Gardiner's sign list

Gardiner's Sign List is a list of common Egyptian hieroglyphs compiled by Sir Alan Gardiner. It is considered a standard reference in the study of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Gardiner lists only the common forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs, but he includes extensive subcategories, and also both vertical and horizontal forms for many hieroglyphs. He includes size-variation forms to aid with the reading of hieroglyphs in running blocks of text. In contrast, for example, the Budge Reference has about 1000 hieroglyphs listed in 50 pages, but with no size variations.

Gardiner does not cross-index signs; once put on the list, other significant uses may be overlooked. One example of this is G16, nbtỉ, the ideogram for The Two Ladies, goddesses Wadjet as the cobra and Nekhbet as the white vulture. These are the protective and patron goddesses of the separate Egyptian kingdoms that joined into Ancient Egypt, who were both then displayed on the uraeus of Wadjet when the unification occurred and afterward considered jointly to be the protectors of Egypt and the pharaohs. This ideogram is listed only on the bird list as G16, and overlooked on the deity list and the reptile list.

Other subcategories included by Gardiner are abbreviations and personalized forms, and also a complete subset, used on papyrus, specifically for the Book of the Dead.

CategoriesEdit

A. Man and his occupationsEdit

56 signs in Gardiner (1957:242–247), with A59 "man threatening with stick" inserted after A25 "man striking with left hand hanging behind back", and two variants A14* "blood interpreted as ax" of A14 "man with blood streaming from his head" and A17* "child sitting with arms hanging down" of A17 "child sitting with hand to mouth".

A1
 
A2
 
A3
 
A4
 
A5
 
A6
 
A7
 
A8
 
A9
 
A10
 
A11
 
A12
 
A13
 
A14
 
A15
 
A16
 
A17
 
A18
 
A19
 
A20
 
A21
 
A22
 
A23
 
A24
 
A25
 
A26
 
A27
 
A28
 
A29
 
A30
 
A31
 
A32
 
A33
 
A34
 
A35
 
A36
 
A37
 
A38
 
A39
 
A40
 
A41
 
A42
 
A43
 
A44
 
A45
 
A46
 
A47
 
A48
 
A49
 
A50
 
A51
 
A52
 
A53
 
A54
 
A55
 
A56
 
A57
A57
A58
A58
A59
 
A60
A60

B. Woman and her occupationsEdit

7 signs in Gardiner (1957:448).

B1
 
B2
 
B3
 
B4
 
B5
 
B6
 
B7
 
B8
 
B9
 
B10
 
B11
 
B12
 

C. Anthropomorphic deitiesEdit

11 signs in Gardiner (1957:448f.) with the addition of five 19th Dynasty signs, C12 Amun, C17 Mont, C18 Tjanen, C19 and C20 Ptah.

