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List of geographic centers of the United States

This is a list of geographic centers of each U.S. state and each inhabited territory. Note that the geographic center of the 50 states is northeast of Belle Fourche in Butte County, South Dakota 44°58′N 103°46′W / 44.967°N 103.767°W / 44.967; -103.767,[1] while that of the contiguous 48 states is near Lebanon in Smith County, Kansas 39°50′N 98°35′W / 39.833°N 98.583°W / 39.833; -98.583 (Geographic Center of the Contiguous United States).[1] The geographic center of North America lies near Rugby, North Dakota 48°10′N 100°10′W / 48.167°N 100.167°W / 48.167; -100.167, though this designation has no official status.[1] In 2017, a new calculation of the geographic center of North America put it near the town of Center, North Dakota.[2]

The geographic center of the entire U.S. (i.e. the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories) has never been calculated.

Geographic centers of the states and the District of ColumbiaEdit

The list given below has been only slightly modified since it was first produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the early 1920s.[3] At that time, the center for a state was found by suspending a cardboard cutout of the state by a string, and then drawing a vertical line from the suspension point. After rotating the cutout 90 degrees and drawing another vertical line from the new suspension point, the intersection of the two vertical lines was used as the geographic center.[4] The result is dependent upon the type of projection used.

Geographic centers of the states of the United States and the District of Columbia
State or
federal district
County Location Coordinates
  Alabama Chilton County Clanton 32°50′5″N 86°38′0″W / 32.83472°N 86.63333°W / 32.83472; -86.63333 (Center of Alabama)
  Alaska Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area Tanana 64°43′54″N 152°28′12″W / 64.73167°N 152.47000°W / 64.73167; -152.47000 (Center of Alaska)
  Arizona Yavapai County Camp Verde
  Arkansas Pulaski County Little Rock
  California Madera County North Fork 37°9′58″N 119°26′58″W / 37.16611°N 119.44944°W / 37.16611; -119.44944 (Center of California)
  Colorado Park County 40 mi (64 km) west of Colorado Springs, southwest of Castle Rock 39°00′00″N 105°32′50″W / 39.00000°N 105.54722°W / 39.00000; -105.54722 (State of Colorado)
  Connecticut Hartford County Berlin
  Delaware Kent County 11 mi (18 km) southwest of Dover 38°58′48″N 75°30′42″W / 38.98000°N 75.51167°W / 38.98000; -75.51167 (approximate center of Delaware)
  District of Columbia District of Columbia[note 1] Near 4th and L Streets, Northwest 38°54′15″N 77°00′58″W / 38.90417°N 77.01611°W / 38.90417; -77.01611 (approximate center of District of Columbia)
  Florida Hernando County 12 mi (19 km) north-northwest of Brooksville 28°40′53″N 82°27′36″W / 28.68139°N 82.46000°W / 28.68139; -82.46000 (approximate center of Florida)
  Georgia Twiggs County 18 mi (29 km) southeast of Macon 32°39′43.6″N 83°26′17.9″W / 32.662111°N 83.438306°W / 32.662111; -83.438306 (approximate center of Georgia)
  Hawaii Maui County off-shore southwest of Molokai and west of Lanai
  Idaho Custer County on the Yankee Fork River, southwest of Challis
  Illinois Sangamon County 1.5 mi (2.4 km) southeast of Rochester 39°44′21.5″N 89°30′13.1″W / 39.739306°N 89.503639°W / 39.739306; -89.503639 (approximate center of Illinois)
  Indiana Hendricks County 2 mi (3.2 km) west of Avon 39°45′57.7″N 86°26′28.6″W / 39.766028°N 86.441278°W / 39.766028; -86.441278 (approximate center of Indiana)
  Iowa Story County 5 mi (8.0 km) northeast of Ames
  Kansas Barton County 15 mi (24 km) northeast of Great Bend
  Kentucky Boyle County 3 mi (4.8 km) north-northwest of Danville
  Louisiana Avoyelles Parish 3 mi (4.8 km) southeast of Marksville
