German Australians (German: Deutsch-Australier) are Australian citizens of ethnic German ancestry. The German community constitute one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, numbering 898,700 or 4.5 percent of respondents in the 2011 Census. It is the fifth most identified European ancestry in Australia behind English, Irish, Scottish and Italian.
898,674 (by ancestry, 2011)
108,003 (by birth, 2011)
4.5% of total Australian population.
|Regions with significant populations|
|South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland|
|Australian English, German, Barossa German|
|Predominantly Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism.|
The 2011 Census counted 108,000 Australian residents who were born in Germany. However, 898,700 persons identified themselves as having German ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry. This number does not include people of German ancestry who selected their ancestry as simply "Australian". The 2001 census recorded 103,010 German-born in Australia, although this excludes persons of German ethnicity and culture born elsewhere, such as the Netherlands (1,030), Hungary (660) and Romania (440).
According to the 2001 Census, the German-born population are more likely than Australians as a whole to live in South Australia (11.9 per cent to 7.6 per cent) and Victoria (27.0 per cent to 24.7 per cent). They are also more likely to live in rural and regional areas. It is probable their German Australian children share this settlement pattern.
According to census data released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004, German Australians are, by religion, 21.7 per cent Catholic, 16.5 per cent Anglican, 32.8 per cent Other Christian, 4.2 Other Religions and 24.8 No Religion.
In 2001, the German language was spoken at home by 76,400 persons in Australia. German is the eighth most widely spoken language in the country after English, Chinese, Italian, Greek, Arabic, Vietnamese, Spanish, and Tagalog.
|No. of arrivals
July 1949 – June 2000
|July 1940 – June 1959[a]||July 1959 – June 1970[b]|
|Total immigrant arrivals||5,640,638||1,253,083||1,445,356|
|Percentage of immigrants from Germany||4.5%||13.0%||3.5%|
Germans have been in Australia since the commencement of European settlement in 1788. At least seventy-three Germans arrived in Australia as convicts.
Germans formed the largest non-English-speaking group in Australia up to the 20th century.
Forty-Eighters is a term for those who participated in or supported the European Revolutions of 1848. Many emigrated as a result of those revolutions. In particular, following the ultimate failure of the "March Revolution" in Germany, a substantial number of Germans immigrated to Australia. See Forty-Eighters in Australia.
Many Germans had immigrated to Australia to flee the rise of militarism and martial chauvinism in the land of their birth. Indeed, "After the Unification of Germany under Prussia in 1870/1871, when Universal Conscription was brought in across all the States of Deutschland, the pattern of emigration from Germany to Australia changed. Instead of the earlier pattern of the majority of settlers arriving in families, young single men started to arrive, young men who were at odds with the increasing militarisation of their Fatherland, and also often at odds with the Rampant Chauvinisation of German Social Life."
By 1900, Germans were the fourth-largest European ethnic group on the continent, behind the English, Irish and Scots.
By 1914, the number of German-Australians (including the descendants of German-born migrants of the second and third generation who had become Australians by birth) was estimated at approximately 100,000.
Throughout both World Wars Germans were considered an "enemy within" and a number were interned or deported – or both. The persecution of German Australians also included the closure of German schools, the banning of the German language in government schools, and the renaming of many German place names. To avoid persecution and/or to demonstrate that they commit themselves to their new home, many German Australians changed their names into Anglicised or Francophone variants. During WWII, Australia was also place of incarceration of 2,542 "enemy aliens" deported from Britain, composed of many of the Austrian and German nationals who were expelled in a blanket deportation, and numerous Italian citizens. Notorious for the inhumane treatment present during the voyage, the 2,053 anti-Nazis, 451 prisoners of war, and approximately 55 Nazi sympathisers and others departed from Liverpool via HMT Dunera shortly after the Fall of France in 1940.
After the Second World War, Australia received a large influx of ethnic German displaced persons who were a significant proportion of Australia's post war immigrants. A number of German scientists were recruited soon after the War through the ESTEA scheme some of them coming by migrant ships such as the Partizanka. In the 1950s and 1960s, German immigration continued under assisted migration programs promoted by the Australian Government. By July 2000, Germany was the fifth most common birthplace for settler arrivals in Australia after United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy and New Zealand. By 1991, there were 112,000 German-born persons in Australia.
Australia has long been a popular destination for German tourists and students.
There are the following German international schools in Australia:
German Australian cultureEdit
The Australian wine industry was the creation of German settlers in the nineteenth century.
