The GAF Jindivik is a radio-controlled target drone produced by the Australian Government Aircraft Factories (GAF). The name is from an Aboriginal Australian word meaning "the hunted one". Two manually-controlled prototypes, were built as the GAF Pika (Project C) as a proof of concept to test the aerodynamics, engine and radio control systems, serialled A92-1/2, 'B-1/2'. The radio-controlled Jindivik was initially designated the Project B and received serials in the A93 series. Pika is an Aboriginal Australian word meaning flier.
|Manufacturer||Government Aircraft Factories|
|First flight||28 August 1952|
Design and developmentEdit
The Jindivik was developed as a result of a bilateral agreement between Australia and the UK regarding guided missile testing. While the UK provided the missiles, Australia provided test facilities, such as the Woomera Test Range. As a result of the talks, Australia gained the contract for developing a target drone to Ministry of Supply specification E.7/48. The specification called for an aircraft capable of a 15-minute sortie at 40,000 ft (12 200 m). Development began in 1948, with the first flight of the Pika in 1950 and the first flight of the Jindivik Mk.1 in August 1952.
The manually piloted prototype, known as the Pika, had side air intakes (to make room for the cockpit) and retractable undercarriage operated from a pneumatic reservoir. The remotely-piloted version, the Jindivik, followed the same basic form except that it had a single skid instead of an undercarriage and a dorsal air intake located where the Pika's cockpit was. The Jindivik Mk.1 was powered by an Armstrong Siddeley Adder (ASA.1) turbojet, which had been developed as a disposable engine for the project. Only 14 Mk.1s were ever made. The Mk.2 was powered by a 1,640 lb Armstrong Siddeley Viper engine. The Viper was also intended for a short lifespan – about 10 hours, but a "long life" version was also produced for conventional aircraft.
The control systems were manufactured by various firms including Elliott Brothers, GEC and McMichael, with assistance from the Royal Aircraft Establishment. Control was maintained through an autopilot that received radio commands from the ground, rather than direct flight by a ground controller. Eighteen commands could be issued to the autopilot with six further commands for the operation of other onboard equipment. The drone was launched via a self-steering trolley. At 110 knots (200 km/h; 130 mph), the drone was designed to apply its flaps, push the elevators up and release the trolley. Landing was made at 150–125 knots (278–232 km/h; 173–144 mph). Two controllers (azimuth and elevation) were used to align the drone on the runway. On landing it touched down on its skid and banking would cause the wingtip "shoes" to touch the runway, which controlled its path down the runway as it slowed.
Between 1952 and 1986, a total of 502 aircraft were produced. Examples for use in the United Kingdom were shipped by surface transport, and assembled and tested by Fairey Aviation at Hayes, Middlesex, and Manchester Airport. In 1997, the production line was re-opened to build another 15 for Britain.
Since production began, the Jindivik has been used by the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal Australian Navy's Fleet Air Arm, and the Royal Air Force. The last Australian Jindiviks were taken out of service in the late 1990s and were replaced by the Kalkara. Most UK tests were conducted by the Royal Aircraft Establishment at their Llanbedr establishment and fired over the nearby Aberporth Airport test range in west Wales. In the UK, the drone was used in the development of the Bristol Bloodhound, English Electric Thunderbird, and Seaslug surface-to-air missiles, and the de Havilland Firestreak air-to-air missile. Small numbers of the aircraft have also been operated by both Sweden, who used the Jindivik 2, and the United States.
- United States Navy – 42 Mk 303B
- Jindivik 1
- Initial aircraft powered by Armstrong Siddeley ASA.1 Adder, 14 built.
- Jindivik 2
- Jindivik Mk 102
- Jindivik 2 modified by Fairey Aviation for use in United Kingdom.
- Jindivik 2A
- development model with 1,750 lbf (7.78 kN) Armstrong Siddeley ASV.8 Viper (1,750 lbf) new intake and wider wings, three built.
- Jindivik 2B
- production model of 2A, 76 built.