  Maine Piscataquis County 18 mi (29 km) north of Dover-Foxcroft 45°15′11.9982″N 69°13′59.9988″W / 45.253332833°N 69.233333000°W / 45.253332833; -69.233333000 (Center of Maine)
  Maryland Prince George's County 4.5 mi (7.2 km) northwest of Davidsonville
  Massachusetts Worcester County 12 mi (19 km) northwest of Worcester, in Rutland 42°22′37.62″N 71°55′30.93″W / 42.3771167°N 71.9252583°W / 42.3771167; -71.9252583 (Center of Massachusetts)
  Michigan Wexford County 5 mi (8.0 km) north-northwest of Cadillac
  Minnesota Crow Wing County 10 mi (16 km) southwest of Brainerd
  Mississippi Leake County 9 mi (14 km) west-northwest of Carthage
  Missouri Miller County 20 mi (32 km) southwest of Jefferson City
  Montana Fergus County 11 mi (18 km) west of Lewistown
  Nebraska Custer County 10 mi (16 km) northwest of Broken Bow 41°31′30″N 99°51′42″W / 41.52500°N 99.86167°W / 41.52500; -99.86167 (approximate center of Nebraska)
  Nevada Lander County 26 mi (42 km) southeast of Austin
  New Hampshire Belknap County 3 mi (4.8 km) east of Ashland
  New Jersey Burlington County 5 mi (8.0 km) southeast of Trenton 40°4′12″N 74°33′30″W / 40.07000°N 74.55833°W / 40.07000; -74.55833 (Center of New Jersey)
  New Mexico Torrance County 12 mi (19 km) south-southwest of Willard
  New York Madison County 26 mi (42 km) southwest of Utica, near Syracuse
  North Carolina Chatham County 10 mi (16 km) northwest of Sanford
   North Dakota Sheridan County 5 mi (8.0 km) southwest of McClusky
  Ohio Knox County north-northeast of Columbus
  Oklahoma Oklahoma County 8 mi (13 km) north of Oklahoma City
  Oregon Crook County 25 mi (40 km) south-southeast of Prineville
  Pennsylvania Centre County 2.5 mi (4.0 km) southwest of Bellefonte, in State College
  Rhode Island Kent County 1-mile (1.6 km) south-southwest of Crompton 41°40′18″N 71°34′36″W / 41.67167°N 71.57667°W / 41.67167; -71.57667 (Center of Rhode Island)
  South Carolina Richland County 13 mi (21 km) southeast of Columbia
  South Dakota Hughes County 8 mi (13 km) northeast of Pierre
  Tennessee Rutherford County 5 mi (8.0 km) northeast of Murfreesboro
  Texas McCulloch County 15 mi (24 km) northeast of Brady 31°23′29.52″N 99°10′14.34″W / 31.3915333°N 99.1706500°W / 31.3915333; -99.1706500 (Center of Texas)
  Utah Sanpete County 3 mi (4.8 km) north of Manti
  Vermont Washington County 3 mi (4.8 km) east of Roxbury
  Virginia Buckingham County 5 mi (8.0 km) southwest of Buckingham
  Washington Chelan County 10 mi (16 km) west-southwest of Wenatchee
  West Virginia Braxton County 4 mi (6.4 km) east of Sutton
  Wisconsin Wood County 9 mi (14 km) southeast of Marshfield 44°26′16.00″N 90°07′48.67″W / 44.4377778°N 90.1301861°W / 44.4377778; -90.1301861 (Center of Wisconsin)
  Wyoming Fremont County 58 mi (93 km) east-northeast of Lander[5]

42°58′18″N 107°40′18″W / 42.97167°N 107.67167°W / 42.97167; -107.67167 (Center of Wyoming)

Updated list of geographic centersEdit

Although there have been different definitions offered for the geographic center, an intuitive one, and one used by the USGS, is "the center of gravity of the surface, or that point on which the surface of the area would balance if it were a plane of uniform thickness."[6] An updated list of geographic centers using this definition (which is equivalent to the state's centroid) is given below. It was derived by minimizing the sum of squared great circle distances from all points of land in a state (including islands, but not coastal waters, following the earlier practice of the USGS). It represents a slight improvement over the list originally published [7]

The geographic center of the contiguous United States, determined in this way, is at (39.8000 N, 99.1086 W); this is 2.7 miles from Agra, Kansas, 4.7 miles from Kensington, Kansas, and 27.9 great circle miles west of the longstanding designated center of Lebanon, Kansas.