C1
 
C2
 
C3
 
C4
 
C5
 
C6
 
C7
 
C8
 
C9
 
C10
 
C11
 
C12
 
C17
 
C18
 
C19
 
C20
 

D. Parts of the human bodyEdit

Expected quantity: 63

D1
 
D2
 
D3
 
D4
 
D5
 
D6
 
D7
 
D8
 
D9
 
D10
 
D11
 
D12
 
D13
 
D14
 
D15
 
D16
 
D17
 
D18
 
D19
 
D20
 
D21
 
D22
 
D23
 
D24
 
D25
 
D26
 
D27
 
D28
 
D29
 
D30
 
D31
 
D32
 
D33
 
D34
 
D35
 
D36
 
D37
 
D38
 
D39
 
D40
 
D41
 
D42
 
D43
 
D44
 
D45
 
D46
 
D47
 
D48
 
D49
 
D50
 
D51
 
D52
 
D53
 
D54
 
D55
 
D56
 
D57
 
D58
 
D59
 
D60
 
D61
 
D62
 
D63
 
D64
D64
D65
D65
D66
D66
D67
D67
D68
D68
D69
D69
D70
D70

E. MammalsEdit

Expected quantity: 34

E1
 
E2
 
E3
 
E4
 
E5
 
E6
 
E7
 
E8
 
E9
 
E10
 
E11
 
E12
 
E13
 
E14
 
E15
 
E16
 
E17
 
E18
 
E19
 
E20
 
E21
 
E22
 
E23
 
E24
 
E25
 
E26
 
E27
 
E28
 
E29
 
E30
 
E31
 
E32
 
E33
 
E34
 
E35
E35
E36
E36
E37
E37
E38
E38
E39
E39
E40
E40

F. Parts of mammalsEdit

Expected quantity: 52

F1
 
F2
 
F3
 
F4
 
F5
 
F6
 
F7
 
F8
 
F9
 
F10
 
F11
 
F12
 
F13
 
F14
 
F15
 
F16
 
F17
 
F18
 
F19
 
F20
 
F21
 
F22
 
F23
 
F24
 
F25
 
F26
 
F27
 
F28
 
F29
 
F30
 
F31
 
F32
 
F33
 
F34
 
F35
 
F36
 
F37
 
F38
 
F39
 
F40
 
F41
 
F42
 
F43
 
F44
 
F45
 
F46
 
F47
 
F48
 
F49
 
F50
 
F51
 
F52
 
F53
F53
F54
F54
F55
F55
F56
F56
F57
F57
F58
F58
F59
F59
F60
F60

G. BirdsEdit

Expected quantity: 54

G1
 
G2
 
G3
 
G4
 
G5
 
G6
 
G7
 
G8
 
G9
 
G10
 
G11
 
G12
 
G13
 
G14
 
G15
 
G16
 
G17
 
G18
 
G19
 
G20
 
G21
 
G22
 
G23
 
G24
 
G25
 
G26
 
G27
 
G28
 
G29
 
G30
 
G31
 
G32
 
G33
 
G34
 
G35
 
G36
 
G37
 
G38
 
G39
 
G40
 
G41
 
G42
 
G43
 
G44
 
G45
 
G46
 
G47
 
G48
 
G49
 
G50
 
G51
 
G52
 
G53
 
G54
 
G55
G55
G56
G56
G57
G57
G58
G58
G59
G59
G60
G60

H. Parts of birdsEdit

Expected quantity: 8

H1
 
H2
 
H3
 
H4
 
H5
 
H6
 
H7
 
H8
 
H9
H9
H10
H10

I. Amphibious animals, reptiles, etc.Edit

15 signs in Gardiner (1957:475f).

No. img. Unicode phon. description usage, notes
I1
 
𓆈 U+13188 ꜥšꜣ lizard "lizard"
I2
 
𓆉 U+13189 freshwater turtle štjw "turtle"
I3
 
𓆊 U+1318A ı͗t crocodile "crocodile" (ḫntj), "be greedy; lust after" (ḥnt), "voracious, angry" , (ꜣd)
I4
 
𓆋 U+1318B crocodile on a shrine Sobek
I5
 
𓆌 U+1318C crocodile with inward curved tail "collect, gather" (sꜣq)
I6
 
𓆎 U+1318E km piece of crocodile-skin with spines as phonogram in kmt "Egypt", skm "grey-haired"
I7
 
𓆏 U+1318F frog "frog" (qrr), Heqet, ideogram in wḥm-ꜥnḫ "repeating life"
I8
 
𓆐 U+13190 ḥfn tadpole
I9
 
𓆑 U+13191 f horned viper
I10
 
𓆓 U+13193 cobra in repose
I11
 
𓆕 U+13195 ḏḏ two cobras
I12
 
𓆗 U+13197 cobra erect Uraeus (iꜥrt), Nesret
I13
 
𓆘 U+13198 I12 + V30 "goddess"
I14
 
𓆙 U+13199 snake "snake" (ḏdft), "serpent" (ḥfꜣw)
I15
 
𓆚 U+1319A variant of I14

K. Fish and parts of fishEdit

Expected quantity: 7

K1
 
K2
 
K3
 
K4
 
K5
 
K6
 
K7
 
K8
K8
K9
K9
K10
K10

L. Invertebrates and lesser animalsEdit

Expected quantity: 7

L1
 
L2
 
L3
 
L4
 
L5
 
L6
 
L7
 
L8
L8
L9
L9
L10
L10

M. Trees and plantsEdit

44 signs in Gardiner (1957:478–484).

