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The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.[1] It consists of a city and its commuting zone.[2]

The definition was introduced in 2004 by Eurostat, the statistical agency of the European Union (EU), in agreement with the national statistics offices in the member states.[3][4] Eurostat data is provided on cities in the EU, its candidate countries and EFTA countries. Several cities were excluded by definition from the 2004 list of LUZs on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.[5][6][7]

The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area. Eurostat's objective was to have an area from which a significant share of the residents commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region." To ensure a good data availability, Eurostat adjusts the LUZ boundaries to administrative boundaries that approximate the functional urban region.

In 2006 LUZ definitions were changed significantly, improving the comparability of LUZ definitions across different countries, and allowing for almost all cities to be included.

Contents

List of larger urban zonesEdit

This is a list of larger urban zones. The Urban Audit also includes cities from EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and EU candidate countries. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) uses a similar definition of Functional Urban Area to represent population sizes of cities in OECD countries.[8] This data is also included.

The figures in the Eurostat database are an attempt at a compromise between harmonised data for all of the European Union, and with availability of statistical data, making comparisons more accurate.[9]

  Areas within the European Union
Larger urban zone Country OECD Population (2014) [8] Eurostat Population (2006)[10] Eurostat Population (2014)[11]
Adelaide   Australia 1,304,631 No data No data
Aguascalientes   Mexico 1,055,539 No data No data
Amsterdam metropolitan area   Netherlands 2,452,659 2,497,000[a] 2,437,114
Antwerp   Belgium 1,081,904 1,406,000[b] 998,211
Athens   Greece 3,535,055 3,761,000 3,863,763
Atlanta   United States 4,762,159 No data No data
Austin   United States 1,958,079 No data No data
Baltimore   United States 1,996,200 No data No data
Barcelona metropolitan area   Spain 3,846,697 4,082,000[c] 5,445,616
Berlin   Germany 4,399,542 4,016,000 5,005,216
Bilbao   Spain 1,013,805 947,000 1,025,109
Birmingham (West Midlands)   United Kingdom 1,957,078 3,701,107 2,332,629
Bordeaux   France 1,175,699 No data No data
Boston   United States 3,684,250 No data No data
Bremen   Germany 1,027,192 1,077,000 1,244,363
Brisbane   Australia 2,274,560 No data No data
Greater Bristol   United Kingdom 836,621 1,041,000 1,090,080
Brussels-Capital Region   Belgium 2,588,102 2,639,000[b] 2,967,513
Bucharest metropolitan area   Romania No data 2,158,558 2,403,107
Budapest metropolitan area   Hungary 2,879,601 2,523,000 2,971,246
Buffalo   United States 1,121,972 No data No data
Busan   South Korea 3,432,960 No data No data
Calgary   Canada 1,417,661 No data No data
Cardiff   United Kingdom 664,861 1,097,000 1,085,526
Charlotte   United States 1,474,164 No data No data
Chicago   United States 9,655,015 No data No data
Cincinnati   United States 2,165,678 No data No data
Clearwater-St. Petersburg   United States 1,438,208 No data No data
Cleveland   United States 1,468,288 No data No data
Columbus   United States 1,970,809 No data No data
Copenhagen   Denmark 2,025,171 1,881,000[d] 1,893,010
Daegu   South Korea 2,731,064 No data No data
Daejeon   South Korea 1,676,167 No data No data
Dallas   United States 4,547,218 No data No data
Denver   United States 2,832,325 No data No data
Detroit   United States 3,801,161 No data No data
Dublin Metropolitan Area   Ireland 1,836,119 1,261,332 1,263,035
Edmonton   Canada 1,283,049 No data No data
Fort Worth   United States 2,107,791 No data No data
Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Region   Germany 2,533,311 2,764,000[e] 2,573,745
Fresno   United States 1,152,979 No data No data
Fukuoka   Japan 2,599,911 No data No data
Gdansk   Poland 1,105,467 No data No data
Greater Glasgow   United Kingdom 967,101 1,395,000 1,789,003
Guadalajara   Mexico 4,905,204 No data No data
Gwangju   South Korea 1,668,574 No data No data
The Hague   Netherlands 906,897 1,404,000[a] No data
Hamburg Metropolitan Region   Germany 3,008,841 2,983,000 3,173,871
Hanover   Germany 1,217,511 No data No data
Helsinki Metropolitan Area   Finland 1,498,050 1,285,000 1,532,309
Hiroshima   Japan 1,419,358 No data No data
Houston   United States 6,519,358 No data No data
Indianapolis   United States 1,769,561 No data No data
Jacksonville   United States 1,452,647 No data No data
Juarez   Mexico 1,417,787 No data No data
Kansas City   United States 2,098,357 No data No data
Katowice metropolitan area   Poland 2,589,349 3,029,000[f] 2,743,929
Kitakyushu   Japan 1,155,450 No data No data
Kraków metropolitan area   Poland 1,362,740 1,236,000 1,276,438
Las Vegas   United States 2,293,610 No data No data
West Yorkshire (Bradford - Leeds)   United Kingdom 1,774,552[g] 2,302,000 2,238,127
Leon   Mexico 1,775,758 No data No data
Lille–Kortrijk–Tournai   France/
