George Church (geneticist)

George McDonald Church (born 28 August 1954) is an American geneticist, molecular engineer, and chemist. He is the Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School, Professor of Health Sciences and Technology at Harvard and MIT, and a founding member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering.[2][3][7] As of March 2017, Church serves as a member of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists' Board of Sponsors.[8]

George Church
George Church.jpg
George Church in 2012
Born
George McDonald Church

(1954-08-28) 28 August 1954 (age 67)[1]
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma mater
Known forFather of synthetic biology
Spouse(s)Ting Wu
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsChemistry[3]
Institutions
ThesisGenetic Elements within Yeast Mitochondrial and Mouse Immunoglobulin Introns (1984)
Doctoral advisorWalter Gilbert[4]
Doctoral students
Other notable students
Websitearep.med.harvard.edu/gmc

Education and early lifeEdit

George McDonald Church was born on 28 August 1954 on MacDill Air Force Base near Tampa, Florida, and grew up in nearby Clearwater;[2][9][10][11] he attended high school at the preparatory boarding school Phillips Academy, in Andover, Massachusetts, from 1968 to 1972.[12] He then studied at Duke University, completing a bachelor's degree in zoology and chemistry in two years.[2]

In the fall of 1973, Church began research work at Duke University with assistant professor of biochemistry Sung-Hou Kim, work that continued a year later with Church in a graduate biochemistry program at Duke on an NSF fellowship.[10][13]

As Peter Miller reported for the National Geographic series, "The Innovators":

"As a graduate student at Duke… he used x-ray crystallography to study the three-dimensional structure of "transfer" RNA, which decodes DNA and carries instructions to other parts of the cell. It was groundbreaking research, but Church spent so much time in the lab—up to a hundred hours a week—that he neglected his other classes [in the fall of 1975]".[13]

As a result, Church was not compliant with Duke graduate academic policies, and was withdrawn from the degree program in January 1976. He was told that "[We] hope that whatever problems… contributed to your lack of success… at Duke will not keep you from a successful pursuit of a productive career."[13][14] The work gave rise to publications that include a Proceedings report with Church as lead author on an early model for molecular interactions between the minor groove of double-stranded DNA and β-ribbons of proteins.[15][16]

Church returned to graduate work at Harvard University in 1977 under Walter Gilbert,[17] and completed a PhD in biochemistry and molecular biology working on mobile genetic elements within introns of yeast mitochondrial and mouse immunoglobulin genes (1984).[4]

CareerEdit

After completing his doctoral work, Church spent six months of 1984 at Biogen, the industrial laboratory site where Prof. Gilbert had relocated a sizable part of his former Harvard group;[2] this was followed soon after by a Life Sciences Research Foundation postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco with Gail R. Martin,[18][19] a member of the National Academy of Sciences and joint-discoverer of a technique to extract mouse embryonic stem cells.[20][21]

Church joined the Harvard Medical School faculty as an assistant professor in 1986.[2] Church is now the Robert Winthrop Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School,[22] and a member of the Harvard-MIT health sciences and technology faculty. He was also a founding member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University.[2]

Church has also served as director of the Center on Bioenergy Technology at Harvard, funded by a multiyear award from the U.S. Department of Energy.[when?][citation needed] and of the Center of Excellence in Genomic Science (CEGS) at Harvard, funded by a P50-type award from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), a part of the National Institutes of Health.[23]

He co-founded Veritas Genetics and its European and Latin American subsidiary, Veritas Intercontinental, with the idea of bringing the benefits of genomic data to millions of people globally.

Church was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2012 for contributions to human genome sequencing technologies and DNA synthesis and assembly.

In 2021, Church joined as a co-founder of HLTH.network (formerly Shivom),[24] a healthcare blockchain startup which created the world’s first global omics data sharing & analytics marketplace. The HLTH.network aims to be the "world's first base layer protocol for global health data"[25]

ResearchEdit

Church is known for his professional contributions in the sequencing of genomes and interpreting such data, in synthetic biology and genome engineering, and in an emerging area of neuroscience that proposes to map brain activity and establish a "functional connectome." Among these, Church is known for pioneering the specialized fields of personal genomics and synthetic biology. He has co-founded commercial concerns spanning these areas, and others from green and natural products chemistry to infectious agent testing and fuel production, including Knome, LS9, and Joule Unlimited (respectively, human genomics, green chemistry, and solar fuel companies).

