George Howard Monks

George Howard Monks (1853–1933) was an American surgeon who also invented board games.

George Howard Monks
George Howard Monks by William Notman, c1875.jpg
Monks, c. 1875
Born(1853-03-28)28 March 1853
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Died6 January 1933(1933-01-06) (aged 79)

Monks was born in Boston, Massachusetts and graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1880. Subsequently, he followed a 4-year internship in European medical centers during which he invented in 1883 the game Halma (ancient Greek for “jump”) derived from the British game Hoppity together with the mathematician Thomas Hill. Halma and the derived Chinese checkers knew great commercial success in the following years. He also invented a game called Basilinda. Monks began the practice of surgery in Boston in 1884 as he was appointed district physician of the Boston Dispensary and, later, visiting surgeon to the Carney Hospital. In 1890, he entered the Boston City Hospital and was promoted through various grades to surgeon-in-chief in 1910. From 1886 to 1926 Monks was connected with the Harvard Medical School (Department of Surgical Anatomy) but more importantly with Harvard Dental School where he was appointed Professor of Oral Surgery.


  • Lund, F.B. (1933). "Memoir: George Howard Monks, M.D., 1853-1933". Ann. Surg. 97 (6): 959–62. doi:10.1097/00000658-193306000-00017. PMC 1391902. PMID 17866997.
  • Lund, F. B. (1933). "Memoir: George Howard Monks, M.D., 1853-1933". Annals of Surgery. 97 (6): 959–962. doi:10.1097/00000658-193306000-00017. PMC 1391902. PMID 17866997.

External linksEdit

  Works by or about George Howard Monks at Wikisource