Gail Stine (1940–1977) was an American philosopher who specialized in epistemology and philosophy of language. Before her death at the age of 37,[1] she was a professor of philosophy at Wayne State University.[2] Wayne State now holds the annual Gail Stine Memorial Lecture in her honor.[3]


Stine graduated from Mount Holyoke College in 1962. Stine was a student of W. V. O. Quine and received her PhD at Harvard University in 1969 under the supervision of Burton Dreben.[1]


Stine was an advocate of contextualism, the view that our standards for knowledge vary by situation.[4] Stine also advocates the view that for a subject to know that p, she must rule out all relevant alternatives to p, a position also held by Alvin Goldman and Fred Dretske.[5] Probably her most well-known article is her 1976 Philosophical Studies article, "Skepticism, Relevant Alternatives, and Deductive Closure".[6]


  1. ^ a b "Willard Van Orman Quine". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  2. ^ "Notes and News". The Journal of Philosophy. 75 (2): 113–118. 1 January 1978. JSTOR 2025689.
  3. ^ "Wayne State University : Academic Program Review : Philosophy Department : Fall 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  4. ^ "Epistemic Contextualism". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  5. ^ "The Analysis of Knowledge". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  6. ^ "Skepticism, Relevant Alternatives, and Deductive Closure". JSTOR 4319027. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)