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Galmudug (Italian: Galmudugh), officially Galmudug State, is an autonomous region in central Somalia. It is bordered to the north by the Puntland region, to the west by Ethiopia, to the east by Somali Sea and to the south by Hirshabelle.

Galmudug State of Somalia

  • Dowlad Goboleedka Galmudug ee Soomaaliya  (Somali)
  • ولاية غامدوغ الصومال  (Arabic)
  • Wilāyat Gālmuḍug aṣ-Ṣūmāl
Motto: "My Home State"
Territory of Galmudug (according to)[1][2] [3] [4]
Territory of Galmudug (according to)[1][2]

[3]

[4]
CapitalDhusamareb [5]
6°08′25″N 46°37′32″E / 6.14028°N 46.62556°E / 6.14028; 46.62556
Largest cityGalkacyo
Official languages
Demonym(s)Somali
GovernmentAutonomous presidential democracy
• President
Ahmed Duale Gelle
• Chief Minister
Mohamed Ali Hassan
Autonomous State 
within Somalia
• Established
14 August 2006[6]
Area
• Total
78,279[7] km2 (30,224 sq mi)
Population
• 2013 estimate
1,230,000
CurrencySomali shilling (SOS)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (not observed)
Driving sideright
Calling code+252 (Somalia)
ISO 3166 codeSO
Internet TLD.so

Galmudug's name is derived from a conflation of the names of the Galgaduud and Mudug regions. Galmudug consists of the region of Galgaduud and Mudug region.[8][9][10][11][12] Galmudug is an autonomous state within the larger Federal Republic of Somalia, as defined by the provisional constitution of Somalia.[9]

Contents

LocationEdit

Galmudug is the most centrally located area in Somalia. It is situated about 750 km from Mogadishu, Bosaso and Harar in Ethiopia. The region is bordered to the east by the Somali Sea, to the west by Ethiopia, to the north by Puntland, and to the south by the Hiran region.

HistoryEdit

EstablishmentEdit

On August 14, 2006, the autonomous Galmudug region was established. Mohamed Warsame Ali 'Kiimiko' was elected as the new administration's President, and Galkayo was declared the new polity's capital.[13]

The appellation Galmudug is a conflation of Galguduud and Mudug provinces.

Relations between Galmudug and the Puntland region to its immediate north have historically been tense. However, the two regions gradually made strides toward strengthening inter-regional relations. To this end, representatives of the two autonomous administrations signed an accord in February 2011 in Garowe, the capital of Puntland, wherein both governments officially agreed to cooperate on security, economic and social matters.[14]

Presidential electionsEdit

On 1 August 2012, Galmudug's 25-seat parliament elected General Abdi Hasan Awale (Qaybdiid) as the region's new president. He replaced former president Mohamed Ahmed Aalin, who was receiving medical treatment abroad.[13] Qaybdiid had obtained 22 votes versus 1 vote for the other candidate, Abdisamad Nur Guled. Qaybdiid was subsequently sworn in as Galmudug President in a ceremony in Galkayo marking the 6th anniversary since the establishment of the Galmudug administration.[15] During his inauguration speech, Qaybdiid reiterated his pre-election promises to firm up on regional security, expand his administration's control to areas that had not been covered by the regional authority, and foster relations with neighbouring regional states and national bodies.[16]

Official statusEdit

As of 2013, Galmudug's official status as a federal state is in the process of being finalized. Qaybdiid's administration has asserted that Galmudug meets the requirements for official state status, as outlined in the federal constitution. As of April 2013, the federal authorities have not accepted this claim.[17] Article 49 of the Provisional Federal Constitution, which oversees the establishment of the Federal Republic of Somalia's constituent states, stipulates that "based on a voluntary decision, two or more regions may merge to form a Federal Member State".[18] Since Galmudug only includes part of the official Mudug region, the federal Interior Minister Abdikarim Guled has urged the local Galmudug authorities to merge with other would be states, including Himan and Heeb, to form one unitary state consisting of two or more regions, in accordance with the constitution.[19]

On 30 July 2014, the Federal Government of Somalia officially endorsed a new Central Regions State, following a signed agreement in Mogadishu between representatives from Galmudug, Himan and Heeb, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a. The formalization ceremony for the new federal state was held at the Villa Somalia presidential compound and was presided over by President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud and Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, with UN, EU, AU, IGAD and AMISOM envoys also in attendance. According to the Prime Minister's office, the Federal Government appointed a ministerial committee to guide the formation of the new state. It also organized a number of consultative meetings with the regional representatives, with each party eventually agreeing to establish a new administration in the Mudug and Galguduud regions. Additionally, the Central Regions State will be subject to the Provisional Federal Constitution.[20][21]

