General Motors 54° V6 engine

  (Redirected from GM 54-Degree V6 engine)

General Motors' Opel subsidiary in Europe designed a compact V6 engine with an unusual 54° vee angle. It was an iron block/aluminum head DOHC design with 4 valves per cylinder. All 54° engines were assembled at Ellesmere Port in England.

General Motors logo.svg 54° V6
3.0 V6.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerGeneral Motors
Also calledEllesmere V6
Production1994-2004
Layout
Configuration54° V6
Displacement
  • 2.5 L; 152.4 cu in (2,498 cc)
  • 2.6 L; 158.5 cu in (2,597 cc)
  • 3.0 L; 180.8 cu in (2,962 cc)
  • 3.2 L; 193.8 cu in (3,175 cc)
Cylinder bore
  • 81.6 mm (3.21 in)
  • 83.2 mm (3.28 in)
  • 86 mm (3.39 in)
  • 87.5 mm (3.44 in)
Piston stroke
  • 79.6 mm (3.13 in)
  • 85 mm (3.35 in)
  • 88 mm (3.46 in)
Block materialCast iron
Head materialAluminium
ValvetrainDOHC 4 valves x cyl.
Compression ratio10.0:1, 10.8:1, 11.5:1
RPM range
Idle450-1,030
Redline6,600
Combustion
TurbochargerGarrett GT15 (In 1997–2003 Saab 9-5)
Fuel systemSequential multi-port fuel injection
Management
Fuel typeGasoline
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Output
Power output168–220 bhp (125–164 kW; 170–223 PS)
Torque output227–310 N⋅m (167–229 lb⋅ft)
Emissions
Emissions control technologySecondary air injection, EGR Valve
Chronology
PredecessorOpel CIH
SuccessorHigh Feature V6

HistoryEdit

In the early 1990s, Opel identified the need for a modern, lightweight and compact power plant to replace its aging straight-six engine range. These engines have a cast iron engine block with cast aluminium alloy cylinder heads. The cylinder heads contain 4 valves per cylinder actuated by dual overhead camshafts which are driven by a timing belt. These engines however, differed from many modern V6 engines in that it has a 54 degree cylinder bank angle; as opposed to the more conventional 60 degree setup. This added to the engines' compactness which was needed to allow its use in front-wheel drive applications, as well as rear-wheel drive cars. Other features of these engines include: an oil to water heat exchanger is mounted within the V of the engine block, Bosch Motronic engine management system with full sequential fuel injection, knock control on each bank, Distributorless Ignition System (DIS), and closed loop lambda control.

Minor changes were made to the unit during its production, including an uprated oil pump around mid-1997, with the addition of larger oilways in the head machining (T-Vents), and modified valve lifters to reduce top-end valve noise, at which point the cam belt arrangement also changed with the lower idler moving. Around 1998, the spin-on metal canister oil filter was changed to a disposable paper element.

RevisionEdit

The engine was reworked substantially in 2000 in order to meet increasing emission requirements; with the 2.5 and 3.0 being replaced by lower compression 2.6 and 3.2 units. While displacement was changed the bore centers and deck height were retained. These later power plants had a revised engine management system setup, which used quad lambda sensor control, coil per plug ignition system and drive by wire throttles. The 3.2 also received a stronger steel crankshaft. As a result of these changes the EGR and secondary air injection system were removed.

RecallsEdit

In its 3.0 L form, this engine was notable for recalls of all units installed in Cadillac Cateras due to timing belt tensioner bearing failures, which could cause catastrophic damage to the engine because of its interference design.

2.5Edit

The C25XE or B258I has an 81.6 mm × 79.6 mm (3.21 in × 3.13 in) bore and stroke which displaces 2.5 L; 152.4 cu in (2,498 cc). It produces a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) rated output of 125 kW (170 PS; 168 bhp) @ 6,000 rpm, and generates 227 N⋅m (167 lb⋅ft) @ 3,200 rpm of torque. It was introduced in the Opel Vectra/Vauxhall Cavalier (both codenamed "Vectra-A") and Opel/Vauxhall Calibra. It features Bosch Motronic 2.8.1 engine management (omega) then M2.8.3 (calibra 1994, vectra 1995) in 1994 approx. and a compression ratio of 10.8:1.