Historically, German newspapers were setup by early settlers, with many being forced to close or merge due to labour shortages caused by the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s-1860s. A number of the earliest South Australian newspapers were printed primarily in German, and these included:
- Die Deutsche Post für die Australischen Colonien (1848-1850) - Adelaide: Australia's first non-English newspaper
- Suedaustralische Zeitung (1850–1851) - Adelaide
- Deutsche Zeitung für Süd-Australien (1851) - Tanunda
- Adelaider Deutsche Zeitung (1851–1862) - Adelaide: this was also the first German language newspaper to publish an entertainment supplement - Blatter fur Ernst und scherz.
- Süd Australische Zeitung (1860–1874) - Tanunda/Adelaide
- Australisches Unterhaltungsblatt (1862-1916) - Tanunda: a supplement to the Süd Australische Zeitung and Australische Zeitung
- Tanunda Deutsche Zeitung (1863-1869) - Tanunda; later renamed Australische Deutsche Zeitung
- Australische Deutsche Zeitung (1870-1874) - Tanunda/Adelaide: a Melbourne edition of the newspaper was also printed 1870-1872.
- Neue Deutsche Zeitung (1875-1876) - Adelaide: opposition newspaper to Australische Zeitung
- Australische Zeitung (1875–1916) - Tanunda/Adelaide: formed by the merger of Süd Australische Zeitung, and Australische Deutsche Zeitung; closed due to WWI
- Australische Zeitung (1927-1929) - Tanunda: attempted revival
- Adelaider Post (1960-1962) - Adelaide: South Australian edition of the Sydney-based Die Woche in Australien.
- Neue Australische Post (1984-1993), Salisbury
Notable Australians of German ancestryEdit
|Name||Born||Description||Connection to Australia||Connection to Germany|
|Eric Abetz||1958||Australian Senator||Immigrated to Australia from Germany in 1961||Born in Germany|
|Eric Bana||1968||Australian Actor||Born in Australia||German mother|
|Gerard Brennan||1928||Judge and retired Chief Justice of Australia (1995–1998)||Born in Australia||German maternal ancestry|
|Bettina Arndt||1949||Sexologist and critic of feminism||Born in the United Kingdom||German father|
|Heinz Arndt||1915||Economist||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Shaun Berrigan||1978||Rugby League player||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Henry Bolte||1908||Politician (Premier of Victoria)||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Dieter Brummer||1976||Soap opera actor||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Ernest Burgmann||1885||Anglican bishop and social justice activist||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Meredith Burgmann||1947||Politician (Australian Labor Party)||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Wolfgang Degenhardt||1924||Artist||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany-|
|Carl Ditterich||1945||Australian rules footballer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Andrew Ettingshausen||1965||Rugby League player||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Brad Fittler||1972||Rugby League player||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Harry Frei||1951||Cricketer||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Gotthard Fritzsche||1797||Lutheran pastor||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Ken Grenda||Businessman and philanthropist||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Michael Grenda||1964||Olympic cyclist||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Andre Haermeyer||1956||Politician (Australian Labor Party)||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Heinrich Haussler||1984||Cyclist||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|George Heinz||1891||Australian rules footballer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Hans Heysen||1877||Landscape artist||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Ben Hilfenhaus||1983||Cricketer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Bert Hinkler||1892||Aviator||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Hermann Homburg||1874||Politician||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|August Kavel||1798||Lutheran pastor||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Kristina Keneally||1968||Politician (Premier of New South Wales)||Immigrated to Australian from the United States||German ancestry|
|David Klemmer||1993||Rugby league player||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|David Koch||1956||Television presenter||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Gerard Krefft||1830||Zoologist and palaeontologist||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Sonia Kruger||1965||Television presenter, media personality and dancer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Dichen Lachman||1982||Actress and producer||Raised in Adelaide, Australia||Born in Kathmandu, Nepal, to a German-Australian father|
|Ludwig Leichhardt||1813||Explorer||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Darren Lehmann||1970||Cricketer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Carl Linger||1810||Composer||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Stewart Loewe||1968||Australian rules footballer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Baz Luhrmann||1962||Film director, screenwriter, producer, and actor||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Bertha McNamara||1853||Socialist and feminist||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|John Monash||1865||Australian General||Born in Australia||German (Jewish) Parents|
|Ferdinand von Mueller||1825||Botanist, geologist and physician||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|David Neitz||1975||Australian rules footballer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Nadine Neumann||1975||Olympic swimmer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Hubert Opperman||1904||Cyclist and politician||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Arthur Phillip||1738||First Governor of New South Wales||Served in NSW 1788–1792||German father|
|Ingo Rademacher||1971||Soap opera actor||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Jack Riewoldt||1988||Australian rules footballer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Nick Riewoldt||1982||Australian rules footballer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Hermann Sasse||1895||Lutheran theologian||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Chris Schacht||1946||Politician (Australian Labor Party) and mining company director||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Manfred Schäfer||1943||Football (soccer) player||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Jessicah Schipper||1986||Olympic swimmer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Melanie Schlanger||1986||Olympic swimmer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Mark Schwarzer||1972||Football (soccer) player||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Emily Seebohm||1992||Olympic swimmer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Gert Sellheim||1901||Artist||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Lithuania to ethnically-German parents|
|Wolfgang Sievers||1913||Photographer||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Christian Sprenger||1985||Olympic swimmer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Carl Strehlow||1871||Lutheran missionary||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Ted Strehlow||1908||Anthropologist||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Matthias Ungemach||1968||Olympic rower||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Shane Warne||1969||Cricketer||Born in Australia||German mother|
|Chris Watson||1867||Prime Minister of Australia||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Chile to ethnically-German father|
|Shane Webcke||1974||Rugby League player||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
|Judith Zeidler||1968||Olympic rower||Immigrated to Australia||Born in Germany|
|Markus Zusak||1975||Writer||Born in Australia||German ancestry|
- Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs: Settler arrivals by birthplace data not available prior to 1959. For the period July 1949 to June 1959, Permanent and Long Term Arrivals by Country of Last Residence have been included as a proxy for this data. When interpreting this data for some countries, in the period immediately after World War II, there were large numbers of displaced persons whose country of last residence was not necessarily the same as their birthplace.
