Frontier (supercomputer)

Hewlett Packard Enterprise Frontier, or OLCF-5, is the world's first exascale supercomputer, hosted at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) in Tennessee, United States. It is based on the Cray EX and is the successor to Summit (OLCF-4). As of June 2022 Frontier is the world's fastest supercomputer.[2][3][4][5] Frontier has been measured to achieve an Rmax of 1.102 exaFLOPS.[6]

Frontier Supercomputer (2).jpg
OperatorsOak Ridge National Laboratory and U.S. Department of Energy
LocationOak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility
Power21 MW
Space680 m2 (7,300 sq ft)
Speed1.102 exaFLOPS (Rmax) / 1.685 exaFLOPS (Rpeak)[1]
CostUS$600M (estimated cost)
PurposeScientific research

Frontier uses a combination of AMD Epyc 7A53s 64 core CPUs and Radeon Instinct MI250X GPUs, and occupies 74 19-inch (48 cm) rack cabinets.[7] Frontier has coherent interconnects between CPUs and GPUs, allowing GPU memory to be accessed coherently by code running on the Epyc CPUs.[8]

The machine was built at a cost of US$600 million. It began deployment in 2021[9] and reached full capability in 2022.[10] It has been clocked at 1.1 exaflops Rmax as of May 2022 making it the world's fastest supercomputer as measured in the June 2022 edition of the TOP500 list, replacing Fugaku.[1][11]

The supercomputer also tops the related Green500 list for most efficient supercomputer, measured at 62.68 gigaflops/watt.[6] Frontier consumes 21 MW (compared to its predecessor Summit's 13 MW); it has been estimated that Frontier's successor, Aurora, will consume around 60 MW.[12]

Frontier will use an internal 75TB/s read/35TB/s write/15B IOPS flash storage system, along with the 700PB Orion site-wide Lustre filesystem.[13]


  1. ^ a b "TOP500 June 2022". 30 May 2022.
  2. ^ Wells, Jack (2018-03-19). "Powering the Road to National HPC Leadership". OpenPOWER Summit 2018.
  3. ^ Bethea, Katie (2018-02-13). "Frontier: OLCF'S Exascale Future – Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility". Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Leadership Computing Facility. Archived from the original on 2018-03-10.
  4. ^ "DOE Under Secretary for Science Dabbar's Exascale Update". insideHPC. 9 October 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-10-28.
  5. ^ Don Clark (May 30, 2022). "U.S. Retakes Top Spot in Supercomputer Race". New York Times.
  6. ^ a b Larabel, Michael (30 May 2022). "AMD-Powered Frontier Supercomputer Tops Top500 At 1.1 Exaflops, Tops Green500 Too". Phoronix. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  7. ^ "FRONTIER Spec Sheet". Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  8. ^ "AMD Preparing More Linux Code For The Frontier Supercomputer". Archived from the original on 2021-05-28.
  9. ^ "US Closes in on Exascale: Frontier Installation Is Underway". HPC Wire. 29 September 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  10. ^ "First Look At Oak Ridge's "Frontier" Exascaler, Contrasted To Argonne's "Aurora"". Next Platform. 4 October 2021. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  11. ^ "US Takes Supercomputer Top Spot with First True Exascale Machine".
  12. ^ "How Argonne Is Preparing for Exascale in 2022". HPCwire. 8 September 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  13. ^ "Frontier supercomputer debuts as world's fastest, breaking exascale barrier". Oak Ridge National Laboratory. May 30, 2022.
Preceded by World's most powerful supercomputer
May 2022 –