M1
 
M2
 
M3
 
M4
 
M5
 
M6
 
M7
 
M8
 
M9
 
M10
 
M11
 
M12
 
M13
 
M14
 
M15
 
M16
 
M17
 
M18
 
M19
 
M20
 
M21
 
M22
 
M23
 
M24
 
M25
 
M26
 
M27
 
M28
 
M29
 
M30
 
M31
 
M32
 
M33
 
M34
 
M35
 
M36
 
M37
 
M38
 
M39
 
M40
 
M41
 
M42
 
M43
 
M44
 

N. Sky, earth, waterEdit

42 signs in Gardiner (1957:485–492). N3 is an Old Kingdom variant of N2. N11 "moon" has vertical (increscent and decrescent) variants, N12 is a 19th-Dynasty variant of N11.

No. img. Unicode phon. description usage, notes
N1
 
𓇯 U+131EF pt sky
N2
 
𓇰 U+131F0 grḥ sky with sceptre det. for "darkness"
N3
 
𓇱 U+131F1 as N2 variant of N2 Old Kingdom variant of N2
N4
 
𓇲 U+131F2 moisture falling from the sky "dew", "rain"
N5
 
𓇳 U+131F3 rꜥ sun
N6
 
𓇴 U+131F4 rꜥ sun with uraeus 19th Dynasty
N7
 
𓇵 U+131F5 N5 + T28 ẖrt-hrw "day-time"
N8
 
𓇶 U+131F6 wbn sunshine Usually depicted with three rays, older variants may also have four rays.[1] Determinative for e.g. pḥḏ "to shine, illumine" and wbn "rise"; from this latter case, it can also take the phonetic value of wbn when standing on its own, e.g. in wbn "wound". Alternatively, it is either a determiner or ideogram for ḥnmmt, the name of the "sun folk" of Heliopolis (Gardiner p. 486).
A depiction with four rays is found on an ivory wand of c. 2100 BC: The "Sun with rays" hieroglyph is shown once, placed upon the head of a ram. It has a central dot, like the "Sun" hieroglyph (N5), with four elongated, undulating vertical rays.[2] See also Aten.
N9
 
𓇷 U+131F7 psḏ moon with its lower half obscured 18th Dynasty
N10
 
𓇸 U+131F8 as N9 variant of N9 18th Dynasty
N11
 
𓇹 U+131F9 crescent moon
N12
 
𓇺 U+131FA variant of N11 18th Dynasty
N13
 
𓇻 U+131FB half of N11 + N14 "half-month festival"
N14
 
𓇼 U+131FC star
N15
 
𓇽 U+131FD star in circle
N16
 
𓇾 U+131FE N18 + 3 x N33 "earth, land" (flat alluvial land with grains of sand)
N17
 
𓇿 U+131FF variant of N16 as N16
N18
 
𓈀 U+13200 ı͗ sandy tract "island"
N19
 
𓈃 U+13203 2 x N18 in ḥr-ꜣḫty "Horus-of-the-Horizon"
N20
 
𓈄 U+13204 tongue of land "sand bank, shore"
N21
 
𓈅 U+13205 tongue of land "bank, region" (in "two banks" = "Egypt")
N22
 
𓈆 U+13206 tongue of land Old Kingdom predecessor of both N20 and N21
N23
 
𓈇 U+13207 irrigation canal differentiation of N36
N24
 
𓈈 U+13208 land with irrigation tunnels "district, nome"
N25
 
𓈉 U+13209 hills "hill-country, foreign land"
N26
 
𓈋 U+1320B ḏw mountain
N27
 
𓈌 U+1320C sun rising over mountain "horizon"
N28
 
𓈍 U+1320D ḫꜥ sun rising over hill
N29
 
𓈎 U+1320E q sandy hill-slope
N30
 
𓈏 U+1320F mound with shrubs "mound"
N31
 
𓈐 U+13210 road bordered by shrubs "road"
N32
 
𓈑 U+13211 lump of clay or dung Old Kingdom
N33
 
𓈒 U+13212 grain of sand
N34
 
𓈔 U+13214 metal ingot
N35
 
𓈖 U+13216 n ripple of water variant "three ripples" 𓈗 U+13217
N36
 
𓈘 U+13218 water channel
N37
 
𓈙 U+13219 pool "pool"
N38
 
𓈛 U+1321B variant of N37 more detailed drawing of N37
N39
 
𓈜 U+1321C garden pool full of water variant of N37
N40
 
𓈝 U+1321D N37 + D54 "go"
N41
 
𓈞 U+1321E bı͗ꜣ well full of water "well"
N42
 
𓈟 U+1321F variant of N41 as N41

O. Buildings, parts of buildings, etc.Edit

51 signs (with variants, U+13250–1329A).