On 31 July 2014, the autonomous Puntland regional administration in northeastern Somalia issued a statement rejecting the Central Regions State agreement on the grounds that it contravened certain clauses and articles in the Provisional Federal Constitution and breached Puntland's jurisdiction over the northern part of the Mudug province.[22][23] The Puntland Council of Ministers led by Puntland President Abdiweli Mohamed Ali further expressed dismay over sponsorship of and attendance during the agreement by representatives of the central government and the international community, respectively. It also suspended relations with the Mogadishu authorities, and recalled Puntland's representatives serving in the Federal Parliament, Federal Cabinet and Federal Constitutional Review Committee to the Puntland state capital of Garowe for consultations.[22]

On 9 August 2014, the UN, EU and IGAD envoys for Somalia issued a joint statement assuring the Puntland administration that the new central state of Somalia would not include any territory under Puntland jurisdiction. According to the officials, federal government representatives and signatories had indicated prior to the signing of the central state agreement that the pact would only apply to Galguduud and Galmudug, while North Mudug would remain an integral part of Puntland state.[24] On 24 August 2014, Federal Parliament Speaker Mohamed Osman Jawari announced that Federal MPs hailing from Puntland had begun brokering negotiations between the federal government and the Puntland regional administration.[25]

On 14 October 2014, a three-day conference in Garowe concluded with a 12-point agreement between the Federal Government and Puntland authorities, which stipulates that the earlier Central Regions State pact between the Galmudug and Himan and Heeb regional administrations only applies to the Galguduud and south Mudug provinces.[26]

On 25 December 2014, ahead of a state formation conference in Adado, the Federal Government appointed six committees to oversee the establishment of the prospective Central Somalia regional state. The steering bodies include a technical committee facilitating the creation of Central State, which is chaired by Halimo Ismail Ibrahim; a constitution committee, which is chaired by Abdinoor Moalim Mohamud; a reconciliation committee tasked with solving of differences and selection of delegates, which is chaired by Sheikh Omar Mohamud Mahad; a security, protocol and supervision committee, which is chaired by Uke Haji Abdirahman; a mobilization committee, which is chaired by Abdullahi Abdi Abdille; and a committee of accommodation of delegates and guests of honour, which is chaired by Dahir Hassan Guutaale.[27]

In late March 2015, President Mohamud and Dhusamareb traditional elders began talks over a possible relocation of the Adado conference to Dhusamareb. Mohamud preferred holding the summit in Adado, whereas the traditional elders favored Dhusamareb for security-related reasons and because the town had already recently hosted smaller reconciliation meetings.[28]

In April 2015, during consultative talks with local politicians and traditional elders, President Mohamud officially announced that Dhusamareb was slated to be the administrative capital of the Central State.[29] On 16 April, President Mohamud officially launched the Central State formation conference in Adado. The summit was attended by Federal Cabinet ministers and MPs, state formation technical committee Chairperson Halima Ismael, UN Special Envoy to Somalia Ambassador Nicholas Kay, IGAD Special Ambassador Mohamed Abdi Afey, Ambassador of Turkey Olgen Bakar and Uganda Special Envoy Nathan Mugisha. According to Mohamud, traditional leaders are now tasked with selecting 510 delegates, who will then elect a new regional president within two weeks.[30]

DemographicsEdit

The Galmudug area in central Somalia is predominantly inhabited by people from the Somali ethnic group, with the larger Hawiye clan particularly the Hiraab sub-clan of the Hawiye well represented especially the Habar Gidir who makeup the majority of the populations in Galguduud and southern mudug.[31]

There is also a sizable population of Marehan (Sade) Darood as well primarily in the cities of Abudwak and Balanbale.[32] In addition, you will find members of the Murursade sub clan of Hawiye as well as Surre Dir.

AdministrationEdit

The current autonomous Galmudug region's President is Ahmed Duale Gelle. The President of Galmudug is an executive head of state; the President functions as the head of state while the Chief Minister of Galmudug functions as the head of government. The President can appoint and dismiss Cabinet members but has to forward it to the chief minister. In Agugust 2017, President Gelle named a new twenty-two members Cabinet.[33][34][35]

The current chief minister of Galmudug is Mohamed Ali Hassan since 6 December 2017.[36]

Additionally, the Galmudug administration appoints Governors for each of its constituent provinces. The Governor of the Mudug province is Awes Ali Said.[37]

In November 2014, the Galmudug regional administration in conjunction with the federal Ministry of Interior and the U.S. Tess Agency laid down the foundation for a new government centre in Gaalkacyo. The fourth such local project, the initiative follows the establishment of a new presidential office, social services center and football stadium.[38]