Updated geographic centers of the states of the United States and the District of Columbia
State or
federal district
Location Coordinates
  Alabama 12.1 mi (19.5 km) southwest of Clanton 32°46′46″N 86°49′43″W / 32.7794°N 86.8287°W / 32.7794; -86.8287 (Center of Alabama)
  Alaska 77.9 mi (125.4 km) northwest of Denali 64°04′07″N 152°16′42″W / 64.0685°N 152.2782°W / 64.0685; -152.2782 (Center of Alaska)
  Arizona 49.7 mi (80.0 km) east-southeast of Prescott 34°16′28″N 111°39′37″W / 34.2744°N 111.6602°W / 34.2744; -111.6602 (Center of Arizona)
  Arkansas 14.2 mi (22.9 km) northwest of Little Rock 34°53′38″N 92°26′33″W / 34.8938°N 92.4426°W / 34.8938; -92.4426 (Center of Arkansas)
  California 36 mi (58 km) northeast of Madera, 37°11′03″N 119°28′11″W / 37.1841°N 119.4696°W / 37.1841; -119.4696 (Center of California)
  Colorado 29.2 mi (47.0 km) northwest of Pikes Peak, 38°59′50″N 105°32′52″W / 38.9972°N 105.5478°W / 38.9972; -105.5478 (State of Colorado)
  Connecticut 1.1 mi (1.8 km) east of East Berlin 41°37′19″N 72°43′38″W / 41.6219°N 72.7273°W / 41.6219; -72.7273 (Center of Connecticut)
  Delaware 11.7 mi (18.8 km) south of Dover 38°59′23″N 75°30′18″W / 38.9896°N 75.5050°W / 38.9896; -75.5050 (approximate center of Delaware)
  District of Columbia Near 3rd and P Streets, Northwest 38°54′36″N 77°00′53″W / 38.9101°N 77.0147°W / 38.9101; -77.0147 (approximate center of District of Columbia)
  Florida 5.8 mi (9.3 km) northwest of Brooksville 28°37′50″N 82°26′59″W / 28.6305°N 82.4497°W / 28.6305; -82.4497 (approximate center of Florida)
  Georgia 17.7 mi (28.5 km) southeast of Macon 32°38′29″N 83°26′33″W / 32.6415°N 83.4426°W / 32.6415; -83.4426 (approximate center of Georgia) [8]
  Hawaii 27.7 mi (44.6 km) off-shore south of Wailea-Makena 20°17′34″N 156°22′25″W / 20.2927°N 156.3737°W / 20.2927; -156.3737 (Center of Hawaii)
  Idaho 21.4 mi (34.4 km) west-southwest of Challis 44°21′03″N 114°36′47″W / 44.3509°N 114.6130°W / 44.3509; -114.6130 (Center of Idaho)
  Illinois 28.8 mi (46.3 km) northeast of Springfield 40°02′30″N 89°11′47″W / 40.0417°N 89.1965°W / 40.0417; -89.1965 (approximate center of Illinois)
  Indiana 10.8 mi (17.4 km) northwest of Indianapolis 39°53′39″N 86°16′54″W / 39.8942°N 86.2816°W / 39.8942; -86.2816 (approximate center of Indiana)
  Iowa 7 mi (11 km) northeast of Ames 42°04′30″N 93°29′46″W / 42.0751°N 93.4960°W / 42.0751; -93.4960 (Center of Iowa)
  Kansas 22.6 mi (36.4 km) northeast of Great Bend 38°29′37″N 98°22′49″W / 38.4937°N 98.3804°W / 38.4937; -98.3804 (Center of Kansas)
  Kentucky 3.4 mi (5.5 km) southwest of Lebanon 37°32′05″N 85°18′08″W / 37.5347°N 85.3021°W / 37.5347; -85.3021 (Center of Kentucky)
  Louisiana 5.8 mi (9.3 km) southeast of Marksville 31°04′08″N 91°59′48″W / 31.0689°N 91.9968°W / 31.0689; -91.9968 (Center of Louisiana)
  Maine 12.6 mi (20.3 km) northwest of Dover-Foxcroft 45°22′10″N 69°14′34″W / 45.3695°N 69.2428°W / 45.3695; -69.2428 (Center of Maine)
  Maryland 12.6 mi (20.3 km) northwest of Davidsonville 39°03′18″N 76°47′27″W / 39.0550°N 76.7909°W / 39.0550; -76.7909 (Center of Maryland)
  Massachusetts Irving St. and Wellington St., Worcester 42°15′35″N 71°48′30″W / 42.2596°N 71.8083°W / 42.2596; -71.8083 (Center of Massachusetts)
  Michigan 6.6 mi (10.6 km) west of Cadillac 44°20′48″N 85°24′37″W / 44.3467°N 85.4102°W / 44.3467; -85.4102 (Center of Michigan)
  Minnesota 10 mi (16 km) southwest of Brainerd 46°16′51″N 94°18′19″W / 46.2807°N 94.3053°W / 46.2807; -94.3053 (Center of Minnesota)
  Mississippi 7.7 mi (12.4 km) west-northwest of Carthage 32°44′11″N 89°40′04″W / 32.7364°N 89.6678°W / 32.7364; -89.6678 (Center of Mississippi)
