George Albert Smith
|George Albert Smith|
|8th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints|
|May 21, 1945– April 4, 1951|
|Predecessor||Heber J. Grant|
|Successor||David O. McKay|
|President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles|
|June 21, 1943– May 21, 1945|
|Successor||George F. Richards|
|End reason||Became President of the Church|
|Quorum of the Twelve Apostles|
|October 8, 1903– May 21, 1945|
|Called by||Joseph F. Smith|
|End reason||Became President of the Church|
|LDS Church Apostle|
|October 8, 1903– April 4, 1951|
|Called by||Joseph F. Smith|
|Reason||Death of Brigham Young Jr.|
at end of term
|Marion G. Romney ordained|
|Born||April 4, 1870|
Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, United States
|Died||April 4, 1951 (aged 81)|
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
|Resting place||Salt Lake City Cemetery|
|Spouse(s)||Lucy Emily Woodruff|
|Parents||John Henry Smith|
Born in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, Smith was one of nineteen children of Mormon apostle John Henry Smith. His mother, Sarah Farr, was the first of John Henry Smith's two wives (who he had simultaneously for many years). His grandfather, for whom he was named, was also an LDS Church apostle as well as a cousin of church founder Joseph Smith. John Henry Smith and George Albert Smith are the only father and son pair to have been members of the Quorum of the Twelve at the same time, having served in the Quorum together between 1903 and 1910.
In his youth, Smith worked at the Zions Cooperative Mercantile Institution (ZCMI) factory and traveled throughout Utah as a salesman. Smith attended high school at Brigham Young Academy, graduating in 1884. He then studied law at University of Deseret (later the University of Utah) for a year. His work as a salesman for ZCMI involved a long on a long trip, starting at Panaca, Nevada and moving north-eastward, with Smith taking grocery orders while his associate, James Poulton, took shoe orders. Smith also gave many inpromtu concerts on this sales trip, playing on harmonica and guitar with Poulton accompanying on the flute. During this journey Smith would regularly attend LDS Church services on Sunday's in the towns he passed through coming north from Panaca. He would be regularly invited to give a talk while visiting.
Employment and politicsEdit
In 1894, after returning from serving in the church's Southern States Mission, Smith got a job as assistant to a traveling salesman at ZCMI. He excelled at this enough to be promoted to working in the packing box shop, where he again excelled and was promoted to wholesale grocery salesman for ZCMI's Salt Lake County operations.
Smith also served as secretary of the Kanab Cattle Company and a member of the Utah National Guard.
In 1896, he had joined the Republican Party and campaigned for William McKinley, who became President of the United States. He was later present at the Pan American exposition in Buffalo in 1901 and heard the shot that killed McKinley.
He was appointed as a receiver for the Land Office in Utah in the years 1898 and 1903.
While surveying for a railroad as a young man, Smith's eyesight was permanently impaired by glare from the sun.:116 After 1903, Smith found his frequent travels debilitating and began to show prominent symptoms of physical weakness. He was eventually diagnosed with lupus erythematosus, a chronic debilitating autoimmune disease.
From 1898 to 1902 Smith was chair of the Republican committee for the 28th voting district of Utah.
In 1902 there were those who sought to convince Smith to run for the United States Senate. He instead deferred to allow Smoot to be the Republican candidate.
Smith was known for his patriotism and joined various American patriotic groups. He was also an ardent supporter of the Boy Scouts. In 1934, the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America awarded him the prestigious Silver Buffalo Award. Smith was an avid genealogist and family historian and was named national vice president of the Sons of the American Revolution in 1922.
Marriage and familyEdit
On May 25, 1892, Smith married Lucy Emily Woodruff, a granddaughter of Wilford Woodruff, in the Manti Temple. The couple later had three children. It was several years after their marriage that the first daughter was born, with the pregnancy starting shortly after Woodruff gave Lucy a priesthood blessing to be a mother. Lucy had spent much of her time growing up in the household of her grandfather and looked on him as almost more of a father than a grandfather. Smith's son, George Albert Smith, Jr., became a professor at Harvard Business School.
Lucy Smith died in 1936. Smith never remarried, which made him the only man to have not had a living wife while he was serving as church president.