- Jindivik Mk 102B
- as for Mk 102 based on 2B airframe
- Jindivik 3A
- ASV.11 Viper engine, with new equipment for higher altitude
- Jindivik 3B
- as 3A but ASV.8 Viper engine
- Mk 103B
- for the United Kingdom
- Mk 203B
- for the Royal Australian Navy
- Mk 303B
- for the United States Navy
- 1 Pika and 22 Jindiviks preserved as either in storage or on display in museums or collections around the world - ( 1 in Sweden, 8 in UK, 13 in Australia)
- Pika - Project C
- A93-2 second pilot controlled Pika Prototype, RAAF Museum Point Cook Australia
- Jindivik - Project B
- A92-9 mark 1, painted as B-9 prototype , mounted on a pole RAAF Endinburgh SA
- A92-22 mark 2, previously on a pole at Jervis Bay, now with HARS Parkes NSW
- A92-47 mark 2, displayed on launch trolley RAAF Museum Point Cook Vic
- A92-UNK? mark 2? as “RB01” drone (flown in Sweden in 1959?) Displayed at Vidsal Test Range Museum - Sweden
- A92-418 mark 3A, as WRE-418 displayed on a pole at Woomera SA
- A92-480 mark 3A. Pole mounted gate guardian- RAF Llanbedr Wales UK
- A92-492 mark 3A, composite owned by Australian National Aviation Museum Victoria, on loan to Benalla Vic
- A92-511 mark 303A, mounted on pole, RAAF Wagga Wagga NSW
- A92-520 mark 303A, as WRE-520 composite in private collection SA
- A92-529 mark 303A, as WRE-529 composite at Classic Jets Museum SA
- A92-601 mark 3B, as WRE-60 composite displayed hanging from the roof Queensland Air Museum Qld
- N11-609 mark 3B, displayed on handling trolley, RAN Fleet Air Arm Museum Nowra NSW
- A92-664 mark 303BL, Boscombe Down Aviation Collection UK
- A92-708 mark 103, Bristol Aerospace Collection Filton UK
- A92-740 mark 203B, crashed fuselage on display- Caernarfon Airworld - Wales UK
- N11-743 mark 203B, named "David Manolan" owned by AARG stored with handling trolley Hallam Vic
- N11-750 mark 203B, displayed on launch trolley, Fighterworld RAAF Williamtown
- N11-752 mark 203B displayed on handling trolley, South Australian Aviation Museum Adelaide SA
- A92-804 mark 104AL, RAF Museum Cosford UK
- A92-808 mark 104AL (RAF ZJ489) fuselage only - modified with cockpit - Caernarfon Airworld - Wales UK
- A92-901 mark 104A, (RAF ZJ496) FAST Museum Farnborough UK
- A92-908 mark 104A, held to become gate guardian RAF Llanbedr Wales UK
Specifications (Jindivik 3B – short span wings)Edit
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1980–81
- Crew: None
- Length: 26 ft 8¾ in (8.15 m)
- Wingspan: 20 ft 9 in (6.32 m)
- Height: 6 ft 9⅞ in (2.08 m)
- Wing area: 76.0 ft² (7.06 m²)
- Airfoil: NACA 64A-106
- Empty weight: 2,900 lb (1,315 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 3,650 lb (1,655 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Viper Mk 201 turbojet, 2,500 lbf (11.1 kN)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- RAAF Museum Point Cook, article on GAF Jindivik
- Flight 1952
- Bridgman, Leonard, compiler and editor, "Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1952–53", McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1952, pages 91–92.
- Flight Jindivik in theory and practice
- Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles Appendix 4: Undesignated Vehicles Jindivik
- Flight 1952 p. 512
- Flight 1956
- Flight 17 February 1961 p. 211
- The Bulletin: Bird of Prey[permanent dead link]
- Dennis et al 2008, p. 294.
- Taylor, H.A., Fairey Aircraft since 1915, 1974, Putnam & Company Limited, ISBN 0-370-00065-X
- Taylor 1980, pp.616–617.
- including nose probe
- Short span wings.
- Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; Bou, Jean (2008). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (Second ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195517842.
- Taylor, John W.R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1980–81. London:Jane's Publishing, 1980. ISBN 0-7106-0705-9.
- "Jindivik in theory and practice". Flight. 1961.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to GAF Jindivik.|
|Jindavik A92-511 at Woomera, South Australia|
- The 'Aerial Target' and 'Aerial Torpedo' in Australia
- GAF Jindivik Target Drone Gallery at adf-serials.com
- ADF Aircraft Serial Numbers
- GAF Jindivik A92-47
- GAF Jindivik Mk.3B, (N11-806) at Australias' Museum of Flight
- Extract from Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles (Appendix 4: Undesignated Vehicles)
- "Pika and Jindivik" a 1952 Flight article on the two aircraft
- "Jindivik Pilotless Target" a 1959 advertisement in Flight
- "Jindivik – in Theory and Practice" a 1961 Flight article