  Missouri 21 mi (34 km) southwest of Jefferson City 38°21′24″N 92°27′29″W / 38.3566°N 92.4580°W / 38.3566; -92.4580 (Center of Missouri)
  Montana 10.1 mi (16.3 km) west of Lewistown 47°03′10″N 109°38′00″W / 47.0527°N 109.6333°W / 47.0527; -109.6333 (Center of Montana)
  Nebraska 12.3 mi (19.8 km) northwest of Broken Bow 41°32′16″N 99°47′42″W / 41.5378°N 99.7951°W / 41.5378; -99.7951 (Center of Nebraska)
  Nevada 26 mi (42 km) southeast of Austin 39°19′44″N 116°37′52″W / 39.3289°N 116.6312°W / 39.3289; -116.6312 (Center of Nevada)
  New Hampshire 2.6 mi (4.2 km) east of Ashland 43°40′50″N 71°34′52″W / 43.6805°N 71.5811°W / 43.6805; -71.5811 (Center of New Hampshire)
  New Jersey 4.3 mi (6.9 km) southeast of Trenton 40°11′27″N 74°40′22″W / 40.1907°N 74.6728°W / 40.1907; -74.6728 (Center of New Jersey)
  New Mexico 13.8 mi (22.2 km) south-southwest of Willard 34°24′26″N 106°06′45″W / 34.4071°N 106.1126°W / 34.4071; -106.1126 (Center of New Mexico)
  New York 11.5 mi (18.5 km) south-southeast of Oneida 42°57′14″N 75°31′36″W / 42.9538°N 75.5268°W / 42.9538; -75.5268 (Center of New York)
  North Carolina 12.7 mi (20.4 km) northwest of Sanford 35°33′21″N 79°23′16″W / 35.5557°N 79.3877°W / 35.5557; -79.3877 (Center of North Carolina)
   North Dakota 2.7 mi (4.3 km) southwest of McClusky 47°27′00″N 100°27′57″W / 47.4501°N 100.4659°W / 47.4501; -100.4659 (Center of North Dakota)
  Ohio 24.9 mi (40.1 km) north-northeast of Columbus 40°17′10″N 82°47′37″W / 40.2862°N 82.7937°W / 40.2862; -82.7937 (Center of Ohio)
  Oklahoma 4.4 mi (7.1 km) south of Edmond 35°35′20″N 97°29′39″W / 35.5889°N 97.4943°W / 35.5889; -97.4943 (Center of Oklahoma)
  Oregon 29.1 mi (46.8 km) southeast of Prineville 43°56′01″N 120°33′30″W / 43.9336°N 120.5583°W / 43.9336; -120.5583 (Center of Oregon)
  Pennsylvania 2.7 mi (4.3 km) southwest of Bellefonte, in State College 40°52′41″N 77°47′59″W / 40.8781°N 77.7996°W / 40.8781; -77.7996 (Center of Pennsylvania)
  Rhode Island 2.4-mile (3.9 km) west of Crompton, in West Warwick 41°40′34″N 71°33′22″W / 41.6762°N 71.5562°W / 41.6762; -71.5562 (Center of Rhode Island)
  South Carolina 9.7 mi (15.6 km) southeast of Columbia 33°55′01″N 80°53′47″W / 33.9169°N 80.8964°W / 33.9169; -80.8964 (Center of South Carolina)
  South Dakota 7.9 mi (12.7 km) northeast of Pierre 44°26′39″N 100°13′35″W / 44.4443°N 100.2263°W / 44.4443; -100.2263 (Center of South Dakota)
  Tennessee 2.5 mi (4.0 km) northeast of Murfreesboro 35°51′29″N 86°21′02″W / 35.8580°N 86.3505°W / 35.8580; -86.3505 (Center of Tennessee)
  Texas 23.6 mi (38.0 km) north of Brady 31°28′33″N 99°19′52″W / 31.4757°N 99.3312°W / 31.4757; -99.3312 (Center of Texas)
  Utah 3.1 mi (5.0 km) northwest of Manti 39°18′20″N 111°40′13″W / 39.3055°N 111.6703°W / 39.3055; -111.6703 (Center of Utah)
  Vermont 3.7 mi (6.0 km) southeast of Roxbury 44°04′07″N 72°39′57″W / 44.0687°N 72.6658°W / 44.0687; -72.6658 (Center of Vermont)
  Virginia 16.6 mi (26.7 km) west of Buckingham 37°31′17″N 78°51′13″W / 37.5215°N 78.8537°W / 37.5215; -78.8537 (Center of Virginia)
  Washington 7 mi (11 km) west-southwest of Wenatchee 47°22′57″N 120°26′50″W / 47.3826°N 120.4472°W / 47.3826; -120.4472 (Center of Washington)
  West Virginia 4.9 mi (7.9 km) east-southeast of Sutton 38°38′27″N 80°37′22″W / 38.6409°N 80.6227°W / 38.6409; -80.6227 (Center of West Virginia)
  Wisconsin 9.3 mi (15.0 km) east-southeast of Marshfield 44°37′27″N 89°59′39″W / 44.6243°N 89.9941°W / 44.6243; -89.9941 (Center of Wisconsin)
  Wyoming 60.6 mi (97.5 km) east-northeast of Lander 42°59′45″N 107°33′04″W / 42.9957°N 107.5512°W / 42.9957; -107.5512 (Center of Wyoming)

