Non-binary (also spelled nonbinary) or genderqueer is a spectrum of gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminine—identities that are outside the gender binary. Non-binary identities can fall under the transgender umbrella, since many non-binary people identify with a gender that is different from their assigned sex. Another term for non-binary is enby (from the abbreviation NB).
Non-binary people may identify as having two or more genders (being bigender or trigender); having no gender (agender, nongendered, genderless, genderfree or neutrois); moving between genders or having a fluctuating gender identity (genderfluid); being third gender or other-gendered (a category that includes those who do not place a name to their gender).
Non-binary gender identities are not associated with a specific gender expression, such as androgyny. Non-binary people as a group have a wide variety of gender expressions, and some may reject gender "identities" altogether. Some non-binary people are medically treated for gender dysphoria with surgery or hormones, as trans men and women are.
Definitions and identity
The term genderqueer originated in queer zines of the 1980s as a precursor to the term non-binary. In addition to being an umbrella term, genderqueer has been used as an adjective to refer to any people who are perceived to transcend or divert from traditional distinctions of gender, regardless of their self-defined gender identity. Individuals may express gender non-normatively by not conforming into the binary gender categories of "man" and "woman". Genderqueer is often used to self-identify by people who challenge binary social constructions of gender.
The term[clarification needed] has also been applied by those describing what they see as a gender ambiguity. Androgynous (also androgyne) is frequently used as a descriptive term for people in this category. This is because the term androgyny is closely associated with a blend of socially defined masculine and feminine traits. However, not all genderqueer people identify as androgynous. Some genderqueer people identify as a masculine woman or a feminine man or combine genderqueer with another gender option. Being non-binary is not the same as being intersex, and most intersex people identify as either male or female. Some people use enby (from the letters NB) as a short form of non-binary.
Many references use the term transgender to include genderqueer/non-binary people. The Human Rights Campaign Foundation and Gender Spectrum use the term gender-expansive to convey "a wider, more flexible range of gender identity and/or expression than typically associated with the binary gender system".
Agender people ('a-' meaning "without"), also called genderless, genderfree, non-gendered, or ungendered, are those who identify as having no gender or being without a gender identity. Although this category includes a broad range of identities which do not conform to traditional gender norms, scholar Finn Enke states that people who identify with any of these positions may not necessarily self-identify as transgender. Agender people have no specific set of pronouns; singular they is typically used, but it is not the default. Neutrois and agender were two of 50 available custom genders on Facebook, which were added on 13 February 2014. Agender is also available as a gender option on OkCupid since 17 November 2014.
Bigender, bi-gender, or dual gender is a gender identity that includes any two gender identities and behaviors. Identifying as bigender is typically understood to mean that one identifies as both male and female or moves between masculine gender expression and feminine gender expression, having two distinct gender identities simultaneously or fluctuating between them. This is different from identifying as genderfluid, as those who identify as genderfluid may not go back and forth between any fixed gender identities and may experience an entire range or spectrum of identities over time. The American Psychological Association describes the bigender identity as part of the umbrella of transgender identities. Some bigender individuals express two distinct personas, which may be feminine, masculine, agender, androgyne, or other gender identities; others find that they identify as two genders simultaneously. A 1999 survey conducted by the San Francisco Department of Public Health observed that, among the transgender community, 3% of those who were assigned male at birth and 8% of those who were assigned female at birth identified as either "a transvestite, cross-dresser, drag queen, or a bigendered person". A 2016 Harris poll conducted on behalf of GLAAD found that 1% of millennials identify as bigender.
Demigender is a gender identity of a person identifying partially or mostly with one gender and at the same time with another gender. There are several subcategories of the identity. A demi-boy or demi-man, for example, identifies at least partially with being a boy or a man, no matter the sex and gender they were assigned at birth, while other parts of their identity might be assigned to other genders, genderfluid or no other gender (agender). A demiflux person feels that the stable part of their identity is non-binary.
Genderfluid people often express a desire to remain flexible about their gender identity rather than committing to a single definition. They may fluctuate between differing gender expressions over their lifetime, or express multiple aspects of various gender markers at the same time. A genderfluid individual may also identify as bigender – shifting between masculine and feminine; or as trigender – shifting between these and a third gender.
Transfeminine and transmasculine may be used by individuals to describe an aspect of femininity or masculinity within their identity. Transfeminine may be used by individuals who were assigned male at birth but align more closely with femininity, while not necessarily fully identifying as a woman. Transmasculine may be used by individuals who were assigned female at birth but align more closely with masculinity, while not necessarily fully identifying as a man.
In 1992, after the publication of Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time Has Come by Leslie Feinberg, the term transgender was broadened to become a term for gender variation in general. This is highlighted in 1994, when activist Kate Bornstein wrote "All the categories of transgender find a common ground in that they each break one or more of the rules of gender: What we have in common is that we are gender outlaws, every one of us."
The term genderqueer came into use during the mid-1990s among political activists. Riki Anne Wilchins is often associated with the word and claims to have coined it. Wikchins used the term in a 1995 essay published in the first issue of In Your Face to describe anyone who is gender nonconforming. They were also one of the main contributors to the anthology Genderqueer: Voices Beyond the Sexual Binary which was published in 2002. Wilchins stated they identify as genderqueer in their 1997 autobiography.
The internet popularized the term genderqueer, as a wide audience was able to be reached very quickly. In 2008, The New York Times used the word genderqueer. In the 2010s, this term became more popularized as many celebrities publicly identified as gender nonconforming. In 2012, the Intersex & Genderqueer Recognition Project was started to advocate for expanding gender options on official documentation. In 2016, Jamie Shupe was the first person to have a nonbinary gender on official documents in the United States.
Pronouns and titles
Some non-binary/genderqueer people prefer to use gender-neutral pronouns. Usage of singular 'they', 'their' and 'them' is the most common; non-standard pronouns such as ze, sie, hir, co, and ey are sometimes used as well. Some others prefer the conventional gender-specific pronouns 'her' or 'him', prefer to be referred to alternately as 'he' and 'she', or prefer to use only their name and not use pronouns at all. Many prefer additional neutral language, such as the title 'Mx.' instead of Mr. or Ms.
In today's society, many non-binary/genderqueer people still use the gender they were given at birth to conduct everyday business, as many institutions and forms of identification - such as passports and driver's licenses - only accept, in the sense of recorded recognition, binary gender identities. However, with the increasing acceptance of non-binary gender identities and the rise in wider societal recognition, this is slowly changing, as a greater number of governments and institutions recognise and allow non-binary identities.
Multiple countries legally recognize non-binary or third gender classifications. Some non-Western societies have long recognized transgender people as a third gender, though this may not (or may only recently) include formal legal recognition. In Western societies, Australia may have been the first country to legally recognize a classification of sex outside of 'male' and 'female' on legal documentation, following the recognition of Alex MacFarlane's intersex status in 2003. The wider legal recognition of nonbinary people - following the recognition of intersex people in 2003 - in Australian law followed between 2010 and 2014, with legal action taken against the New South Wales Government Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages by transgender activist Norrie May-Welby to recognize Norrie's legal gender identity as 'non-specific'.
While the United States does not federally recognize a non-binary gender, in 2016 Oregon became the first state to recognize a non-binary gender identity. Following Oregon, in 2017 California passed an act allowing citizens to identify as "non-binary" on official documents. As of 2019, eight states have passed acts that allow "non-binary" or "X" designations on certain identifying documents. One of the main arguments against the inclusion of a third gender identifier in the U.S. is that it would make law enforcement and surveillance harder, however countries that have officially recognized a third gender marker have not reported these issues. In the United States there are no explicit laws to protect non-binary people from discrimination, however it is illegal for an employer to require employees to conform to sex stereotypes.
In the United States, the majority of respondents to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey chose "A gender not listed here". The "not listed here" respondents were nine percentage-points (33 percent) more likely to report forgoing healthcare due to fear of discrimination than the general sample (36 percent compared to 27 percent). Ninety percent reported experiencing anti-trans bias at work, and 43 percent reported having attempted suicide.
The majority of reported discrimination faced by non-binary individuals often includes disregard, disbelief, condescending interactions, and disrespect. People who are non-binary are also often viewed as partaking in part of a trend and are thus deemed insincere or attention-seeking. As an accumulation, erasure is often a large form of discrimination faced by non-binary individuals.
Misgendering is also a problem that many individuals face, be it intentional or unintentional. In the case of intentional misgendering, transphobia is a driving force. Also, the use of they/them pronouns is lumped into the larger, controversial, subject of safe spaces and political correctness, causing push back, and intentional misgendering from some individuals. In the case of unintentional misgendering, it is often expected for the person who is misgendered to console and forgive the person who made the mistake.
Symbols and observances
Many flags have been used in non-binary and genderqueer communities to represent various identities. There are distinct non-binary and genderqueer pride flags. The genderqueer pride flag was designed in 2011 by Marilyn Roxie. Lavender represents androgyny or queerness, white represents agender identity, and green represents those whose identities which are defined outside the binary. The non-binary pride flag was created in 2014 by Kye Rowan. Yellow represents people whose gender exists outside the binary, purple represents those whose gender is a mixture of – or between – male and female, black represents people who have no gender, and white represents those who embrace many or all genders.
Genderfluid people, who also fall under the genderqueer umbrella, have their own flag as well. Pink represents femininity, white represents lack of gender, purple represents mixed gender or androgyny, black represents all other genders, and blue represents masculinity.
Agender people, who also sometimes identify as genderqueer, have their own flag. This flag uses black and white stripes to represent an absence of gender, and a green stripe to represent non-binary genders.
A 2019 survey of the Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ population in the Canadian city of Hamilton, Ontario called Mapping the Void: Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ Experiences in Hamilton showed that 19% of the 906 respondents identified as non-binary.
A 2017 survey of Canadian LGBT+ people called LGBT+ Realities Survey found that 4% of the 1,897 respondents identified as non-binary transgender and 1% identified as non-binary outside of the transgender umbrella.
|Look up non-binary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- S. Bear Bergman, Meg-John Barker, Genderqueer and Non-Binary Genders (2017), Palgrave Macmillan, page 43
- Usher, Raven, ed. (2006). North American Lexicon of Transgender Terms. San Francisco. ISBN 978-1-879194-62-5. OCLC 184841392.
- "Trans + Gender Identity". The Trevor Project. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Bergman, S. Bear; Barker, Meg-John (2017). "Non-binary Activism". In Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Barker, Meg-John (eds.). Genderqueer and Non-Binary Genders (PDF). Critical and Applied Approaches in Sexuality, Gender and Identity. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 43. ISBN 9781137510525.
- Bosson, Jennifer K.; Vandello, Joseph A.; Buckner, Camille E. (17 January 2018). The Psychology of Sex and Gender. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-5063-3134-8. OCLC 1038755742. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
- Whyte, Stephen; Brooks, Robert C.; Torgler, Benno (25 September 2018). "Man, Woman, "Other": Factors Associated with Nonbinary Gender Identification". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 47 (8): 2397–2406. doi:10.1007/s10508-018-1307-3. PMID 30255409.
2 out of 7479 (0.03 percent) of respondents to the Australian Sex Survey, a 2016 online research survey, self-identified as trigender.
- Winter, Claire Ruth (2010). Understanding Transgender Diversity: A Sensible Explanation of Sexual and Gender Identities. CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4563-1490-3. OCLC 703235508.
- Beemyn, Brett Genny (2008). "Genderqueer". glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. Chicago: glbtq, Inc. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- "Transgender Glossary of Terms". GLAAD Media Reference Guide. Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- Stryker, Susan (2008). Transgender History. Berkeley: Seal Press. ISBN 978-1-58005-224-5. OCLC 183914566.