Genome sequencing and interpretation technologiesEdit

With Walter Gilbert, Church published the first direct genomic sequencing method in 1984.[26][27] Described in that publication were the cyclic application of fluids to a solid phase alternating with imaging, plus avoidance of bacterial cloning, strategies that are still used in current dominant Next-Generation Sequencing technologies. These technologies began to affect genome-scale sequencing in 2005.[28] Church also helped initiate the Human Genome Project in 1984.[29] He invented the broadly applied concepts of molecular multiplexing and barcode tags.[30] Technology transfer from his Harvard laboratory of automated sequencing and software to Genome Therapeutics Corp. resulted in the first bacterial genome sequence and first commercial genome (the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori) in 1994.[31] Church was also co-inventor of nanopore sequencing in 1995,[citation needed] which are now commercially available (e.g. Oxford Nanopore Technologies),[citation needed] but not in the form embodied in Church's contribution to the original patents.[32]

To aid in the interpretation and sharing of genomes, Church, in 2005, initiated the Personal Genome Project (PGP),[33] which provides the world's only open-access human genome and trait data sets.[34][35][36] Eight trios (mother, father, and child) from the Personal Genome Project are in the process of being chosen to act as the primary genome standards (Reference Materials) for the NIST+FDA genomeinabottle.org program.[37]

To further advance personal genomics and sharing of genomic data, in 2018 Church co-founded Nebula Genomics, a company that uses blockchain and privacy-preserving computing to make genomic data available to medical researchers, while maintaining privacy.[38][39][40][41] In February 2020, Nebula Genomics started offering personal genome sequencing for $299.[42]

Synthetic biology and genome engineeringEdit

He has co-developed "genome engineering" technologies since 1997 via either general homologous recombination (recA and lambda-red)[43] or via sequence-specific nucleases.[44] Since 2004, his team has developed use of DNA array (aka DNA chip) synthesizers for combinatorial libraries and assembling large genome segments.[45] He co-developed Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE) and optimized CRISPR/Cas9 discovered by Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier for engineering a variety of genomes ranging from yeast to human.[44] His laboratory's use of CRISPR in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) is the latest contender for precise gene therapy.[46]

His team is the first to tackle a genome-scale change in the genetic code.[47] This was done in a 4.7 million basepair genome of an industrially useful microbe (E. coli) with the goal of making a safer and more productive strain; this strain uses non-proteinogenic amino acids in proteins and is metabolically and genetically isolated from other species.

He has co-invented several uses for DNA, including detectors for dark matterWeakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs),[48] anti-cancer "nano-robots",[49] and strategies for digital data storage that are over a million times denser than conventional disk drives.[50] Together with polymerase, DNA can be used to sense and store variation in photons, nucleotides, or ions.[51]

The BRAIN initiativeEdit

He was part of a team of six[51] who, in a 2012 scientific commentary, proposed a Brain Activity Map, later named BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies).[52] They outlined specific experimental techniques that might be used to achieve what they termed a "functional connectome", as well as new technologies that will have to be developed in the course of the project,[51] including wireless, minimally invasive methods to detect and manipulate neuronal activity, either utilizing microelectronics or synthetic biology. In one such proposed method, enzymatically produced DNA would serve as a "ticker tape record" of neuronal activity.[51][53]

Woolly mammoth cloningEdit

In March 2015, Church and his genetics research team at Harvard successfully copied some woolly mammoth genes into the genome of an Asian elephant. Using the CRISPR DNA editing technique, his group spliced genetic segments from frozen mammoth specimens, including genes from the ears, subcutaneous fat, and hair attributes, into the DNA of skin cells from a modern elephant. This marked the first time that woolly mammoth genes had been functionally active since the species became extinct.[54] Their work has not been subject to peer review, however. Church stated that "Just making a DNA change isn't that meaningful. We want to read out the phenotypes." To do that, the team plans to perform further tests to get the hybrid cells into becoming specialized tissues, and from there attempting to turn the hybrid elephant/mammoth skin cells into hybrid embryos that can be grown in artificial wombs.

Technology transfer and translational impactEdit

Church has co-founded 22[55] companies, including Veritas Genetics (human genomics, 2014, with Mirza Cifric, Preston Estep, Yining Zhao, Joe Thakuria), Warp Drive Bio (natural products, 2011, with Greg Verdine and James Wells), Alacris (cancer systems therapeutics, 2010, with Hans Lehrach, Bernhard Herrmann, and Shahid Imran), Knome (human genomics, 2007, with Jorge Conde and Sundar Subramaniam),[56] Pathogenica (microbe and viral NGS diagnostics, 2009, with Yemi Adesokan),[57] AbVitro (immunomes, 2010, with Francois Vigneault),[58] Gen9 Bio (synthetic biology, 2009, with Joseph Jacobson and Drew Endy), EnEvolv (Genome Engineering), Joule Unlimited (SolarFuels, 2007, with Noubar Afeyan and David Berry), and LS9 (green chemistry, 2005, with Chris Somerville, Jay Keasling, Vinod Khosla, Noubar Afeyan, and David Berry)[59][60][61]

He has participated in technology development, licensing patents and advising most of the Next-Generation Sequencing companies, including Complete Genomics, Life Technologies, Illumina, Danaher Corporation, Roche Diagnostics, Pacific Biosciences, Genia, and Nabsys.[61]

He was on the Scientific Advisory Board of Cambrian Genomics[62]

He is one of the co-founders of Genome Project-Write.

Support of open consentEdit

Church spearheaded the concept and implementation of open access sequencing hardware[63] and shareable human medical data.[36] He has noted the potential for re-identification of human research participants and the tendency for consent forms to be opaque – proposing an alternative "open consent" mechanism.[34][35] He has participated in the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues,[64] cautioning about the risk of synthetic DNA and proposing risk-reduction via licensing and surveillance.[65][66] His laboratory has a major bio-safety engineering focus.[47]

 
Church at TED 2010, picture by Steve Jurvetson.

Support of open educationEdit

He has been an early advocate of online, open education since 2002.[citation needed] He is advisor to the Personal Genetics Education Project[67] and has spent a day teaching at The Jemicy School.[68] He has championed citizen science, especially in the fields of synthetic biology and personal genomics.[35] Since 2008, his team has been hosting an annual Genomes, Environments and Traits (GET) Conference with free online videos.[69]

Rapid Deployment Vaccine CollaborativeEdit

Church is a member of the Rapid Deployment Vaccine Collaborative (RaDVaC), a group formed early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to create an easily produced, free and open-source vaccine for self-administration.[70]

ControversiesEdit

Church was partly funded from 2005 to 2007 by the nonprofit Jeffrey Epstein VI Foundation, a private foundation established by convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein. The affiliation was listed as for cutting edge science and education.[71] In his 2019 apology for "poor awareness" of Epstein's sex offender status, Church said he had "nerd tunnel vision" and articles on Epstein's crimes were unclear, placing responsibility on vetting donors on the development office.[72]

Church faced criticism for his response to a question from Der Spiegel where he speculated that it could be technically possible to make a Neanderthal by reconstructing its DNA and modifying living human cells accordingly.[73] Church pointed out that he was not working on such a project.[74][75]

Popular scienceEdit

In his science and popular efforts, Church has also promoted open access genome sequencing and shareable human medical data, as well as online, open education and citizen science.

Church authored the 2012 NewScientist "top science book," Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves with Ed Regis.[76][77] He has participated in news interviews and videos including at TED, TEDx,[78][79][80] and TEDMED venues, at PBS's Charlie Rose,[81] Faces of America, and NOVA, as well as at PopSci, EG, and The Colbert Report.[82][83] He is a regular contributor to Edge.org publications and videos[84] and is a member of the Xconomists, an ad hoc team of editorial advisors for the tech news and media company, Xconomy.[85]

Awards and honorsEdit

Church has received accolades including election to the National Academy of Sciences (in 2011),[2][86] and the National Academy of Engineering (in 2012).[87] He received the American Society for Microbiology Promega Biotechnology Research Award and the heptannual Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science of the Franklin Institute.[88] He authored the NewScientist "top science book," Regenesis (on synthetic biology) with Ed Regis. Church is a regular contributor to Edge.org and has appeared widely in the media, including TED venues, NOVA, Faces of America, Charlie Rose on PBS, The Colbert Report, and Xconomy.

