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Gender in Danish and Swedish

The distribution of one, two, and three grammatical genders in Danish dialects. In Zealand the transition from three to two genders has happened fairly recently. West of the red line the definite article goes before the word as in English or German; east of the line it takes the form of a suffix.

In standard Danish and Swedish, nouns have two grammatical genders, and pronouns have the same two grammatical genders in addition to two natural genders similar to English.

Contents

OverviewEdit

Historically, nouns in standard Danish and Swedish, like other Germanic languages, had one of three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine, or neuter. Over time the feminine and masculine genders merged into a common gender. A common gender is also partly used in some variants of Dutch, but in Dutch the merging is not complete, with some vestiges in pronouns. Swedish also has deviations from a complete common gender. Danish has no such vestiges, since unlike Dutch and German it does not use the same pronouns for objects and people, but like English it has natural gender personal pronouns for people, and separate grammatical gender pronouns for objects and animals.

Whereas standard Danish and Swedish are very similar in regard to noun genders, many dialects of these languages have separate numbers of grammatical genders, from only one, and up to three. Norwegian while similar to these languages, uses three genders in its standard versions, but some dialects, like that of Bergen and the Riksmål dialect of Bokmål use two.

History and dialectsEdit

Around 1300 Danish had three grammatical genders. Masculine nouns formed definite versions with -in (e.g.: dawin — the day, hæstin — the horse), feminine with -æn (kunæn - the woman, næsæn — the nose), and neuter with either -æt or -it (barnæt - the child, skipit - the ship). In some dialects, like East Jutlandic, Copenhagen and Stockholm, the -in and -æn suffixes merged to -en forms thereby losing the distinction between the two.[1] Other dialects kept the distinction, like Insular Danish, where only the feminine suffix became -en while masculine form lost the n and became -i (dawi - the day, katti - the cat), or Norwegian and North Swedish where the masculine definite suffix became -en, but feminine lost the n and became -a (mora/måma — the mother).

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

Like in English, accusative and dative cases are merged to one objective case and is only marked on object pronouns.

Nominative Objective Possessive
Masculine (natural gender) han ham / honom hans
Feminine (natural gender) hun / hon hende / henne hendes / hennes
Common (grammatical gender) den den dens / dess
Neuter (grammatical gender) det det dets / dess

ArticlesEdit

North Germanic languages use a definite suffix (or enclitic article) instead of a definite article, except when a preposition is attached to the noun, then a definite article is placed in front. Because these normally attach to common nouns and not proper nouns, they are usually not used for people. The only exceptions are as an epithet or a description, in which case the definite article for the common gender is used.

Indefinite article Definite article Definite suffix
Common gender en den -en \ -an / -en
Neuter et / ett det -et

Neutral natural genderEdit

Due to using natural genders for people, a problem arises when discussing a person of unknown or undefined gender. Traditionally the masculine pronouns have been used in that case, but that has caused some concern about cultural sexism. As a solution some feminists in Sweden have proposed to add a third class of gender-neutral pronouns for people.[2] This is used in some places in Sweden. The Danish translation is added in parenthesis, but is not actually used, and lacks objective and possessive versions.[3] In 2015, hen was introduced in SAOL, the glossary of the Swedish Academy.[4]

Nominative Accusative/Dative Possessive
Neutral (natural gender) hen (høn) hen/henom ( - ) hens ( - )

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Naveneordernes køn". Copenhagen University, Centre for Dialect Research. 
  2. ^ Margret Atladottir (29 February 2012). "När könet är okänt". Retrieved 26 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "Nyt fra Sprognævnet 2002 nr. 3" (PDF). 2002. Retrieved 2015-03-24. 
  4. ^ http://www.dn.se/kultur-noje/spraket/hen-med-i-ordlistan/