Gelati Monastery

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Gelati (Georgian: გელათის მონასტერი) is a medieval monastic complex near Kutaisi in the Imereti region of western Georgia. One of the first monasteries in Georgia,[1] it was founded in 1106 by King David IV of Georgia as a monastic and educational center, and is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Gelati Monastery
გელათის მონასტერი
Gelati 1661.jpg
The monastic complex of Gelati
Religion
AffiliationGeorgian Orthodox Church
RegionCaucasus
Location
LocationKutaisi, Imereti, Georgia
Gelati Monastery is located in Georgia
Gelati Monastery
Shown within Georgia
Gelati Monastery is located in Imereti
Gelati Monastery
Gelati Monastery (Imereti)
Geographic coordinates42°17′40″N 42°46′03″E / 42.2945472°N 42.7675583°E / 42.2945472; 42.7675583Coordinates: 42°17′40″N 42°46′03″E / 42.2945472°N 42.7675583°E / 42.2945472; 42.7675583
Architecture
TypeMonastery
StyleGeorgian
FounderDavid IV of Georgia ("David the Builder")
CompletedChurch of the Virgin, 1106;
Churches of St. George and St. Nicholas, 13th century
Official name: Gelati Monastery
CriteriaCultural: iv
Reference710
Inscription1994 (18th session)
Endangered2010-2017
Area4,2 ha
Buffer zone1,246 ha

Inside the monastery's church there are murals and imagery dating from the 12th–17th centuries.[2]

The monastery was built in the Georgian Golden Age and a gold aesthetic is employed in the paintings and buildings. It was built to highlight the presence of Christian faith in Georgia.[3] The monastery is covered in arches that stretch over mountains.[clarification needed]

OverviewEdit

Historically, Gelati was a cultural and intellectual center in Georgia. It had an Academy that employed Georgian scientists, theologians and philosophers, many of whom had previously been active at various Orthodox monasteries abroad, such as the Mangana Monastery in Constantinople. Among its notable scholars were Ioane Petritsi, who translated several classics of philosophy but is best known for his commentaries on Proclus; and Arsen Ikaltoeli, known for his Dogmatikon, or book of teachings, influenced by Aristotle. The Gelati Academy employed scribes to compile manuscript copies of important works,[4] and people of the time called it "a new Hellas" and "a second Athos".[5]

Of all the murals, manuscripts and ikons, perhaps the most valuable was the Khakhuli triptych, enshrined at Gelati until being stolen in 1859. It was returned in 1923, but in a badly reduced condition.[6] Gelati is the burial site of its founder David IV of Georgia. Near King David's grave are the gates of Ganja, which were taken by King Demetrius I of Georgia in 1138.

LandscapeEdit

The monastery is located a hill which overlooks Kutaisi, the old capital, a few kilometres to the west. It also overlooks the Tskaltsitela Gorge.

HistoryEdit

The Gelati Monastery was built in 1106 by King David IV of Georgia. It was constructed during the Byzantine Empire, during which Christianity was the ruling religion throughout the empire. The monastery's main church, known as Church of Virgin the Blessed was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It was also employed to teach science and became an academy of math and sciences in Georgia.

TodayEdit

The monastery still oversees Georgia and is a functioning church.[clarification needed] Under the supervision of UNESCO the site is being continually restored and protected. All the original structures of the monastery are intact and functional.

The mosaics and murals were damaged prior to UNESCO conservation,[7] but halted when the roof of the academy building was replaced by Georgian conservators.[4] By presidential decree, the monastery was added to the National Register of Monuments for protection and restoration in 2006.

TriptychsEdit

Triptychs were popular during the Byzantine Empire and important in Georgian culture.[8] The triptychs represented another form of contribution to the church. Triptychs were a form of iconography for the congregation.

MosaicsEdit

The interiors of the monastery hold mosaics in classic Byzantine style illustrating aspects of Christian belief. The largest, a 12th-century masterpiece depicting the Virgin Mary holding the baby Jesus, dominates the apse of the main church, and is an artwork of cultural importance in Georgia.[9] Above the altar is situated a statue of the Virgin Mary, looking down at the baby Jesus she is holding.

ArchitectureEdit

The Gelati monastery is constructed of solid stone, with full archways. The plan of the main monastery was designed in the shape of a cross, the symbol of Jesus's crucifixion and of Christianity.[10] The monastery was designed to be visible over much of the country, with its stone walls constructed to reflect sunlight. There are archways throughout the monastery, including the bell tower.

BurialsEdit

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kaufhold, Hubert (2011). [<http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy2.library.usyd.edu.au/10.1163/1877-5888_rpp_SIM_08287> "Gelati Monastery"] Check |url= value (help). Religion Past and Present. doi:10.1163/1877-5888_rpp_SIM_08287.
  2. ^ "World Heritage Site". 1997–2020.
  3. ^ Calma, Dragos (2020). Reading Proclus and the Book of Causes, Volume 2. Dublin: University College Dublin.
  4. ^ a b "Gelati Monastery". UNESCO. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  5. ^ Chatzidakis, Nano. Byzantine Mosaics, Volume 7. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon, 1994, p.22
  6. ^ Eastmond, Antony (2001), Eastern approaches to Byzantium: papers from the Thirty-third Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, University of Warwick, Coventry, March 1999, pp. 216-217. Ashgate/Variorum, ISBN 0-7546-0322-9, ISBN 978-0-7546-0322-1
  7. ^ Riggs, Thomas (2015). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. 2nd ed., vol. 2: Countries, Afghanistan to Ghana. Farmington Hills: Gale.
  8. ^ Dzhindzhikhashvili, Zoia (1996). ncyclopedia of World Cultures, vol. 6: Russia and Eurasia/China. NY: Macmillan Reference USA.
  9. ^ Most, W.G (2003). "Canon, Biblical". New Catholic Encyclopedia. 3: 20–34.
  10. ^ McClymond, Michael (2015). "Christianity". Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. 1: 119–168.
  • Byzantine Art, www.bourgogneromane.com/Byzantine.htm.
  • Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. “Gelati Monastery.” UNESCO World Heritage Centre, whc.unesco.org/en/list/710.
  • Chichinadze, Nina. “Some Compositional Characteristics of Georgian Triptychs of the Thirteenth through Fifteenth Centuries.” Gesta, vol. 35, no. 1, 1996, pp. 66–76. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/767227.
  • Derlemenko I︠E︡vhen Anatoliĭovych, and Gigilashvili Ėduard. Gelati : Arkhitektura, Mozaika, Freski (Fotoalʹbom]= Gelati : Architecture, Mosaic, Frescoes. Tbilisi, Khelovneba, 1982.
  • Hubert Kaufhold, Brill. Georgian Monasteries.
  • Mepʻisašvili, R. Gelati. "Sabčotʻa Sakʻartʻvelo", 1965.

External linksEdit

Adapted from the Wikinfo article Gelati Monastery by Levan Urushadze, licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.