- Johanna Schorn. "Taking the "Sex" out of Transsexual: Representations of Trans Identities in Popular Media" (PDF). Inter-Disciplinary.Net. Universität zu Köln. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
The term transgender is an umbrella term "and generally refers to any and all kinds of variation from gender norms and expectations" (Stryker 19). Most often, the term transgender is used for someone who feels that the sex assigned to them at birth does not reflect their own gender identity. They may identify as the gender ‘opposite’ to their assigned gender, or they may feel that their gender identity is fluid, or they may reject all gender categorizations and identify as agender or genderqueer.
- Hendrie, Theo, ed. (2019). X Marks the Spot: An Anthology of Nonbinary Experiences. United Kingdom. p. 238. ISBN 978-1080968039.
- Dahir, Mubarak (25 May 1999). "Whose Movement Is It?". The Advocate. Here Media. p. 52.
- Shaw, Susan; Lee, Janet (23 April 2014). Women's voices, feminist visions : classic and contemporary readings (Sixth ed.). New York, NY. ISBN 9780078027000. OCLC 862041473.
- Girshick, Lori B. (2008). Transgender Voices: Beyond Women and Men. Hanover: University Press of New England. ISBN 978-1-58465-645-6. OCLC 183162406.
- Shaw, Susan M.; Lee, Janet (2015). Women's Voices, Feminist Visions (6 ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
- Walsh, Reuben (December 2010). "More T, vicar? My experiences as a genderqueer person of faith". All God's Children. Vol. 2 no. 3. Lesbian and Gay Christian Movement.
- "Understanding Non-Binary People: How to Be Respectful and Supportive". National Center for Transgender Equality. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Vanessa Sheridan, Transgender in the Workplace: The Complete Guide (2018), page 11
- Sam Hope, Person-Centred Counselling for Trans and Gender Diverse People (2019), page 218
- Marc E. Vargo (30 November 2011). "A Review of " Please select your gender: From the invention of hysteria to the democratizing of transgenderism "". Journal of GLBT Family Studies. 7 (5): 2 (493). doi:10.1080/1550428X.2011.623982. ISSN 1550-4298.
up to three million U. S. citizens regard themselves as transgender, a term referring to those whose gender identities are at odds with their biological sex. The term is an expansive one, however, and may apply to other individuals as well, from the person whose behavior purposely and dramatically diverges from society's traditional male/female roles to the "agender", "bigender" or "third gender" person whose self-definition lies outside of the male/female binary altogether. In short, those counted under this term constitute a wide array of people who do not conform to, and may actively challenge, conventional gender norms.
- Kirstin Cronn-Mills (2014). "IV. Trans*spectrum. Identities". Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex Voices. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4677-4796-7. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
Many different individuals fall under what experts call the trans* spectrum, or the trans* umbrella."I'm trans*" and "I'm transgender" are ways these individuals might refer to themselves. But there are distinctions among different trans* identities. [...] Androgynous individuals may not identify with either side of the gender binary. Other individuals consider themselves agender, and they may feel they have no gender at all.
- Human Rights Campaign Foundation and Gender Spectrum, Supporting and Caring for our Gender-Expansive Youth, accessed 21 January 2016
- "LGBTQ Needs Assessment" (PDF). Encompass Network. April 2013. pp. 52–53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "Gender alphabet" (PDF). Safe Homes. p. 1. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Vargo, Marc E. (2011). "A Review of "Please select your gender: From the invention of hysteria to the democratizing of transgenderism"". Journal of GLBT Family Studies. 7 (5): 493–494. doi:10.1080/1550428x.2011.623982.
- Cronn-Mills, Kirstin (1 September 2014). Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex Voices. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 978-1-4677-4796-7.
- Schorn, Johanna (22 February 2016). "Taking the "Sex" out of Transsexual: Representations of Trans Identities in Popular Media". Cite journal requires
- Anne Enke, ed. (2012). "Note on terms and concepts". Transfeminist Perspectives In and Beyond Transgender and Gender Studies. Temple University Press. pp. 16–20, see pp. 18–9. ISBN 978-1-4399-0748-1.
