Galkayo

Galkayo (Somali: Gaalkacyo, Arabic: جالكعيو‎, also known in Italian as Gallacaio or formerly Rocca Littorio[2]) is the capital of the north-central Mudug region of Somalia.[3] The city of Galkacyo is divided into two administrative areas separated by a loose boundary.[4]

Galkayo
Gaalkacyo
جالكعيو
Gallacaio (Rocca Littorio)
City
Galkcity.jpg
Galkayo is located in Somalia
Galkayo
Galkayo
Location in Somalia
Coordinates: 06°46′11″N 047°25′51″E / 6.76972°N 47.43083°E / 6.76972; 47.43083Coordinates: 06°46′11″N 047°25′51″E / 6.76972°N 47.43083°E / 6.76972; 47.43083
Country Somalia
Regional State Puntland (2/4)
 Galmudug (2/4)
RegionMudug
DistrictGalkacyo
Government
 • MayorsMohamud Abdinur Adan Dalab (Puntland)
Mohamud Abdullahi Kulmiye (Galmudug)
Population
 • Total800,000 to 850,000 (estimated)[1]
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Area code(s)43km²
ClimateBWh

Geographically Galkacyo is divided into four main quarters: Garsoor, Horumar, Israac and Wadajir. Puntland controls Israac, Garsoor to the north while Galmudug state controls the Wadajir and Horumar village to the south.[5][6][7]

Following independence, Galkacyo was made the center of the Galkayo District. The city has grown considerably in recent times and serves as a commercial hub.[8] Population estimates range from 80,000 to 315,000.[1]

HistoryEdit

Following the independence of Somalia in 1960, Galkayo was made the center of Galkayo District and the capital of Mudug region.[9]

GeographyEdit

LocationEdit

Galkayo is situated in north-central Somalia, in the heart of the Mudug region. Nearby settlements include to the east Godad (7.1 nm), to the northeast Bali Busle (16.2 nm), to the north Halobooqad (4.4 nm), to the northwest Beyra (12.8 nm), to the west Xera Jaale-bayra (23.8 nm), to the southwest Saaxo (30 nm), to the south Laascadale (10.2 nm), and to the southeast Arfuda (13.0 nm).[10][11] The largest cities in the country most proximate to Galkayo are Hobyo (217 km), Garowe (219 km) and Qardho (358 km).[12] Shimbiris, the highest peak in Somalia, is located some 432 km to the north in the Cal Madow mountain range.[13]

ClimateEdit

Galkayo has a hot arid climate (Köppen BWh).[14]

Climate data for Galkayo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.0
(102.2)
39.8
(103.6)
42.8
(109.0)
47.2
(117.0)
47.0
(116.6)
40.3
(104.5)
36.5
(97.7)
42.5
(108.5)
40.0
(104.0)
43.0
(109.4)
40.0
(104.0)
37.5
(99.5)
47.2
(117.0)
Average high °C (°F) 32.5
(90.5)
33.5
(92.3)
34.9
(94.8)
36.0
(96.8)
35.2
(95.4)
34.1
(93.4)
32.6
(90.7)
33.1
(91.6)
34.3
(93.7)
33.6
(92.5)
33.6
(92.5)
33.0
(91.4)
33.9
(93.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.2
(77.4)
26.2
(79.2)
27.6
(81.7)
29.1
(84.4)
28.9
(84.0)
28.4
(83.1)
27.2
(81.0)
27.5
(81.5)
28.0
(82.4)
27.8
(82.0)
26.8
(80.2)
26.1
(79.0)
27.4
(81.3)
Average low °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
18.7
(65.7)
20.4
(68.7)
22.2
(72.0)
22.7
(72.9)
22.6
(72.7)
21.9
(71.4)
21.9
(71.4)
21.8
(71.2)
22.0
(71.6)
20.0
(68.0)
19.2
(66.6)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
13.0
(55.4)
13.0
(55.4)
17.0
(62.6)
17.0
(62.6)
16.0
(60.8)
18.9
(66.0)
17.0
(62.6)
18.0
(64.4)
15.0
(59.0)
12.0
(53.6)
13.1
(55.6)
11.0
(51.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0
(0)
3
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
24
(0.9)
60
(2.4)
2
(0.1)
0
(0)
2
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
41
(1.6)
14
(0.6)
1
(0.0)
149
(5.8)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 11
Average relative humidity (%) (at 14:00) 51 57 56 61 63 56 58 61 56 58 63 63 59
Percent possible sunshine 80 80 77 68 66 71 61 66 72 63 74 77 71
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[15]
Source 2: Food and Agriculture Organization: Somalia Water and Land Management (percent sunshine)[16]

AdministrationEdit

 
Gakayo native Asha Gelle Dirie, a former minister in the Puntland government.