Other honors include the Triennial International Steven Hoogendijk Award in 2010 and the Scientific American Top 50 twice (for "Designing artificial life" in 2005 and "The $1000 genome" in 2006).[89][90] Newsweek picked Church for their 2008 "Power of Ideas" recognition in the category of Medicine (for the Personal Genome Project).[91] In September 2010, Dr Church was honored for his work in genetics with the Mass High Tech All-Star Award.[92]

He is a member of the Research Advisory Board of SENS Research Foundation.[93]

Personal lifeEdit

Church is married to fellow Harvard Medical School faculty member in genetics Ting Wu.[94]

Church has been outspoken in his support of following a vegan lifestyle, for reasons concerned with health, and with environmental and moral issues. When asked about his dietary choice, Church replied, "I've been vegan off-and-on since 1974 when I was inspired by participating in an MIT nutritional study, and quite strictly since 2004." He goes on to elaborate 4 reasons:

"medical (cholesterol in fish & dairy), energy conservation (up to 20-fold impact), cruelty ("organic" animals are deprived of medicines that humans use), and risks of spreading pathogens (not just the flu)… [noting that] veganism is an issue for which personal and global love of life, health and wealth align. It's a pity to lose parts of our humanity and planet just due to a lack of recipes."[95]

George identifies as a sentientist.[96] Sentientism is a naturalistic worldview that grants moral consideration to all sentient beings.

In the context of the Personal Genome Project, journalists at Forbes and Wired have noted Church's openness about his health issues, including dyslexia, narcolepsy, and high cholesterol (one of the motivations for his vegan diet).[97][98]

Church collaborated with transhumanist entrepreneur James Clement on the Supercentenarian Research Study, which aims to sequence the genomes of supercentenarians in hopes of discovering potential genetic factors behind their longevity.[99]

Further readingEdit

  • Center for Oral History. "George M. Church". Science History Institute.
  • Brock, David C. (3 March 2008). George M. Church, Transcript of Interviews Conducted by David C. Brock in New Orleans, Louisiana on 3 March 2008 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation.
  • Alex Salton, 2009, "Geneticist George Church '72 Sought Independence at PA," The Phillipian, 17 April 2009, see [15]. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  • David Ewing Duncan, 2010, "On a Mission to Sequence the Genomes of 100,000 People: The geneticist George Church advises or licenses technology to most companies involved in sequencing, The New York Times, 7 June 2010, see [16]. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  • Jeffrey M. Perkel, 2011, "Charting the Course: Three gene jockeys share their thoughts on past and future tools of the trade," in The Scientist (online), 1 October 2011. see [17]. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  • Heidi Legg, 2014, "Harvard Professor George Church and the future of genomics," at BetaBoston, a Boston Globe site (online), 25 December 2014, see [18]. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  • Peter Miller, 2015, "News, The Innovators Project: George Church, The Future Without Limits," National Geographic (online), see [19]. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  • Matthew Allen, 2015, "Artificial Natures (interview with George Church)," Harvard Design Magazine (online), see [20]. Retrieved 10 February 2016.

