Gastric dilatation volvulus
Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), also known as gastric dilation, twisted stomach, or gastric torsion, is a medical condition that affects dogs in which the stomach becomes overstretched and rotated by excessive gas content. The word bloat is often used as a general term to mean gas distension without stomach torsion (a normal change after eating), or to refer to GDV.
GDV is a life-threatening condition in dogs that requires prompt treatment. It is common in certain dog breeds; deep-chested breeds are especially at risk. Mortality rates in dogs range from 10 to 60 percent, even with treatment. With surgery, the mortality rate is 15 to 33 percent.
Symptoms are not necessarily distinguishable from other kinds of distress. A dog might stand uncomfortably and seem to be in extreme discomfort for no apparent reason. Other possible symptoms include firm distension of the abdomen, weakness, depression, difficulty breathing, hypersalivation, and retching without producing any vomitus ("non-productive vomiting"). A high rate of dogs with GDV have cardiac arrhythmias (40 percent in one study). Chronic GDV may occur in dogs, symptoms of which include loss of appetite, vomiting and weight loss.
Gastric dilatation volvulus in dogs is likely caused by a multitude of factors, but in all cases the immediate prerequisite is a dysfunction of the sphincter between the esophagus and stomach and an obstruction of outflow through the pylorus. Some of the more widely acknowledged factors for developing GDV include increased age, breed, having a deep and narrow chest, eating foods such as kibble that expand in the stomach, overfeeding, too much water consumption in a small period of time before or after exercise and other causes of gastrointestinal disease and distress. Studies have indicated that the risk of bloat in dogs perceived as happy by their owners is decreased, and increased in dogs perceived as fearful. This may be due to the physiological effects of the dog's personality on the function and motility of the gastrointestinal system. Alternatively, the dogs may become unhappy/uncomfortable as a consequence of the conditions that lead up to exhibiting bloat. Dogs with inflammatory bowel disease may be at an increased risk for bloat.
One common recommendation in the past has been to raise the food bowl of the dog when it eats. However, studies have shown that this may actually increase the risk of GDV. Eating only once daily and eating food consisting of particles less than 30 mm (1.2 in) in size also may increase the risk of GDV. One study looking at the ingredients of dry dog food found that while neither grains, soy, nor animal proteins increased risk of bloat, foods containing an increased amount of added oils or fats do increase the risk, possibly due to delayed emptying of the stomach.
The stomach twists around the longitudinal axis of the digestive tract, also known as volvulus. Gas distension may occur prior to or after the stomach twists. The most common direction for rotation is clockwise, viewing the animal from behind. The stomach can rotate up to 360° in this direction and 90° counterclockwise. If the volvulus is greater than 180°, the esophagus is closed off, thereby preventing the animal from relieving the condition by belching or vomiting. The results of this distortion of normal anatomy and gas distension include hypotension (low blood pressure), decreased return of blood to the heart, ischemia (loss of blood supply) of the stomach, and shock. Pressure on the portal vein decreases blood flow to liver and decreases the ability of that organ to remove toxins and absorbed bacteria from the blood. At the other end of the stomach, the spleen may be damaged if the twisting interrupts its blood supply. If not quickly treated, bloat can lead to blood poisoning, peritonitis and death by toxic shock.
A diagnosis of gastric dilatation-volvulus is made by several factors. The breed and history will often give a significant suspicion of gastric dilatation-volvulus, and the physical exam will often reveal the telltale sign of a distended abdomen with abdominal tympany. Shock is diagnosed by the presence of pale mucous membranes with poor capillary refill, increased heart rate, and poor pulse quality. Radiographs (x-rays), usually taken after decompression of the stomach if the dog is unstable, will show a stomach distended with gas. The pylorus, which normally is ventral and to the right of the body of the stomach, will be cranial to the body of the stomach and left of the midline, often separated on the x-ray by soft tissue and giving the appearance of a separate gas filled pocket (double bubble sign).
Gastric dilatation volvulus is an emergency medical condition: having the animal examined by a veterinarian is imperative. GDV can become fatal within a matter of minutes.
Treatment usually involves resuscitation with intravenous fluid therapy, usually a combination of isotonic fluids and hypertonic saline or a colloidal solution such as hetastarch, and emergency surgery. The stomach is initially decompressed by passing a stomach tube, or if that is not possible, trocars can be passed through the skin into the stomach to remove the gas, alternatively the trocars may be inserted directly into the stomach following anaesthesia in order to reduce the chances of infection. During surgery, the stomach is placed back into its correct position, the abdomen is examined for any devitalized tissue (especially the stomach and spleen). A partial gastrectomy may be necessary if there is any necrosis of the stomach wall.
Recurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus attacks can be a problem, occurring in up to 80 percent of dogs treated medically only (without surgery). To prevent recurrence, at the same time the bloat is treated surgically, a right-side gastropexy is often performed, which by a variety of methods firmly attaches the stomach wall to the body wall, to prevent it from twisting inside the abdominal cavity in the future. While dogs that have had gastropexies still may develop gas distension of the stomach, there is a significant reduction in recurrence of gastric volvulus. One study showed that out of 136 dogs that had surgery for gastric dilatation-volvulus, 4.3 percent of those that did have gastropexies had a recurrence, while 54.5 percent of those without the additional surgery recurred. Gastropexies are also performed prophylactically in dogs considered to be at high risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus, including dogs with previous episodes of gastric dilatation-volvulus or with gastrointestinal disease predisposing to gastric dilatation-volvulus, and dogs with a first-order relative (parent or sibling) with a history of gastric dilatation-volvulus.
Precautions that are likely to help prevent gastric dilatation-volvulus include feeding small meals throughout the day instead of one big meal and not exercising immediately before or after a meal.
Immediate treatment is the most important factor in a favorable prognosis. A delay in treatment greater than six hours or the presence of peritonitis, sepsis, hypotension, or disseminated intravascular coagulation are negative prognostic indicators.
Historically, GDV has held a guarded prognosis. Although "early studies showed mortality rates between 33% and 68% for dogs with GDV," studies from 2007 to 2012 "reported mortality rates between 10% and 26.8%". Mortality rates approach 10% to 40% even with treatment. A study determined that with prompt treatment and good preoperative stabilization of the patient, mortality is significantly lessened to 10% overall (in a referral setting). Negative prognostic indicators following surgical intervention include postoperative cardiac arrhythmia, splenectomy, or splenectomy with partial gastric resection. A longer time from presentation to surgery was associated with a lower mortality, presumably because these dogs had received more complete preoperative fluid resuscitation and were thus better cardiovascularly stabilized prior to the procedure.
As a general rule, GDV is of greatest risk to deep-chested dogs. The five breeds at greatest risk are Great Danes, Weimaraners, St. Bernards, Gordon Setters, and Irish Setters. In fact, the lifetime risk for a Great Dane to develop GDV has been estimated to be close to 37 percent. Standard Poodles are also at risk for this health problem, as are Irish Wolfhound, Doberman Pinschers, Rottweilers, German Shorthaired Pointer, German Shepherds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks. Basset Hounds and Dachshunds have the greatest risk for dogs less than 50 lb (23 kg).
Society and cultureEdit
- Aronson, Lillian R.; Brockman, Daniel J.; Brown, Dorothy Cimino (2000). "Gastrointestinal Emergencies". The Veterinary Clinics of North America. 30 (1): 558–569. doi:10.1016/s0195-5616(00)50039-4. PMC 1374121.
- Beck J, Staatz A, Pelsue D, Kudnig S, MacPhail C, Seim H, Monnet E (2006). "Risk factors associated with short-term outcome and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery because of gastric dilatation-volvulus: 166 cases (1992-2003)". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 229 (12): 1934–9. doi:10.2460/javma.229.12.1934. PMID 17173533.
- Brockman D, Washabau R, Drobatz K (1995). "Canine gastric dilatation/volvulus syndrome in a veterinary critical care unit: 295 cases (1986-1992)". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 207 (4): 460–4. PMID 7591946.