O1
 
O2
 
O3
 
O4
 
O5
 
O6
 
O7
 
O8
 
O9
 
O10
 
O11
 
O12
 
O13
 
O14
 
O15
 
O16
 
O17
 
O18
 
O19
 
O20
 
O21
 
O22
 
O23
 
O24
 
O25
 
O26
 
O27
 
O28
 
O29
 
O30
 
O31
 
O32
 
O33
 
O34
 
O35
 
O36
 
O37
 
O38
 
O39
 
O40
 
O41
 
O42
 
O43
 
O44
 
O45
 
O46
 
O47
 
O48
 
O49
 
O50
 
O51
 

P. Ships and parts of shipsEdit

Expected quantity: 11

P1
 
P2
 
P3
 
P4
 
P5
 
P6
 
P7
 
P8
 
P9
 
P10
 
P11
 
P12
P12
P13
 
P14
P14
P15
P15
P16
P16
P17
P17
P18
P18
P19
P19
P20
P20

Q. Domestics and funerary furnitureEdit

Expected quantity: 7

Q1
 
Q2
 
Q3
 
Q4
 
Q5
 
Q6
 
Q7
 
Q8
Q8
Q9
Q9
Q10
Q10

R. Temple furniture and sacred emblemsEdit

Expected quantity: 25

R1
 
R2
 
R3
 
R4
 
R5
 
R6
 
R7
 
R8
 
R9
 
R10
 
R11
 
R12
 
R13
 
R14
 
R15
 
R16
 
R17
 
R18
 
R19
 
R20
 
R21
 
R22
 
R23
 
R24
 
R25
 
R26
R26
R27
R27
R28
R28
R29
R29
R30
R30

S. Crowns, dress, staves, etc.Edit

Expected quantity: 45

S1
 
S2
 
S3
 
S4
 
S5
 
S6
 
S7
 
S8
 
S9
 
S10
 
S11
 
S12
 
S13
 
S14
 
S15
 
S16
 
S17
 
S18
 
S19
 
S20
 
S21
 
S22
 
S23
 
S24
 
S25
 
S26
 
S27
 
S28
 
S29
 
S30
 
S31
 
S32
 
S33
 
S34
 
S35
 
S36
 
S37
 
S38
 
S39
 
S40
 
S41
 
S42
 
S43
 
S44
 
S45
 
S46
S46
S47
S47
S48
S48
S49
S49
S50
S50

T. Warfare, hunting, and butcheryEdit

Expected quantity: 35

T1
 
T2
 
T3
 
T4
 
T5
 
T6
 
T7
 
T8
 
T9
 
T10
 
T11
 
T12
 
T13
 
T14
 
T15
 
T16
 
T17
 
T18
 
T19
 
T20
 
T21
 
T22
 
T23
 
T24
 
T25
 
T26
 
T27
 
T28
 
T29
 
T30
 
T31
 
T32
 
T33
 
T34
 
T35
 
T36
T36
T37
T37
T38
T38
T39
T39
T40
T40

U. Agriculture, crafts, and professionsEdit

41 signs.

U1
 
U2
 
U3
 
U4
 
U5
 
U6
 
U7
 
U8
 
U9
 
U10
 
U11
 
U12
 
U13
 
U14
 
U15
 
U16
 
U17
 
U18
 
U19
 
U20
 

adze on block
stp "cut", "choose"
(stp-n-rꜣ "chosen of Ra")
U21
 
U22
 
U23
 
U24
 
U25
 
U26
 
U27
 
U28
 
U29
 
U30
 
U31
 
U32
 
U33
 
U34
 
U35
 
U36
 
U37
 
U38
 
U39
 
U40
 
U41
 

V. Rope, fiber, baskets, bags, etc.Edit

40 signs (38 in Gardiner 1957). V39 is the Tyet or "Knot of Isis". V40 is the numeral 10 in dates.

V1
 
V2
 
V3
 
V4
 
V5
 
V6
 
V7
 
V8
 
V9
 
V10
 
V11
 
V12
 
V13
 
V14
 
V15
 
V16
 
V17
 
V18
 
V19
 
V20
 
V21
 
V22
 
V23
 
V24
 
V25
 
V26
 
V27
 
V28
 
V29
 
V30
 
V31
 
V32
 
V33
 
V34
 
V35
 
V36
 
V37
 
V38
 
V39
 
V40
V40

W. Vessels of stone and earthenwareEdit

25 signs.