In April 2015, the Galmudug administration launched a campaign to dig sewages and drainages in the suburbs of Gaalkacyo. Galmudug municipal and police officials in the process also began clearing illicit structures and buildings to make way for the new collection and disposal systems.[39]

EducationEdit

Educational institutions in the Galmudug region are largely in the private sector.[37] In March 2015, the Galmudug administration announced that it is slated to open free schools in the regional state. According to the Galmudug Minister for Education Mohamed Haashi Dhalo-Dhalo, the local government will finance the appointment of teachers to the new institutions. The federal Ministry of Education is also scheduled to launch a number of additional educational projects in the region.[40]

Universities and colleges in Galmudug include SIMAD University in Adado, Central Regions University in Adado, Horn Africa University in Adado, Mudug University in Galkayo.[41] Galgaduud university in Abudwak, Guriel and Dhusamareb.[42]

Galmudug Security ForceEdit

 
A platoon in marching in Dhusamareb.

Galmudug Security Force (GSF) is the Armed Forces of the autonomous Galmudug region of Central Somalia.

Galmudug Darawish Force are military units that operate under the sole authority of Galmudug state government. They are under the command of the Galmudug state President.[43][44] Galmudug Darawish Force is the Main military force that is keeping Al-Shabab militants at bay in central Somalia with the help of the state’s intelligence units.

 
Captured Al-Shabab child soldiers.

Galmudug Police Force is a highly trained Police force which operates in Galmudug state, it is responsible for the security of the Autonomous region and the safety of the citizens of the Autonomous region.

The Galmudug Maritime Force is highly trained and highly equipped maritime force who safeguards the region's marine resources from piracy, illegal fishing, and other illegal activities of the coast of Somalia.[45]

National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) is Somalia's National Intelligence And Security Agency, it has a branch in Galmudug state where it works alongside the intelligence units of Galmudug security force. it helps federal states in Somalia neutralize terrorists and help prevent terrorist attacks nationwide through intelligence networks.[46]

TransportationEdit

For air transportation Galmudug is served by Oshaka Airport in Galkayo, Ugaas Noor airport, Adado International Airport (The Largest Airport) and by the Obbia Airport (Hobyo Airport) in Hobyo.[47] Additionally, Hobyo has a small but growing seaport.[48]

State FlagEdit

The current flag of Galmudug was adopted on June 17, 2015 in Adado City. since 2006 Galmudug used the Flag of Somalia until 2010 when it adopted its first regional state flag.[49]

Galmudug's regional flag Design:

White chevron bearing two green stars

facing horizontally on a light blue field

bearing a white star on the right side.

Coat of armsEdit

The Coat of arms of Galmudug are nearly identical to the Somali national coat of arms, with the addition of a wreath around the arms to represent peace, and a ribbon underneath with the letters GMS written on it, GMS being Galmudug State.

Administrative divisionsEdit

RegionsEdit

The administrative divisions Galmudug State is divided into two regions which are Mudug and Galgaduud.[9] These two regions are then divided into 10 districts.[50][51] However, according to CIA Factbook northern Mudug is part of Puntland.[12]

Region Capital Districts
Galgaduud Dhuusamareeb 5
Mudug Galkayo 5

Largest citiesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mosley, Jason (2017). Somalia’s Federal Future Layered Agendas, Risks and Opportunities (PDF). Chatham House. p. 19.
  2. ^ "Federalism in Africa: The Somalia Case".
  3. ^ "Somalia Control Map & Timeline - August 2017".
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  5. ^ "Galmudug and ASWJ to sign historic merger in Dhusamareb today".
  6. ^ "Galmudug marks its fifth anniversary". SONNA. 14 August 2011. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  7. ^ name="ACFTAOASYDOAGM">"Map Developers".
  8. ^ Hobbes, Cameron (2017). Somalia and Democracy, a Task to Achieve. p. 48. ISBN 978-1542518512.
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  32. ^ https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ac0e37.html
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  36. ^ "Somalia: Galmudug Chief Minister Wants Al- Shabaab Wiped Out Before 2022 Polls".
  37. ^ a b "Galmudug administration announce to open free schools". Goobjoog. 5 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  38. ^ "Foundation stone laid for Galkacyo Local Government Centre". Goobjoog. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  39. ^ "Galmudug Police Breaks Down Illegal Structures". Goobjoog. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
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  61. ^ name="tageo">Somalia City & Town Population. Tageo.com. Retrieved on 2017-9-11.

Coordinates: 5°30′07″N 46°22′46″E / 5.50194°N 46.37944°E / 5.50194; 46.37944