI.com. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- Osborn, Alex (March 21, 2017). "Original Ghost in the Shell Director Mamoru Oshii Has No Problem with Live-Action Remake". IGN. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- Blair, Gavin J. (November 13, 2016). "'Ghost in the Shell': Watch the First Trailer". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Cheng, Susan (July 1, 2016). "'Ghost in the Shell' Producer Explains Why The Film's Approach Is 'the Right Approach'". BuzzFeed. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
- Romano, Nick (July 1, 2016). "'Ghost in the Shell' producer comments on Scarlett Johansson’s casting". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Chavez, Danette (February 9, 2017). "Scarlett Johansson responds to Ghost In The Shell whitewashing controversy". The A.V. Club. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Opie, David (March 31, 2017). "Ghost In The Shell: Is Scarlett Johansson's Role Still Whitewashing?". Movie Pilot. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Ge, Linda (March 31, 2017). "Scarlett Johansson Is 'Lying' About 'Ghost in the Shell' Whitewashing, Group Says". Thewrap.com. Retrieved April 1, 2017.