W1
 
W2
 
W3
 
W4
 
W5
 
W6
 
W7
 
W8
 
W9
 
W10
 
W11
 
W12
 
W13
 
W14
 
W15
 
W16
 
W17
 
W18
 
W19
 
W20
 
W21
 
W22
 
W23
 
W24
 
W25
 

X. Loaves and cakesEdit

8 signs.

X1
 

t feminine
X2
 
X3
 

bread
X4
 
X5
 

bread, food
X6
 

loaf (pAt)
X7
 

half-loaf (gSw)
X8
 

conical loaf; "give" (di, imi)

Y. Writings, games, musicEdit

8 signs.

Y1
 

Papyrus
roll-tied
Y2
 
Y3
 

Scribe
equipment
Y4
 
Y5
 
Y6
 

board
game
piece
Y7
 

Y8
 

Sistrum

Z. Strokes, signs derived from Hieratic, geometrical figuresEdit

11 signs.

Z1
 
Z2
 
Z3
 
Z4
 
Z5
 
Z6
 
Z7
 
Z8
 
Z9
 
Z10
 
Z11
 

Aa. UnclassifiedEdit

31 signs in Gardiner (1957).

Aa1
 
Aa2
 
Aa3
 
Aa4
 
Aa5
 
Aa6
 
Aa7
 
Aa8
 
Aa9
 
Aa10
 
Aa11
 
Aa12
 
Aa13
 
Aa14
 
Aa15
 
Aa16
 
Aa17
 
Aa18
 
Aa19
 
Aa20
 
Aa21
 
Aa22
 
Aa23
 
Aa24
 
Aa25
 
Aa26
 
Aa27
 
Aa28
 
Aa29
 
Aa30
 
Aa31
 
Aa32
 
Aa33
Aa33
Aa34
Aa34
Aa35
Aa35
Aa36
Aa36
Aa37
Aa37
Aa38
Aa38
Aa39
Aa39
Aa40
 
Aa41
 
Aa42
Aa42
Aa43
Aa43
Aa44
Aa44
Aa45
Aa45
Aa46
Aa46
Aa47
Aa47
Aa48
Aa48
Aa49
Aa49
Aa50
Aa50

UnicodeEdit

𓁄
A059: man threatening with stick
In UnicodeU+013044 𓁄 EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPH A059 (HTML 𓁄)

These hieroglyphs have unicode code points and so, given a suitable font, can be displayed or printed. The block starts at U+013000 for A001.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Betrò, 1995. Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt, Sun with Rays, p. 152.
  2. ^ Fleming; Lothian; (and Fletcher), 1997. The Way to Eternity: Egyptian Myth, Fergus Fleming, Alan Lothian, and consultant Dr. Joann Fletcher. c 1997, Duncan Baird Publishers. (hardcover, ISBN 0-7054-3503-2), 124-126.
  • Budge, Sir E.A.Wallis, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, in Two Volumes, Sir E.A.Wallis Budge, (Dover Publications, Inc. New York), c 1920, Dover Edition, c 1978. (Large categorized listings of Hieroglyphs, Vol 1, pp. xcvii–cxlvii (97–147) (25 categories, 1000+ hieroglyphs), 50 pgs.)
  • A.H. Gardiner, Catalogue of the Egyptian hieroglyphic printing type, from matrices owned and controlled by Dr. Alan (1928).
  • A.H. Gardiner, "Additions to the new hieroglyphic fount (1928)", The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 15 (1929), p. 95.
  • A.H. Gardiner, "Additions to the new hieroglyphic fount (1931)", The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 17 (1931), pp. 245–247.
  • A.H. Gardiner, Supplement to the catalogue of the Egyptian hieroglyphic printing type, showing acquisitions to December 1953 (1953).
  • A.H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3rd Ed., pub. Griffith Institute, Oxford, 1957 (1st edition 1927), pp. 438–548 (pdf).
  • Wilkinson, Richard, Reading Egyptian Art, A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture, Richard H. Wilkinson, with 450 Illustrations, (Thames & Hudson Ltd, London), c 1992.

Reading listEdit

External linksEdit