LDS Church serviceEdit
Just prior to his marriage to Lucy, Smith served as a Mutual Improvement Association (MIA) missionary throughout many areas in Southern Utah. He was set apart as a missionary on September 7, 1891. He was assigned to serve with William B. Dougall, Jr., who was a grandson of Brigham Young. They were assigned to the 4 stakes that covered Juab, Millard, Beaver and Iron counties. The assignment was to increase attendance and participation in MIA, both the YM MIA and YW MIA.
Smith and his new wife, Lucy, were missionaries in the church's Southern States Mission, with J. Golden Kimball as their president, from 1892 to 1894. Smith was appointed mission secretary. Initially when Smith left to serve in the Southern States mission on June 23, 1892, he left his wife Lucy behind in Salt Lake City.
Smith's first assignment in Tennessee was to serve in the Middle Tennessee District, covering the area in and around the city of Nashville. It was intended he would assume the position of mission secretary, essentially chief assistant to the mission president, in August. It was also planned for his wife to join him at that time. Kimball however felt that Smith needed more training in the mission field before being joined by his wife, and so did not allow Mrs. Smith to join her husband until November. From No. 1892 to Aug. 1893 and from Oct. 1893 to May 1894 Kimball was out of the mission so Smith was acting mission president.
As was common at the time, Smith was ordained a seventy when he went on his mission. After returning, he was made a member of the 3rd quorum of the seventies presiding council in Salt Lake City, which meant he had specific assignments for conducting missionary outreach in the area.
For a few years building up to 1902 Smith served as assistant to Richard R. Lyman along with Joseph F. Merrill in running the Salt Lake stake youth program for young men. At the time the Salt Lake Stake took in all of Salt Lake county and was by far the largest stake by membership in the LDS Church. It was looked upon as the "flagship" stake of the church, and Lyman, Merrill and Smith initiated programs and changes that were adopted elsewhere throughout the church. Smith then served as head of the youth program for young men in Salt Lake Stake from 1902-1903.
Smith was called as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1903. From 1920 until 1923 Smith served as president of the church's British and European missions. In this capacity, he preached in the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Germany. From 1921 to 1935, Smith was the general superintendent of the church's Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association. In 1935 he was succeeded in this position by Albert E. Bowen.
From 1920 until 1923 Smith served as president of the church's British and European missions. In this capacity, he preached in the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Germany. From 1921 to 1935, Smith was the general superintendent of the church's Young Men's MIA. In 1935 he was succeeded in this position by Albert E. Bowen.
Administration as President of the ChurchEdit
With the death of Heber J. Grant, Smith became president of the church on May 21, 1945. When World War II ended, Smith helped send supplies to Europe and was also known for his efforts to revitalize missionary work. He publicly denounced the activities and political influence of the American Ku Klux Klan. Smith dedicated the Idaho Falls Temple on September 23, 1945. Over his lifetime, he traveled approximately a million miles fulfilling church assignments.
Smith was the first church president to visit Mexico while in office. He went there to complete the reconciliation of and return to the church a group of apostates in Mexico known as the "Third Conventionists".
While not common knowledge among contemporary members of the LDS Church, nor even in Smith's day, it was well known to his close friends, church associates, and family members that Smith suffered from chronic depression and anxiety, which at times could be debilitating, including one nervous breakdown that left him largely bedridden from 1909 to 1912.:115 Throughout his life, Smith took to his bed, sometimes for days at a time, with emotional and mental illness related issues.:124 Smith professed that these experiences helped deepen his understanding of the Gospel and personal belief in the existence of God, stating in a 1921 general conference session, "I have been in the valley of the shadow of death in recent years, so near the other side that I am sure that for the special blessing of our Heavenly Father I could not have remained here. ... The nearer I went to the other side, the greater was my assurance that the gospel is true.":115
According to Mary Jane Woodger:
"Those close to George Albert Smith were aware of some emotional problems. Grandchild George Albert Smith V suggests that his grandfather struggled with depression, feeling incompetent, and being overwhelmed. There were times when 'he just could not pull it all together.' Another granddaughter, Shauna Lucy Stewart Larsen, who lived in George Albert’s home for twelve years as a child, remembers that 'when there was great, tremendous stress, mostly [of] an emotional kind, it took its toll and he would literally have to go to bed for several days.' Grandson Robert Murray Stewart remembers, 'There were problems associated with his mental health, just maintaining control of himself.' Given what seems to be George Albert’s emotional fragility, physical illness may have been a socially acceptable way for him to retreat, rest, and regroup before tackling his responsibilities again with renewed determination.":124
Death and legacyEdit
In March 1951, Smith suffered a stroke that left him mostly paralyzed on the right side of his body, and gradually deteriorated until his death on April 4, 1951, his 81st birthday.:1 He was buried at Salt Lake City Cemetery.