- Sojwal, Senti (16 September 2015). "What Does "Agender" Mean? 6 Things To Know About People With Non-Binary Identities". Bustle. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Facebook sex changes: which one of 50 genders are you?. The Daily Telegraph. 14 February 2014.
- "OkCupid expands gender and sexuality options". PBS NewsHour. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Asexual, bigender, transexual or cis, can't we all just be kind to each other?". Independent.ie. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- EDT, Sofia Lotto Persio On 6/16/17 at 11:45 AM (16 June 2017). "Oregon becomes first state to allow option "X" to end gender binary". Newsweek. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- "Everything you ever wanted to know about being nonbinary". The Daily Dot. 28 September 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- "Billy Dee Williams: What is gender fluid?". Monsters and Critics. 2 December 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- "This is the term for people who aren't exclusively male or female". PinkNews – Gay news, reviews and comment from the world's most read lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans news service. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- "Sexual orientation and gender identity". Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- Clements, K. San Francisco Department of Public Health, 1999
- "EEOC now gives nonbinary people a way to be counted in workplace". Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- "Accelerating Acceptance 2017" (PDF). GLAAD.
- Gibson, Sarah; Fernandez, J. (2018). Gender Diversity and Non-Binary Inclusion in the Workplace: The Essential Guide for Employers. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 9781784505233.
- Brill, Stephanie; Kenney, Lisa (2016). The Transgender Teen. Cleis Press.
- Cronn-Mills, Kirstin (2015). Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex Voices. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7613-9022-0.
- McGuire, Peter (9 November 2015). "Beyond the binary: what does it mean to be genderfluid?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Ashley Mardell (2016). The ABC's of LGBT+. Mango Media Inc. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-63353-408-7.
- Tobia, Jacob (7 November 2018). "InQueery: The History of the Word 'Genderqueer' As We Know It". them. Condé Nast. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- Bornstein, Kate (15 April 2013). Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women and the Rest of Us. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-60373-0.
- Wikchins, Riki (14 March 2017). "Get to Know the New Pronouns: They, Theirs, and Them". Pride.
- "Genderqueer History".
- Wilchins, Riki (Spring 1995). "A Note from your Editrix" (PDF). In Your Face (1): 4.
- Nestle, Joan; Howell, Clare; Wilchins, Riki Anne, eds. (2002). GenderQueer : voices from beyond the sexual binary (1st ed.). New York City: Alyson Books. ISBN 9781555837303. OCLC 50389309.
- Quart, Alissa (16 March 2008). "When Girls Will Be Boys". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Nast, Condé. "Do You Know What It Means to Be Genderqueer?". them. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- "About Us – Intersex & Genderqueer Recognition Project (IGRP)". igrp. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- "Movement for third gender option 'exploding' in U.S." NBC News. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- "NB/GQ Survey 2017 – the worldwide results". Gender Census. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- Feinberg, Leslie (1996). Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-7940-9. OCLC 33014093.
- Pearce, Ruth (21 July 2011). "Non-gendered titles see increased recognition". Lesbilicious. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O.; T'Sjoen, Guy (2016). "Non-binary or genderqueer genders". International Review of Psychiatry. 28 (1): 95–102. doi:10.3109/09540261.2015.1106446. PMID 26753630.
- "Pakistani eunuchs to have distinct gender". BBC News. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
- "Newsletter of the Sociology of Sexualities Section of the American Sociological Association" (PDF). American Sociological Association Sexualities News. 6 (1). Summer 2003.
- "They, Them, and Theirs". harvardlawreview.org. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Cecka, Dale Margolin; Chamallas, Martha (2016). "Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989)". Feminist Judgments. Feminist Judgments: Rewritten Opinions of the United States Supreme Court. pp. 341–360. doi:10.1017/cbo9781316411254.020. ISBN 9781107126626.
- Harrison, Jack; Grant, Jaime; Herman, Jody L. "A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Barker, Meg-John (13 December 2017). Genderqueer and Non-Binary Genders. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-51053-2.