ReferencesEdit

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  6. ^ Cohen, Jon (7 October 2020). "CRISPR, the revolutionary genetic 'scissors,' honored by Chemistry Nobel". Science | AAAS. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  7. ^ George Church's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
  8. ^ "Board of Sponsors". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 30 March 2017.
  9. ^ Center for Oral History. "George M. Church". Science History Institute.
  10. ^ a b Brock, David C. (3 March 2008). George M. Church, Transcript of Interviews Conducted by David C. Brock in New Orleans, Louisiana on 3 March 2008 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation.
  11. ^ David Ewing Duncan, 2010, "On a Mission to Sequence the Genomes of 100,000 People: The geneticist George Church advises or licenses technology to most companies involved in sequencing, The New York Times, 7 June 2010, see [1]. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  12. ^ Alex Salton, 2009, "Geneticist George Church '72 Sought Independence at PA," The Phillipian, 17 April 2009, see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  13. ^ a b c Peter Miller, 2015, "News, The Innovators Project: George Church, The Future Without Limits," National Geographic (online), see [2]. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  14. ^ Duke University Graduate School, Office of the Dean, 1976, "Dear Mr. Church…", 16 January 1976, private letter from W.G. Katzenmeyer, Associate Dean, to George McDonald Church, in the archives of G.M. Church, see [3]. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  15. ^ G. M. Church, J. L. Sussman & S.-H. Kim, 1977, "Secondary structural complementarity between DNA and proteins," Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74:1458–1462, see [4]. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  16. ^ Commenting on the new Wayne F. Anderson, Brian Matthews, et al. structure of a Cro repressor-DNA complex, and on the new David B. McKay and Thomas Steitz structure of a CAP-cAMP complex; David Davies, 1981, "Two DNA-binding proteins," Nature 290:736f, see [5]. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
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  25. ^ "HLTH - The Global Healthcare Ecosystem". hlth.network. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
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  27. ^ Saluz HP, Jiricny J, Jost JP (1986). "Genomic sequencing reveals a positive correlation between the kinetics of strand-specific DNA demethylation of the overlapping estradiol/glucocorticoid-receptor binding sites and the rate of avian vitellogenin mRNA synthesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (19): 7167–71. Bibcode:1986PNAS...83.7167S. doi:10.1073/pnas.83.19.7167. PMC 386676. PMID 3463957. Direct genomic sequencing, first described by Church and Gilbert (15) and further developed in our laboratory (16), overcomes the disadvantages inherent to the use of restriction enzymes.
  28. ^ Shendure J, Porreca GJ, Reppas NB, Lin X, McCutcheon JP, Rosenbaum AM, Wang MD, Zhang K, Mitra RD, Church GM (2005). "Accurate Multiplex Polony Sequencing of an Evolved Bacterial Genome". Science. 309 (5741): 1728–32. Bibcode:2005Sci...309.1728S. doi:10.1126/science.1117389. PMID 16081699. S2CID 11405973.
  29. ^ Cook-Deegan RM (1989). "The Alta summit, December 1984". Genomics. 5 (3): 661–663. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(89)90042-6. PMID 2613249.
  30. ^ Church GM, Kieffer-Higgins S (1988). "Multiplex DNA sequencing". Science. 240 (4849): 185–188. Bibcode:1988Sci...240..185C. doi:10.1126/science.3353714. PMID 3353714.
  31. ^ "Capitalizing on the genome". Nature Genetics. 13 (1): 1–5. 1996. doi:10.1038/ng0596-1. PMID 8673083.
  32. ^ "Genia Technologies Collaborates with Professors Jingyue Ju at Columbia and George Church at Harvard to Develop a Nanopore-based Sequencing Platform". 3 October 2012. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)[full citation needed]
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  34. ^ a b Ian L. Marpuri (8 April 2013). "Researchers explore genomic data privacy and risk (NIH NHGRI)".
  35. ^ a b c Angrist M (November 2009). "Eyes wide open: the Personal Genome Project, citizen science and veracity in informed consent". Personalized Medicine. 6 (6): 691–699. doi:10.2217/pme.09.48. PMC 3275804. PMID 22328898.
  36. ^ a b "Personal Genome Project". Retrieved 25 May 2013.
  37. ^ "Okay, You've Sequenced My Genome: Are You Sure You Got it Right?". NGS Leaders.
  38. ^ Tindera, Michela (15 November 2018). "These 30 Under 30 Founders Want Your Genome". Forbes. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  39. ^ Moltne, Megan (16 November 2018). "THESE DNA STARTUPS WANT TO PUT ALL OF YOU ON THE BLOCKCHAIN". Wired. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  40. ^ "Nebula Geomics (Data Service)". icodrops.com. 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  41. ^ "Meet Our Team". nebula.org. 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  42. ^ "Nebula Genomics – 30x Whole-Genome Sequencing – DNA Testing". nebula.org. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  43. ^ Link AJ, Phillips D, Church GM (1997). "Methods for generating precise deletions and insertions in the genome of wild-type Escherichia coli: Application to open reading frame characterization". Journal of Bacteriology. 179 (20): 6228–6237. doi:10.1128/jb.179.20.6228-6237.1997. PMC 179534. PMID 9335267.