|8. John Smith|
|4. George A. Smith|
|9. Clarissa Lyman|
|2. John Henry Smith|
|10. Nathaniel Libby|
|5. Sarah Ann Libby|
|11. Tirzah Lord|
|1. George Albert Smith Sr.|
|12. Winslow Farr|
|6. Lorin Farr|
|13. Olive Hovey Freeman|
|3. Sarah Farr|
|14. Ezra Chase|
|7. Nancy Bailey Chase|
|15. Tirzah Wells|
- Smith, George Albert (1951). Sayings of a Saint. Alice K. Chase.
- —— (1948). Sharing the Gospel With Others: Excerpts from the Sermons of President Smith. compiled by Preston Nibley. Deseret News Press.
- —— (1996). Robert McIntosh and Susan McIntosh. (ed.). The Teachings of George Albert Smith, Eighth President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Bookcraft, Inc.
- —— (2011). Teachings of Presidents of the Church: George Albert Smith. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
- Pusey, Merlo J. (1986). Arrington, Leonard J. (ed.). The Presidents of the Church. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book. pp. 251–2. ISBN 0875790267.
- Mary Jane Woodger, Against the Odds: The Life of George Albert Smith (American Fork, Utah: Covenant Communications, 2011), p. 34
- Woodger, Against the Odds, p. 35
- Woodger. Against The Odds p. 69-70
- Woodger, Against The Odds p. 70
- Janath R., Cannon (1992). Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Mormonism. 3. New York, NY: Macmillan. pp. 1326–9. ISBN 0028796020 http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/EoM/id/4143. Missing or empty
- Woodger, Mary Jane (Fall 2008). "'Cheat the Asylum of a Victim': George Albert Smith's 1909-1912 Breakdown". Journal of Mormon History. 34 (4).
- Woodger, Against the Odds p. 73-74
- Woodger, Against The Odds p. 77
- Woodger, Against the Odds p. 71
- Gibbons, Francis M. (2009). George Albert Smith, Kind Caring Christian, Prophet of God. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book. ISBN 9781606412145.
- Francis M. Gibbons, Georrge Albert Smith: Kind and Caring Christian, Prophet of God (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1990), p. 16
- Gibbons, George ALbert Smith, p. 22
- Gibbons, George Albert Smith, p. 24
- Gibbons, George Albert Smith, p. 25
- Woodger. Against The Odds. P. 63
- Woodger, Against the Odds p. 74
- Woodger, Against The Odds p. 74
- Woodger, Against The Odds p. 74
- George Albert Smith, "Devotional", 1950-01-01.
- Flake, Gerry R. (September 1972). "Mormons in Mexico: The First 96 Years". Ensign. p. 20.
- Prince, Gregory; Wright, William Robert (2005). David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-822-7.
- "George Albert Smith Sr. family tree". FamilySearch. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: George Albert Smith|
- Media related to George Albert Smith at Wikimedia Commons
- Grampa Bill's G.A. Pages: George Albert Smith
- George Albert Smith papers, MSS 610 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University
- Retrospective diary of George Albert Smith, MSS SC 270 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University
- George Albert Smith letter, MSS SC 270 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University
- History of George Albert Smith in Zion's Camp photocopy, MSS SC 135 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University
|The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints titles|
Heber J. Grant
| President of the Church
May 21, 1945–April 4, 1951
David O. McKay
| President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
June 21, 1943–May 21, 1945
George F. Richards
Hyrum M. Smith
| Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
October 8, 1903–May 21, 1945
Charles W. Penrose
Anthony W. Ivins
| Superintendent of the
Young Men’s Mutual Improvement Association
Albert E. Bowen