For 1994, in order to meet more stringent emission requirements, a secondary air injection system, and an EGR valve were added to the C25XE and it became the X25XE. The exception being the 1997 Calibras, which, due to unavailability of C25XE engine blocks, were produced using the X25XE block but without modifications to the top end of the engine, and without addition of EGR. The X25XE also benefitted from higher volume oil pump. Firing order is 1-2-3-4-5-6

The breakdown of the engine name[1] is as follows:

X - Exhaust Emissions Level: 94/12/EC, stage 2
25 - 2.5 Litre displacement
X - Compression Ratio - 10.0:1-11.5:1
E - Mixture System - Injection

Applications:

MSD versionEdit

A special edition of the X25XE was worked by Motor Sports Developments (MSD); which includes reprofiled camshafts, giving the engine a boost of 24 bhp (18 kW; 24 PS).[citation needed] This engine appeared in two special edition Vauxhall Vectras, first the Vectra ST200 (Not the normal SuperTouring), and then the Vectra 2.5 GSi V6.[3]

Applications:

3.0Edit

The X30XE, L81, B308I, or B308E has a 86 mm × 85 mm (3.39 in × 3.35 in) bore and stroke which displaces 3.0 L; 180.8 cu in (2,962 cc) with a compression ratio between 9.5:1 and 10.8:1. The naturally aspirated version of the engine produces between 170 hp (127 kW; 172 PS), 178 hp (133 kW; 180 PS) and 155 kW (211 PS; 208 bhp) @ 6,000 rpm with 184 lb⋅ft (249 N⋅m) to 199 lb⋅ft (270 N⋅m) @ 3,400 rpm. The B308E is a slightly modified X30XE used in the Saab 9-5. Engine management systems are Bosch Motronic M2.8.1, and later (approx. 2000) M2.8.3. Firing order is 1-2-3-4-5-6.

X - Exhaust Emissions Level: 94/12/EC, stage 2
30 - 3.0 Litre displacement
X - Compression Ratio - 10.0:1-11.5:1
E - Mixture System - Injection

Applications:

B308EEdit

For 1997, Saab introduced a turbocharged version called the B308E for their 9-5 model. The engine produced 200 hp (149 kW; 203 PS) at 5000 rpm and 229 lb⋅ft (310 N⋅m) of torque at 2500-4000 rpm. The engine was unique in that it used asymmetrical turbocharging; with the turbocharger driven by the exhaust gases from only one bank of cylinders. A charge pressure of 3.6 psi (0.25 bar) was produced using a Garrett GT15 turbo. The engine was equipped with a special version of Saab Direct Ignition and used the Trionic T7 engine management system. This turbocharged version of the engine weighs 195 kg and uses the Saab Trionic T7 engine management system.

Applications:

2.6Edit

The Y26SE or LY9 engine has a displacement of 2.6 L; 158.5 cu in (2,597 cc) with a bore and stroke of 83.2 mm × 79.6 mm (3.28 in × 3.13 in), developing a maximum power output of 134 kW (180 hp) and 240 N⋅m (177 lb⋅ft) of torque with a 10.0:1 compression ratio. It was used in:

3.2Edit

The 3.2 L; 193.8 cu in (3,175 cc) LA3 or Y32SE is a complete redesign of the L81 for the Cadillac CTS and Opel Omega B. It had with fixed (non-variable) valve timing, and a variable length intake manifold. The engine has a 87.5 mm × 88 mm (3.44 in × 3.46 in) bore and stroke with a 10.0:1 compression ratio. This engine produced 220 hp (164 kW; 223 PS) at 6000 rpm and 220 lb⋅ft (298 N⋅m) at 3400 rpm. Production started in July 2001, but the engine was replaced by the new GM High Feature engine starting in 2004.

This engine was used in:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Topbuzz, "Engine Codes Explained", Topbuzz Website, 2002. Accessed 9 Dec 2006 [1]
  2. ^ "Calibra Wiki V6 information". Calibra Wiki. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
  3. ^ "EVO Magazine Vectra GSi review". EVO magazine. Retrieved 2008-04-13.

See alsoEdit