Gastroduodenal artery

In anatomy, the gastroduodenal artery is a small blood vessel in the abdomen. It supplies blood directly to the pylorus (distal part of the stomach) and proximal part of the duodenum. It also indirectly supplies the pancreatic head (via the anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries).

Gastroduodenal artery
Gray532.png
The celiac artery and its branches.
Gray533.png
Branches of the celiac artery. The gastroduodenal artery appears on the right part of the figure and overlays/is anterior to the portal vein. The stomach is raised and inverted - compare with celiac artery branches - stomach in situ.
Details
Sourcecommon hepatic artery
BranchesRetroduodenal artery, right gastroepiploic artery, superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
Suppliespylorus, proximal duodenum
Identifiers
Latinarteria gastroduodenalis
TA98A12.2.12.016
TA24215
FMA14775
Anatomical terminology

StructureEdit

The gastroduodenal artery most commonly arises from either the left hepatic artery or the right hepatic artery instead.[1] It may also arise from the common hepatic artery of the coeliac trunk in a trifork arrangement with the two other arteries, but there are numerous variations of the origin.[1][2] It first gives rise to the supraduodenal artery, followed by the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. It terminates in a bifurcation when it splits into the right gastroepiploic artery and the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (superior pancreaticoduodenal artery).

These branches form functional anastomoses with the anterior and posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries from the superior mesenteric artery. Note that the exact branching of vessels from the gastroduoenal artery is variable. Typically, the posterior and anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries branch independently in that order, but can rarely come off a common trunk.

FunctionEdit

It supplies blood directly to the pylorus (distal part of the stomach) and proximal part of the duodenum. It also indirectly supplies the pancreatic head (via the anterior and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries).

Clinical significanceEdit

Peptic ulcerEdit

The gastroduodenal artery can be the source of a significant gastrointestinal bleed, which may arise as a complication of peptic ulcer disease. Because of its close relationship to the posteromedial wall of the second part of the duodenum, deeply penetrating ulcers or tumours of the duodenum may cause torrential bleeding from the gastroduodenal ‘artery of haemorrhage'.[3] It occurs because the profuse arterial network in the region ensures a high flow rate in the vessel.[3]

Additional imagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Qadan, Motaz; Kemeny, Nancy E. (2017-01-01), Jarnagin, William R. (ed.), "Chapter 99 - Regional chemotherapy for liver tumors", Blumgart's Surgery of the Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas, 2-Volume Set (Sixth Edition), Philadelphia: Elsevier, pp. 1470–1487.e3, ISBN 978-0-323-34062-5, retrieved 2021-01-26
  2. ^ Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Miyauchi R. Variations in Origin of Gastroduodenal Artery. from Anatomy Atlases. (http://www.anatomyatlases.org/AnatomicVariants/Cardiovascular/Images0001/0017.shtml)
  3. ^ a b gray 40th, page 1127

External linksEdit