  44. ^ a b Mali P, Yang L, Esvelt KM, Aach J, Guell M, DiCarlo JE, Norville JE, Church GM (15 February 2013). "RNA-guided human genome engineering via Cas9". Science. 339 (6121): 823–6. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..823M. doi:10.1126/science.1232033. PMC 3712628. PMID 23287722.
  45. ^ Tian J, Gong H, Sheng N, Zhou X, Gulari E, Gao X, Church G (2004). "Accurate Multiplex Gene Synthesis from Programmable DNA Chips" (PDF). Nature. 432 (7020): 1050–4. Bibcode:2004Natur.432.1050T. doi:10.1038/nature03151. hdl:2027.42/62677. PMID 15616567. S2CID 4373350.
  46. ^ Matthew Herper (19 March 2013). "This Protein Could Change Biotech Forever". Forbes.
  47. ^ a b Isaacs FJ, Carr PA, Wang HH, Lajoie MJ, Sterling B, Kraal L, Tolonen AC, Gianoulis TA, Goodman DB, Reppas NB, Emig CJ, Bang D, Hwang SJ, Jewett MC, Jacobson JM, Church GM (2011). "Precise Manipulation of Chromosomes in vivo Enables Genome-wide Codon Replacement". Science. 333 (6040): 348–53. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..348I. doi:10.1126/science.1205822. PMC 5472332. PMID 21764749.
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  49. ^ Belle Dumé (17 February 2012). "DNA nanorobot delivers drugs". Physics World.
  50. ^ Robert Lee Hotz (16 August 2012). "Future of Data: Encoded in DNA". The Wall Street Journal.
  51. ^ a b c d Alivisatos AP, Chun M, Church GM, Greenspan RJ, Roukes ML, Yuste R (June 2012). "The Brain Activity Map Project and the Challenge of Functional Connectomics". Neuron. 74 (6): 970–974. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.006. PMC 3597383. PMID 22726828.
  52. ^ John Markoff (17 February 2013). "Obama Seeking to Boost Study of Human Brain". The New York Times.
  53. ^ Zamft BM, Marblestone AH, Kording K, Schmidt D, Martin-Alarcon D, Tyo K, Boyden ES, Church G (August 2012). "Measuring Cation Dependent DNA Polymerase Fidelity Landscapes by Deep Sequencing". PLoS ONE. 7 (8): e43876. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...743876Z. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043876. PMC 3425509. PMID 22928047.
  54. ^ Sarah Fecht (24 March 2014), Woolly Mammoth DNA Successfully Spliced into Elephant Cells, Popular Science
  55. ^ "Ars on your lunch break: the ins and outs of genomics, 30 minutes at a time". Ars Technica. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  56. ^ Dickinson, Boonsri (10 June 2010). "Geneticist George Church: Sequencing human genome 'high priority' for China". Smart Planet. Archived from the original on 14 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  57. ^ Julia Karow (6 July 2010). "Pathogenica Bets on Next-Gen Sequencing for Fast, Multiplexed Pathogen Detection". GenomeWeb. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  58. ^ Luke Timmerman (11 January 2016). "Juno Acquires Harvard Spinout, AbVitro, For $125M To Discover More Cancer Immunotherapies". Forbes. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  59. ^ Duncan, David (7 June 2010). "Scientist at Work: George M. Church – On a Mission to Sequence the Genomes of 100,000 People". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  60. ^ "Biofuel startup raises $5 million". San Francisco Business Times. 12 March 2007.
  61. ^ a b "Tech Transfer, Advisory Roles, and Funding Sources".
  62. ^ Kosuri, Sriram; Church, George M. (2014). "Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis: technologies and applications". Nature Methods. 11 (5): 499–507. doi:10.1038/nmeth.2918. PMC 7098426. PMID 24781323.
  63. ^ "Open, Affordable Sequencing". Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
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  67. ^ "Personal Genetics Education Project". Retrieved 25 May 2013.
  68. ^ "Jemicy School for Dyslexia, David Malin Lecture". 11 November 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013.
  69. ^ "Genomes, Environments and Traits (GET) Conference". Retrieved 25 May 2013.
  70. ^ "Some scientists are taking a DIY coronavirus vaccine, and nobody knows if it's legal or if it works". Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  71. ^ Church, George. "Tech transfer – Church Lab". arep.med.harvard.edu/gmc/. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  72. ^ BEGLEY, SHARON. "Citing 'nerd tunnel vision,' biologist George Church apologizes for contacts with Jeffrey Epstein". STAT. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  73. ^ "How DNA will be construction material of the future". Der Spiegel. 18 January 2013.
  74. ^ Gary J. Remal (22 January 2013). "Harvard professor blasts Neanderthal clone baby rumor on Web". Boston Herald.
  75. ^ "Spiegel responds to brouhaha over neanderthal clone". Der Spiegel. 23 January 2013.
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