Galkayo is situated in the north-central part of Somalia, and is one of the most developed towns in the region.[17] The city is divided into four main districts called Garsoor, Horumar, Israac, and Wadajir districts respectively. The Puntland Administration controls Garsoor, Horumar, and Israac, while Galmudug controls Wadajir.[18]

Although relatively stable compared to southern Somalia,[8] sporadic targeted assassination attempts by Al-Shabaab militants against Puntland public officials led in 2010–2011 to a police crackdown and comprehensive administrative reform.[19][20] The Puntland and Galmudug administrations subsequently signed an accord in Garowe in February 2011, officially agreeing to cooperate on security, economic and social matters so as to strengthen inter-regional relations.[21]

ServicesEdit

 
An electronics store at a Galkayo shopping mall.

A lively trading city, Galkayo is a center for local business.[2][17] Hotels, guest houses, restaurants, supermarkets and newly erected office blocks earmarked for the government and NGOs line the streets, juxtaposed by the tall minarets of masjids. The city also offers numerous social services such as hospitals, petrol stops and police stations, with the former Somali Army barracks kept in good condition and renovated.[8]

Moreover, Galkayo is a hub of calligraphic art, serving as a training ground of sorts for local visual artists. Elaborate murals and phrases in Arabic and English adorn the walls of the city's many office and shop buildings.[8]

DemographicsEdit

In 2010, the Food and Agriculture Organization noted that population estimates for Galkayo ranged from 75,000 to 315,000, with a United Nations Development Programme estimate for 2005 being 105,000.[1] The International Crisis Group gives a figure of 137,000 for 2015.[22]

Somalia Clan tensions in the area have historically been high.[23] Puntland-controlled areas of the city such as Israac and Garsoor neighborhoods of Galkayo is primarily inhabited by Somalis from the Majeerteen Darod, Arab Salah, Awrtable Darod and Leelkase Darod clans.[24] The Habar Gidir, and Majeerteen are mainly the dominant clans in Galkayo.[25] Two of the four quarters in the city, Israac and Garsoor, controlled by Puntland.[26]

The neighbourhood of Wadajir and Horumar in southern area of the city, which is controlled by Galmudug, is mainly inhabited by the Sa'ad sub-division of the Habar Gidir, a Hawiye subclan.[27][23]

EducationEdit

 
East Africa University's Galkayo campus.

Galkayo has a number of academic institutions. According to the Puntland Ministry of Education, there are 40 primary schools in the Galkayo District. Among these are the Axmed Guray school in Israac, named after Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey); Al-Qudus in Horumar; and Barkhadle in Garsoor, built in honour of the 13th century scholar and saint Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn (Aw Barkhadle).[28] Puntland secondary schools in the area include Haji Ali Bihi, Cumar Samatar Secondary School (CSSS), Yasin Nor Hassan and Galkayo High.[29][30] In addition, several new schools were opened in 2012.[31]

Institutions of higher learning with a presence in the city include the Puntland State University (PSU), Puntland University of Science and Technology (PUST), Galkayo University (GU),[32] and Mudug University (MU).[33] East Africa University (EAU) also has a Galkayo branch, one of its seven campuses in Puntland.[34] Additionally, the public Galkayo Vocational Training Centre (GVTC) and the privately owned Mudug Vocational Training Center (MVTC) provide technical training.

SportsEdit

Galkayo is home to Abdullahi Issa Stadium, a sporting facility which is named in memory of Abdullahi Issa, the first Prime Minister of Somalia. The stadium hosts to many local football clubs including FC YAMAYS, RPS FC, Dowladda Hoose FC, Homboboro FC, Telecom FC and Galcom FC.[35] In addition, the city has various courts set aside for basketball. It soccer fields and volleyball.

TransportationEdit

Air transportation in Galacyo is served by the Abdullahi Yusuf Airport, operated by Puntland[36] and Oshaco International Airport operated by Galmudug.[37] Unlike Abdullahi Yusuf Airport, Oshaco International Airport does not have IATA and ICAO airport codes as it is not recognized by any international entity. In September 2013, the Somali federal government signed an official cooperation agreement with its Chinese counterpart in Mogadishu as part of a five-year national recovery plan. The pact will see the Chinese authorities reconstruct several major infrastructural landmarks in the Somali capital and elsewhere, as well as the road linking Galkayo with Burao.[38]

MediaEdit

Various media organizations are based in Galkayo. These include Radio Daljir, Radio Galmudug and Radio Codka-Mudug. Radio Gaalkacyo, formerly known as Radio Free Somalia, also broadcasts from the city.[39]

AccommodationEdit

 
Domesticated ostrich at the Taar City Hotel in Galkayo.

