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Gardner–Salinas braille codes

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8-cell variety, commonly called GS8. There is also a corresponding 6-cell form called GS6.[1]

The codes were developed as a replacement for Nemeth Braille by John A. Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician.

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact human-readable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX system for scientific typesetting.[citation needed]

Table of Gardner–Salinas 8-dot (GS8) brailleEdit

The set of lower-case letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade-2 English Braille.[1]

DigitsEdit

Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Braille                    

Apart from 0, this is the same as the Antoine notation used in French and Luxembourgish Braille.

Upper-case lettersEdit

GS8 upper-case letters are indicated by the same cell as standard English braille (and GS8) lower-case letters, with dot #7 added.

Symbol A B C D E F G H I J K L M
Braille                          
Symbol N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Braille                          

Compare Luxembourgish Braille.

Greek lettersEdit

Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek Braille to derive Greek letters:

Symbol α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ
Braille                        
Symbol ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Braille                        
Symbol Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω
Braille                      

Characters differing from English BrailleEdit

Symbol Parentheses Brackets single quote  
open close open close open close ?
Braille              

ASCII symbols and mathematical operatorsEdit

Symbol " $ & @ \ ^ _ ` { } ~
Braille                      
Symbol # % * + / < = > × · ÷
Braille                      

Text symbolsEdit

Symbol © £
Braille          

Math and science symbolsEdit

Symbol |x| (abs. value) line ∫ closed ∫
Braille                  
Symbol ...
Braille                      

MarkupEdit

Symbol Superscript Subscript Left-superscript Left-subscript Begin fraction Denominator End fraction Over *
Braille                

* Encodes the fraction-slash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator.

Symbol complex radicand * displayed equation ** math expressions ** hyperlink **
Open Close Open Close Open Close Open Close
Braille                  

* Used for any > 1 digit radicand.

** Used for markup to represent inkprint text.

Symbol Array      
Begin End End element End line vert. stack horiz. combo superposition
Braille              
Symbol Misc. Symbol *     Modifiers
Begin End Quantity Markup indicator Inverted Stroke/Not Variant Large
Braille                

Typeface indicatorsEdit

Symbol Script Bold Italic Underline Definable font 1 Fractur Roman Underline
Braille                

Shape symbolsEdit

Symbol Open Square
Braille               

Set theoryEdit

Symbol
Braille            

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Index of Topics in Braille Section". Oregon State University Science Access Project Braille topics. Archived from the original on 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2012-04-29.