- Fossum, Theresa W. (2006). "Gastric Dilatation Volvulus: What's New?" (PDF). Proceedings of the 31st World Congress. World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
- Parton A, Volk S, Weisse C (2006). "Gastric ulceration subsequent to partial invagination of the stomach in a dog with gastric dilatation-volvulus". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 228 (12): 1895–900. doi:10.2460/javma.228.12.1895. PMID 16784379.
- Glickman L, Glickman N, Schellenberg D, Raghavan M, Lee T (2000). "Incidence of and breed-related risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 216 (1): 40–5. doi:10.2460/javma.2000.216.40. PMID 10638316.
- Braun L, Lester S, Kuzma A, Hosie S (1996). "Gastric dilatation-volvulus in the dog with histological evidence of preexisting inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective study of 23 cases". Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 32 (4): 287–90. doi:10.5326/15473317-32-4-287. PMID 8784718.
- Glickman L, Glickman N, Schellenberg D, Raghavan M, Lee T (2000). "Non-dietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in large and giant breed dogs". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 217 (10): 1492–9. doi:10.2460/javma.2000.217.1492. PMID 11128539.
- Glickman L, Glickman N, Schellenberg D, Simpson K, Lantz G (1997). "Multiple risk factors for the gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in dogs: a practitioner/owner case-control study". Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 33 (3): 197–204. doi:10.5326/15473317-33-3-197. PMID 9138229.
- Theyse L, van de Brom W, van Sluijs F (1998). "Small size of food particles and age as risk factors for gastric dilatation volvulus in great danes". Vet. Rec. 143 (2): 48–50. doi:10.1136/vr.143.2.48. PMID 9699253.
- Raghavan M, Glickman N, Glickman L (2006). "The effect of ingredients in dry dog foods on the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs". Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 42 (1): 28–36. doi:10.5326/0420028. PMID 16397192.
- "Gastric Dilatation-volvulus". The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
- Bright, Ronald M. (2004). "Gastric dilatation-volvulus: risk factors and some new minimally invasive gastropexy techniques". Proceedings of the 29th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
- Rawlings C, Mahaffey M, Bement S, Canalis C (2002). "Prospective evaluation of laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in dogs susceptible to gastric dilatation". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 221 (11): 1576–81. doi:10.2460/javma.2002.221.1576. PMID 12479327.
- Glickman L, Lantz G, Schellenberg D, Glickman N (1998). "A prospective study of survival and recurrence following the acute gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in 136 dogs". Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 34 (3): 253–9. doi:10.5326/15473317-34-3-253. PMID 9590454.
- Wingfield, Wayne E. (1997). Veterinary Emergency Medicine Secrets. Hanley & Belfus, Inc. ISBN 978-1-56053-215-6.
- "Canine Bloat: Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus (GDV): 'The Mother of All Emergencies'". marylandpetemergency.com. Animal Emergency Hospital. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- Przywara, John F.; Abel, Steven B.; Peacock, John T.; Shott, Susan (October 2014). "Occurrence and recurrence of gastric dilatation with or without volvulus after incisional gastropexy". Can Vet J. 55 (10): 981–984. PMC 4187373. PMID 25320388.
- "Bloat". aspca.org. The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- Mackenzie G, Barnhart M, Kennedy S, DeHoff W, Schertel E (March–April 2010). "A retrospective study of factors influencing survival following surgery for gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in 306 dogs". Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 46 (2): 97–102. doi:10.5326/0460097. PMID 20194364.
- Glickman L, Glickman N, Pérez C, Schellenberg D, Lantz G (1994). "Analysis of risk factors for gastric dilatation and dilatation-volvulus in dogs". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 204 (9): 1465–71. PMID 8050972.
- Ward M, Patronek G, Glickman L (2003). "Benefits of prophylactic gastropexy for dogs at risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus". Prev. Vet. Med. 60 (4): 319–29. doi:10.1016/S0167-5877(03)00142-9. PMID 12941556.
- Bloat | DogTime - Warning signs to watch for
- Lucas, D (15 September 2014). "'Bloat' refers to 2 different stomach ailments in pets". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2017-07-28.
- "The Simpsons - 'Dog of Death'". cwsanfrancisco.cbslocal.com. KBCW/CBS Local. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2017.