Geographic centers of the U.S. territoriesEdit

Very little information exists about the geographic centers of the U.S. territories. In a geological survey of all geographic centers in the U.S., the U.S. Department of the Interior did not measure the geographic centers of the U.S. territories.[9] Similarly, the USGS does not include the territories in its list of geographic centers.[1] In terms of each territory’s land area, only one territory (Puerto Rico) has a confirmed geographic center.[10] There are also official geographic centers of territorial exclusive economic zones, though those geographic centers are based on a territory’s territorial waters (not land area).

Geographic centers of the U.S. territories
Territory County-
equivalent
Location Coordinates
  American Samoa North of
Manu’a District (EEZ)
Eastern District
(Tutuila center)
The geographic center of American Samoa’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is located in the Pacific Ocean, about 35.08 miles (56.45 km) northeast of the island of Ta‘ū.[11]
The geographic center of Tutuila (the main island) is about 1.03 miles (1.65 km) southwest of Fagatogo.[12]
13°51′06″S 169°03′27″W / 13.851669°S 169.057621°W / -13.851669; -169.057621 (Center of American Samoa’s Exclusive Economic Zone)
(EEZ center)
14°17′24″S 170°42′10″W / 14.290078°S 170.702787°W / -14.290078; -170.702787 (Center of Tutuila island, American Samoa)
(Tutuila center)
  Guam Guam[note 2] The geographic center of Guam’s exclusive economic zone is in the Pacific Ocean, about 73.65 miles (118.53 km) west-southwest of Cocos Island and 76.08 miles (122.45 km) west-southwest of the main island of Guam.[13]
The exact geographic center of the main island of Guam is unknown[14] — it is probably somewhere within the village of Chalan Pago-Ordot, because that is the default center starting point of Guam on Google Maps.[15]
12°58′37″N 143°34′53″E / 12.976952°N 143.581362°E / 12.976952; 143.581362 (Center of Guam’s Exclusive Economic Zone)
(Center of EEZ)
13°26′38″N 144°46′02″E / 13.443976°N 144.767149°E / 13.443976; 144.767149 (Chalan Pago-Ordot village))
(Chalan Pago-Ordot)
  Northern Mariana Islands Northern Islands Municipality The geographic center of the Northern Mariana Islands’ exclusive economic zone is in the Pacific Ocean, about 18.33 miles (29.50 km) northeast of the island of Pagan.[16] 18°19′06″N 146°01′42″E / 18.318329°N 146.028419°E / 18.318329; 146.028419 (Geographic center of the exclusive economic zone of the Northern Mariana Islands)
(EEZ center)
  Puerto Rico Orocovis Municipality The geographic center of Puerto Rico is in the Orocovis Municipality, about 2.58 miles (4.15 km) west of the main town of Orocovis.[10] 18°13′20″N 66°25′49″W / 18.222264°N 66.430278°W / 18.222264; -66.430278 (Geographic center of Puerto Rico)
  U.S. Virgin Islands Between Saint Thomas
and Saint Croix
The exact geographic center of the U.S. Virgin Islands is unknown — the default center starting point for the U.S. Virgin Islands on Google Maps is located in the Caribbean Sea,[15] 18.21 miles (29.30 km) south-southeast of Saint Thomas and 18.31 miles (29.47 km) north of Saint Croix — note that this point is the approximate center of the 3 main islands, not the center of the exclusive economic zone 18°02′53″N 64°48′12″W / 18.048155°N 64.803436°W / 18.048155; -64.803436 (Approximate (not exact) geographic center of the U.S. Virgin Islands)
  U.S. Minor Outlying Islands [note 3] There is no information about the geographic centers of the islands in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands (or the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands as a whole).

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The U.S. Census Bureau treats the District of Columbia as a state-equivalent and a county-equivalent for statistical purposes.
  2. ^ All of Guam is counted as one county-equivalent by the U.S. Census Bureau.
  3. ^ Each of the 9 island groups in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands is counted as a county-equivalent by the U.S. Census Bureau.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/Elevations-Distances/elvadist.html ‘’Elevations and Distances in the United States.’’ USGS. Retrieved June 2019.
  2. ^ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/new-calculations-reposition-geographical-center-north-america-1-180961932/ Smithsonian.com. New Calculations Reposition the Geographical Center of North America. Jason Daley. January 30, 2017. Retrieved June 2019.
  3. ^ Douglas, E.M. 1923. Boundaries, Areas, Geographic Centers, and Altitudes of the United States and Several States. Bulletin 689. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC.
  4. ^ Adams, Oscar, S. 1932. Geographical Centers. The Military Engineer 24, 138: 586-587.
  5. ^ "The Geography of Wyoming".
  6. ^ Van Zandt, Franklin. 1966. Boundaries of the United States and the Several States. Bulletin 1212. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC.
  7. ^ Rogerson, P. 2015. A New Method for Finding Geographic Centers, with Application to the U.S. States. The Professional Geographer. Published online Aug 15, 2015; DOI:10.1080/00330124.2015.1062707 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00330124.2015.1062707#.Vd30QflVhBc Retrieved 2015-08-26
  8. ^ A marker, dated 1981, at a nearby road intersection states: "The Geologic Survey Branch of the Department of Natural Resources determined the central point to be at latitude 32° 38' 46" N., longitude 83° 25' 54" W."
  9. ^ https://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/70039437/report.pdf ‘’Geographic centers of the United States.’’ U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved June 2019.
  10. ^ a b http://disfrutaorocovis.com/en/historic-sites-2/geographic-center-of-puerto-rico Disfruta Orocovis. Geographic Center of Puerto Rico. Retrieved June 2019.
  11. ^ http://www.marineregions.org/gazetteer.php?p=details&id=8444 Marineregions.org. Marine Gazetteer Placedetails — American Samoa Exclusive Economic Zone. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  12. ^ https://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/oceania/as.htm Worldatlas.com. American Samoa. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  13. ^ http://www.marineregions.org/gazetteer.php?p=details&id=48957 Marineregions.org. Marine Gazetteer Placedetails. Guam Exclusive Economic Zone. Retrieved June 2019.
  14. ^ https://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/oceania/gu.htm Worldatlas.com. Guam. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  15. ^ a b https://www.google.com/maps/place/Guam
    https://www.google.com/maps/place/USVI
    Google Mpas — Guam / U.S. Virgin Islands. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  16. ^ http://www.marineregions.org/gazetteer.php?p=details&id=48980 Marineregions.org. Marine Gazetteer Placedetails — Northern Mariana Islands Exclusive Economic Zone. Retrieved June 2019.

GeneralEdit