- Note this period covers 11 years rather than a decade.
- "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". 2011 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2013. Total count of persons: 19,855,288.
- "Welcome to the Department of Home Affairs". www.immi.gov.au. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "Estimates of Australian Citizens Living Overseas as at December 2001" (PDF). Southern Cross Group (DFAT data). 14 February 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
- "Immigration: Federation to Century's End 1901–2000" (pdf, 64 pages). Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. October 2001. p. 25. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- Donohoe, J.H. (1988) The Forgotten Australians: Non-Anglo or Celtic Convicts and Exiles.
- G. Leitner, Australia's Many Voices: Australian English – The National Language, 2004, p. 181
- Knoll, Wayne D. (4 May 2011). "GERMAN-AUSTRALIAN ALIENS OF MILITARISM: The Anti-War German-Australian Story". Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Harmstorf & Cigler 1985, p. [page needed].
- Kay Saunders, Roger Daniels, Alien Justice: Wartime Internment in Australia and North America, p. 4
- "Wartime internment". naa.gov.au. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- Homeyer, Uta v. (1994). "The Employment of Scientific and Technical Enemy Aliens (Estea) Scheme in Australia: A Reparation for World War Ii?". Prometheus. 12: 77–93. doi:10.1080/08109029408629379.
- Muenstermann, Ingrid (30 May 2015). Some Personal Stories of German Immigration to Australia since 1945. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781503503137.[self-published source]
- "Welcome to the Australian Embassy, Berlin". www.germany.embassy.gov.au. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- Speech By The Prime Minister, The Hon PJ Keating, Mp Luncheon The His Excellency Dr Von Weizsaecrer, President Of The Federal Republic Of Germany Parliament House, Canberra, 6 September 1993 Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Goethe-Institut Australien". www.goethe.de. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Laube, Anthony. "LibGuides: SA Newspapers: C-E". guides.slsa.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- Laube, Anthony. "LibGuides: SA Newspapers: A-B". guides.slsa.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- Lehmann, Hartmut. "South Australian German Lutherans in the second half of the nineteenth century: A case of rejected assimilation?." Journal of Intercultural Studies 2.2 (1981): 24–42. online
- Lehmann, Hartmut. "Conflicting kinds of loyalty: The political outlook of the australischer christenbote, Melbourne, 1867–1910." Journal of Intercultural Studies 6.2 (1985): 5–21.
- Petersson, Irmtraud. German Images in Australian Literature from the 1940s to the 1980s (P. Lang, 1990)
- Seitz, Anne, and Lois Foster. "Dilemmas of immigration—Australian expectations, migrant responses: Germans in Melbourne." Journal of Sociology 21.3 (1985): 414–430. online
- Tolley, Julie Holbrook. "A social and cultural investigation of women in the wine industry of South Australia" (thesis, 2004) online
- Zivil Lager (Internment Camp): World War One Prisoners Of War At Trial Bay (online exhibition)
- The Enemy At Home: German Internees in World War One Australia (online exhibition)
- Interview with Sophie Schütt about South Australian Documentary (in German)
- South Australia on German TV – article about Sophie Schütt travel documentary
- German Australian Aliens of Militarism
- German missionaries in Australia
- Jurgen Tampke – University of New South Wales (2008). "Germans". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 4 October 2015. (Germans in Sydney)