- "Introducing myself as 'they/them/their' at my workplace". Public Radio International. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- "One Who Fights For an Other". The New Indian Express.
- "Worldwide gay rights as a social movement picks up". merinews.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Deater, Lynn (29 April 2015). "He, She or They? » The Commuter". ncccommuter.org. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "Flags and Symbols" (PDF). www.amherst.edu. Amherst, Massachusetts: Amherst University. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "Gender and Sexuality Awareness Flags". David Mariner. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "8 Things Non-Binary People Need to Know". Let's Queer Things Up!. 15 March 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "After counting up all the 'votes' for each variation of my nonbinary flag (to be separate from the genderqueer flag), it seems this is the most loved! Yay!". genderweird. Tumblr. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
- "Gender-fluid added to the Oxford English Dictionary". LGBTQ Nation. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- Manzella, Samantha (7 October 2017). "Beyond The Rainbow: Your Guide To LGBT Flags". NewNowNext. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- Mathers, Charlie (13 July 2018). "Prepare for International Non-binary Day by learning how to be a better ally". Gay Star News. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- Hirst, Jordan (10 July 2018). "Inclusive Brisbane Party To Mark International Non-Binary Day". QNEWS Magazine. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "Important LGBT Dates". LGBT LifeWestchester. White Plains, NY. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- "International Non-Binary People's Day". Pride Inclusion Programs. acon. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- Gray, Emma; Vagianos, Alanna (27 July 2017). "We Have A Navy Veteran To Thank For The Transgender Pride Flag". Huffington Post. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- LB, Branson (26 July 2017). "The Veteran Who Created The Trans Pride Flag Reacts To Trump's Trans Military Ban". Buzzfeed. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
- "Mapping the Void: Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ Experiences in Hamilton" (PDF). 11 June 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
- "The values, needs and realities of LGBT people in Canada in 2017". 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
- "When asked their sex, some are going with option 'X'". USA Today. 21 June 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey" (PDF). National Center for Transgender Equality. 2016. p. 45. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Glen, Fiona; Hurrell, Karen (2012). "Technical note: Measuring Gender Identity" (PDF). Equality and Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Non-binary gender|
- Barker, Meg-John; Scheele, Julia. (2016). Queer: A Graphic History. London: Icon Books. ISBN 9781785780714. OCLC 939427299.
- Bernstein Sycamore, Mattilda, ed. (2006). Nobody Passes: Rejecting the Rules of Gender and Conformity. Emeryville: Seal Press. ISBN 978-1-58005-184-2. OCLC 50389309.
- Bornstein, Kate; Bergman, S. Bear, eds. (2010). Gender Outlaws: The Next Generation (Reprint ed.). Berkeley: Seal Press. ISBN 978-1-58005-308-2. OCLC 837948378.
- Fine, Cordelia (2011). Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference (Reprint ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-34024-2. OCLC 449865367.
- Fineman, Martha Albertson (2013). "Feminism, masculinities, and multiple identities". Nevada Law Journal. 13 (2): 16.
- Hines, Melissa (2005). Brain Gender. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518836-3. OCLC 846105995.
- Nestle, Joan; Howell, Clare; Wilchins, Riki Anne, eds. (2002). GenderQueer: Voices from Beyond the Sexual Binary. Los Angeles: Alyson Books. ISBN 978-1-55583-730-3. OCLC 50389309.
- Peterson, Tim Trace; Tolbert, T. C., eds. (2013). Troubling the Line: Trans and Genderqueer Poetry and Poetics. Callicoon: Nightboat Books. ISBN 978-1-937658-10-6. OCLC 839307399.
- Richards, C., Bouman, W. P., & Barker, M.-J. (2017). Genderqueer and non-binary genders. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137510525. OCLC1021393997.
- Scout, Ph.D. (23 July 2013). "(A) Male, (B) Female, (C) Both, (D) Neither". The Huffington Post. AOL. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Stryker, Susan; Whittle, Stephen, eds. (2006). The Transgender Studies Reader. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-58005-184-2. OCLC 50389309.