Several establishments in Galkayo offer accommodation. Among these hotels and guest houses are the Kamaal Hotel, the Classic Hotel and Restaurant, and the Saylan Hotel. The Taar City Hotel is especially noted for its domesticated ostriches.

NeighborhoodsEdit

Galkayo consists of the following neighborhoods: Israac, Horumar, Garsoor and Wadajir.[24]

Notable residentsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Livelihood Baseline Profile: Galkayo Urban" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization. October 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  2. ^ a b Dr Badal Kariye Ba Bsit Ma Mba & Phd, The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover, (AuthorHouse: 2010), p.116.
  3. ^ Kurian (1983:428)
  4. ^ http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4f675c5e2.pdf
  5. ^ "Somalia: Livelihood baseline profile - Galkayo Urban". reliefweb.int. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  6. ^ "ReliefWeb Mobile - Report: Monthly Nutrition Update for Somalia Jun 2002". m.reliefweb.int. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  7. ^ "Somalia: Livelihood baseline profile - Galkayo Urban - Somalia".
  8. ^ a b c d Abdul Latif Dahir, Suleiman Abdullahi (3 April 2011). "Galkayo: A peaceful island in Somalia". Africa Review. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  9. ^ Somalia. Ministry of Information. Public Relations Section (1965). Somalia: A Divided Nation Seeking Reunification. Public Relations Service, Ministry of Information. p. 11.
  10. ^ "Gaalkacyo, Somalia". Falling Rain. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  11. ^ "Barri-Fintir, Somalia". Falling Rain. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  12. ^ "Gaalkacyo, Somalia". Weather-Forecast. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  13. ^ "Gaalkacyo". Weather-Forecast. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Gaalkacyo, Somalia - Weather". AccuWeather. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  15. ^ "Klimatafel von Galkayo (Gallacaio) / Somalia" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  16. ^ "Long term mean monthly sunshine fraction in Somalia". Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  17. ^ a b "Galkayo". Jubba Airways. Archived from the original on 21 March 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  18. ^ "Inter Agency Initial Investigation report - Floods in Gaalkacyo: Gaalkacyo, Mudug region, Puntland - 6 May, 2015". reliefweb.int. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Retired Puntland official killed in Galka'yo; calm returns in northern Somalia after clash". All Headline News. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  20. ^ Ahmed, Abdalle (21 April 2011). "SOMALIA: Puntland President fires Mudug governor, dissolves Galkaio district council". Raxanreeb. Archived from the original on March 30, 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  21. ^ "An Agreement Jointly Signed by Puntland and Galmudug" (PDF). somaliweyn.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  22. ^ Yusuf, Zakaria; Khalif, Abdul (10 December 2015). "Galkayo and Somalia's Dangerous Faultlines". International Crisis Group. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  23. ^ a b "Clan fighting in central Somalia kills 20". International Pathfinder Solutions. 2010-12-08. Archived from the original on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2011-05-24.
  24. ^ a b "ReliefWeb Mobile - Report: Monthly Nutrition Update for Somalia Jun 2002". m.reliefweb.int. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  25. ^ "Was the Battle for Galkayo a Clan Dispute or a Victory for Puntland Over Al-Shabaab?". Jamestown Foundation. 2011-09-15. Retrieved 2011-05-24.
  26. ^ "Monthly Nutrition Update for Somalia Jun 2002 | ReliefWeb Mobile".
  27. ^ "Janes | Latest defence and security news". Janes.com.
  28. ^ "Puntland - Primary schools". Ministry of Education of Puntland. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  29. ^ "Secondary".
  30. ^ "Puntland - Secondary schools". Ministry of Education of Puntland. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  31. ^ "Somalia: New schools and businesses open in Galkayo". Garowe Online. 10 July 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  32. ^ "Galkayo University, GU". Galkayo University. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  33. ^ "Administration Office". Mudug University. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  34. ^ "A programme for improving governance, leadership and management capacity of the three health authorities in Somalia". Mannion Daniels Limited. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  35. ^ "Huge Demos in Central Regions Welcomed Galmudug Elections". Somali Update. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  36. ^ "Handy Galcaio airport information from Skyscanner". www.skyscanner.com.my. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  38. ^ "Somalia: Gov't, China Officially Sign Cooperation Agreement". Dalsan Radio. 9 September 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  39. ^ Life & Peace Institute. "Galkayo". Horn of Africa Bulletin. 8 (1–6): 2.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit