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In geography, the centroid of the two-dimensional shape of a region of the Earth's surface (projected radially to sea level or onto a geoid surface) is known as its geographical centre or geographical center. There has long been debate over the methods of calculation of the geographical centres of various countries and regions, proposed methods include:

  • center point of a bounding box completely enclosing the area. While relatively easy to determine, a center point calculated using this method will generally also vary (relative to the shape of the landmass or region) depending on the orientation of the bounding box to the area under consideration. In this sense it is not a robust method.
  • center of the surface area, which incorporates elevations into calculations, or that point on which the surface of the area would balance if it were a plane of uniform thickness.[1]
  • the point where the sum of squared distances from the center to all points in the region is a minimum[2]

Questions remain about how to include offshore islands. As noted in a USGS document "There is no generally accepted definition of geographic center, and no completely satisfactory method for determining it."[1]

Notable geographical centresEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Geographic Centers of the United States". United States Geologic Survey: 4. 1964.
  2. ^ Rogerson, Peter A. (2015-10-02). "A New Method for Finding Geographic Centers, with Application to U.S. States". The Professional Geographer. 67 (4): 686–694. doi:10.1080/00330124.2015.1062707. ISSN 0033-0124.
  3. ^ "Europa - Geographic Centres of European countries".
  4. ^ "Geographical Center of India" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-11-19.