  Belgium
1,363,465[h] 1,379,000[i] 2,572,374
Lisbon Metropolitan Area   Portugal 2,886,662 2,591,000 2,839,908
Liverpool/Birkenhead   United Kingdom 954,181 2,241,000 1,352,000
Łódź   Poland 939,568 1,165,000 1,116,660
London metropolitan area   United Kingdom 12,401,188 13,709,000 14,031,830
Los Angeles   United States 17,718,858 No data No data
Louisville   United States 1,286,409 No data No data
Lyon   France 1,960,847 1,669,000 2,188,759
Madrid metropolitan area   Spain 7,079,173 5,263,000 6,378,297
Greater Manchester   United Kingdom 1,935,559 2,556,000 2,615,144
Mannheim   Germany 1,230,276 No data No data
Marseille   France 1,773,503 1,530,000 No data
Melbourne   Australia 4,440,328 No data No data
Memphis   United States 1,378,346 No data No data
Mérida   Mexico 1,422,422 No data No data
Mexicali   Mexico 1,041,837 No data No data
Mexico City   Mexico 20,404,259 No data No data
Miami   United States 5,805,883 No data No data
Milan metropolitan area   Italy 4,159,854 4,136,000[j] 4,267,946
Milwaukee   United States 1,579,180 No data No data
Minneapolis   United States 3,496,061 No data No data
Monterrey   Mexico 4,823,452 No data No data
Montreal   Canada 4,394,467 No data No data
Munich   Germany 2,965,871 2,665,000[k] 2,808,581
Nagoya   Japan 6,500,074 No data No data
Naha   Japan 1,175,512 No data No data
Naples metropolitan area   Italy 4,475,682 4,654,259[l] 4,127,390
Nashville   United States 1,328,572 No data No data
New Orleans   United States 1,150,702 No data No data
New York City   United States 16,713,922 No data No data
Nice   France 865,195 1,082,000 1,082,847
Niigata   Japan 1,036,187 No data No data
Norfolk-Portsmouth-Chesapeake-Virginia Beach   United States 1,109,942 No data No data
Nottingham-Derby   United Kingdom 863,918 1,614,000 1,927,550
Nuremberg Metropolitan Region   Germany 1,169,367 1,443,000 1,301,504
Oklahoma City   United States 1,323,960 No data No data
Orlando   United States 2,374,184 No data No data
Osaka   Japan 17,343,816 No data No data
Greater Oslo   Norway 1,299,955 1,037,000 1,144,883
Ottawa-Gatineau   Canada 1,477,881 No data No data
Paris metropolitan area   France 12,037,889 11,175,000 12,005,077
Perth   Australia 2,021,203 No data No data
Phoenix   United States 4,163,445 No data No data
Philadelphia   United States 4,066,064 No data No data
Pittsburgh   United States 1,200,874 No data No data
Portland   United States 2,358,928 No data No data
Porto Metropolitan Area   Portugal 1,313,829 1,245,000[m] 1,286,111
Portsmouth-Southampton   United Kingdom 594,455 1,547,000 1,498,402[n]
Prague   Czech Republic 1,910,396 1,669,000 2,522,136
Puebla   Mexico 2,342,519 No data No data
Queretaro   Mexico 1,273,803 No data No data
Raleigh   United States 1,300,612 No data No data
Rhein-Nord[o] (Düsseldorf - Neuss)   Germany 1,427,823[p] 3,073,000[q] No Data
Rhein-Süd[o] (Cologne - Bonn)   Germany 1,926,073[r] 3,070,000[q] 3,023,545[s]
Riga   Latvia No data 1,195,000 1,089,767
Rome metropolitan area   Italy 4,149,364 3,190,000 3,700,000
Rotterdam   Netherlands 1,509,373 1,904,000[a] 2,808,550
Ruhr area   Germany No data[t] 5,376,000[q] 5,045,784
Saarbrücken - Forbach   Germany/
  France
570,479[u] 1,102,000 822,128
Sacramento-Roseville   United States 2,311,721 No data No data
Salt Lake City   United States 1,195,080 No data No data
San Antonio   United States 2,345,730 No data No data
San Diego   United States 3,215,637 No data No data
San Francisco   United States 6,989,419 No data No data
San Luis Potosi   Mexico 1,288,885 No data No data
Santiago   Chile 6,679,313 No data No data
Greater St. Louis   United States 2,610,223 No data No data
Sapporo   Japan 2,224,201 No data No data
Seattle   United States 2,776,119 No data No data
Sendai   Japan 1,599,433 No data No data
Seoul   South Korea 24,948,523 No data No data
Seville   Spain 1,500,644 1,180,000[v] 1,877,060
Sofia   Bulgaria No data 1,260,120 1,543,377
Metropolitan Stockholm   Sweden 2,018,208 2,171,000 2,034,354[citation needed]
South Yorkshire (Sheffield)   United Kingdom 920,128 1,569,000 1,596,298
Stuttgart Metropolitan Region   Germany 1,965,942 2,289,000 2,678,795
Sydney   Australia 4,840,628 No data No data
Tampa   United States 1,335,571 No data No data
Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area   Greece 975,439 1,052,000 1,166,914
Tijuana   Mexico 1,793,265 No data No data
Tokyo   Japan 35,925,101 No data No data
Toluca   Mexico 2,167,067 No data No data
Toronto   Canada 6,947,229 No data No data
Torreon   Mexico 1,348,608 No data No data
Toulouse   France 1,309,149 No data No data
Turin metropolitan area   Italy 1,774,507 1,601,000[w] 2,302,353
Tucson   United States 1,040,867 No data No data
Newcastle-Sunderland   United Kingdom 1,082,729[x] 1,599,000 1,141,879
Ulsan   South Korea 1,082,994 No data No data
Valencia   Spain 1,668,153 1,398,000[y] 2,516,818
Valparaiso   Chile 1,006,737 No data No data
Vancouver   Canada 2,479,623 No data No data
Vienna   Austria 2,793,631 2,584,000 2,339,807
Warsaw metropolitan area   Poland 3,037,890 2,785,000 3,304,641
Washington   United States 6,022,391 No data No data
Zagreb   Croatia No data 1,107,115 1,123,374
Zürich metropolitan area    Switzerland 1,246,968 1,615,000 1,984,534

List of larger urban zones by population as of 2004Edit

This is a list of larger urban zones by population as of 2004. The 2004 Urban Audit also includes cities from EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and EU candidate countries, although the only candidate country for which there is available data is Turkey. Some cities, including Marseille, Lille, Nice, Cordoba, Badajoz, Toulon and Montpellier were excluded from the 2004 list on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.

Rank Larger urban zone Country Population Area (km²)
1 London   United Kingdom 11,917,000 8,920[12]
2 Istanbul   Turkey (non EU state) 11,154,928
3 Paris   France 11,089,124 12,079.87[12]
4 Madrid   Spain 5,804,829 8,022
5 Ruhr Area   Germany 5,302,179 4,435
6 Berlin   Germany 4,971,331 17,385
7 Naples   Italy 4,475,682 564.95
8 Barcelona   Spain 4,233,638 1,796.64
9 Athens   Greece 4,013,368 3,806.92
10 Ankara   Turkey (non EU state) 3,736,359
11 Rome   Italy 3,457,690 3,666.66
12 Hamburg   Germany 3,134,620 7,304
12 Milan   Italy 3,076,643 1,348.32
13 Upper Silesian Industrial Region   Poland 2,710,397 2,650.65
14 Stuttgart   Germany 2,663,660 3,654
15 Warsaw   Poland 2,660,406 5,198.52
16 Manchester   United Kingdom 2,539,100 1,280
17 Munich   Germany 2,531,706 5,504
18 Frankfurt   Germany 2,517,561 4,305
19 Izmir   Turkey (non EU state) 2,459,474
20 Lisbon   Portugal 2,435,837 1,432.49
21 Budapest   Hungary 2,393,846 2,538[12]
22 Leeds   United Kingdom 2,393,300 5,114[12]
23 Birmingham   United Kingdom 2,357,100 1,598
24 Vienna   Austria 2,179,769 4,610.93[12]
25 Bucharest   Romania 2,140,194 662
26 Prague   Czech Republic 1,964,750 6,977[12]
27 Cologne   Germany 1,873,580 1,626
28 Stockholm   Sweden 1,860,872 6,519
29 Copenhagen   Denmark 1,806,667[12] 2,759[12]
30 Brussels   Belgium 1,800,663 1,613.91
31 Glasgow   United Kingdom 1,747,100 3,346
32 Turin   Italy 1,745,221 1,878.97
33 Lyon   France 1,717,300 5,997.68[12]
34 Valencia   Spain 1,564,145 1,440.58
35 Dublin   Republic of Ireland 1,535,446[12]
36 Düsseldorf   Germany 1,525,029 1,201
37 Bursa   Turkey (non EU state) 1,474,482
38 Amsterdam   Netherlands 1,443,258 859.28
39 Adana   Turkey 1,394,130
40 Liverpool   United Kingdom 1,365,900 821
41 Bielefeld   Germany 1,297,876 2,921
42 Hanover   Germany 1,294,447 2,966
43 Nuremberg   Germany 1,288,797 2,934
44 Sheffield   United Kingdom 1,277,100 1,846
45 Kraków   Poland 1,264,322 2,988.65
46 Sofia   Bulgaria 1,263,807[12] 3,424.2[12]
47 Seville   Spain 1,249,346 3,081.9
48 Bremen   Germany 1,249,291 5,885
50 Helsinki   Finland 1,224,107 2,969.94
51 Rotterdam   Netherlands 1,186,818 611.75
52 Łódź   Poland 1,163,516 2,857.51
53 Ostrava   Czech Republic 1,153,876 3,889.6[12]
54 Zurich    Switzerland (non EU state) 1,110,478 1,086.14
55 Tricity   Poland 1,105,203 3,457.32
56 Porto   Portugal 1,099,040 562.32
57 Oslo   Norway (non EU state) 1,090,513 6,920
58 Newcastle upon Tyne   United Kingdom 1,055,600 3,385
59 Gaziantep   Turkey 1,052,795
60 Toulouse   France 1,052,497 4,706.93[12]
61 Wrocław   Poland 1,031,439 4,582.2
62 Poznań   Poland 1,018,511 3,719.2
63 Bristol   United Kingdom 1,006,600 1,635
64 Riga   Latvia 1,003,949 5,382.5

Urban AuditEdit

Eurostat's Urban Audit is about much more than demographics. In order for it to be useful as a policy tool to the European Commission and other authorities it contains data for over 250 indicators across the following domains:[13][14]

  • Demography
  • Social Aspects
  • Economic Aspects
  • Civic Involvement
  • Training and Education
  • Environment
  • Travel and Transport
  • Information Society
  • Culture and Recreation

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Part of the Randstad polycentric urban region consisting of the metropolitan areas of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht (982,000). The total population of the region is 7,100,000.
  2. ^ a b The Flemish Diamond metropolitan region, which consists of the metropolitan areas of Brussels, Antwerp, Gent, and Leuven, has a total population of 5,103,000.
  3. ^ Total population is 4,251,000 if the metropolitan area of Mataro (169,000) is included.
  4. ^ Part of the wider Öresund region, which includes the Swedish metropolitan area of Malmö (961,000). The total regional population is 2,842,000.
  5. ^ Part of the Rhein-Main metropolitan region with a total population of 4,149,000, which additionally includes the metropolitan areas of Darmstadt (501,000), Wiesbaden (453,000), and Mainz (431,000).
  6. ^ Part of the polycentric Upper Silesian urban region with a total population of 5,294,000. The region additionally includes the metropolitan areas of Ostrava (1,046,000), Bielsko-Biala (584,000) and Rybnik (526,000).
  7. ^ Leeds and Bradford counted separately.
  8. ^ Kortrijk not included.
  9. ^ Part of the wider Lille-Bassin Minier region with a total population of 3,115,000.
  10. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 6,011,000.
  11. ^ When combined with the Augsburg metropolitan area (606,000), the region has a total population of 3,271,000.
  12. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 3,714,000.
  13. ^ Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 1,778,000.
  14. ^ Excludes Southampton
  15. ^ a b Polycentric metropolitan area
  16. ^ Excludes Neuss.
  17. ^ a b c Part of the polycentric urban region of Rhein-Ruhr, which has a total population of 12,190,000.
  18. ^ Excludes Bonn which has a population of 750,370
  19. ^ Excludes Bonn
  20. ^ Essen, Bochum, and Dortmund counted separately.
  21. ^ Saarbrücken only
  22. ^ Total population is 1,262,000 if the metropolitan area of Utrera (82,000) is included.
  23. ^ Total population is 1,716,000 if the metropolitan of Pinerolo is included.
  24. ^ Excludes Sunderland
  25. ^ Total population is 1,499,000 if the metropolitan area of Sagunto is included.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Position Statement on Cohesion Policy 2014–2020, EuroMETREX. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  2. ^ "European cities – the EU-OECD functional urban area definition". Eurostat. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  3. ^ "City statistics - Urban audit". Eurostat. 2006. 
  4. ^ "The shift of Eurostat to Urban Statistics". Dr. Berthold Feldmann, Eurostat. March 2006. 
  5. ^ http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999003.pdf Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110727094843/http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999004.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110727094905/http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999006.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ a b "OEDC Populations in cities". OEDC. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  9. ^ "Urban Audit Database". Urbanaudit.org. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  10. ^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3), Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007)
  11. ^ Eurostat Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Data for 2001 (2004 data not yet available)
  13. ^ "Urban Audit". European Commission. 2006. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "State of European Cities Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-29. 

External linksEdit