Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy
The Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (French: Front pour la Restauration de l'Unité et de la Démocratie) (Arabic: الجبهة من أجل استعادة الوحدة والديمقراطية) is a political party in Djibouti. It is aligned with the interests of the Afar people who live in that country, although it has supporters residing outside of Djibouti.
|Headquarters||Djibouti City, Djibouti|
|National affiliation||Union for the Presidential Majority|
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Formation and rebellionEdit
Three Afar groups—Action for the Revision of Order in Djibouti, the Front for the Restoration of Right and Equality, and the Djibouti Patriotic Resistance Front—merged in 1991 to form FRUD. In late 1991, FRUD launched a rebellion against the Issa-dominated government.
Nearly 1,000 people died during the conflict until 1994.
Violence briefly resurged in 2014, with 12 fatalities.
In 1994 the party split into two factions: a moderate wing, led by Ali Mohamed Daoud, signed a peace agreement with the government on 26 December 1994 in Aba'a, while other wing, led by Ahmed Dini Ahmed, denounced this agreement and continued armed resistance.
The other faction held a congress in northern Djibouti for six days in late September 1994, and it announced on 30 September 1994 that the congress delegates "unanimously reaffirmed their determination to pursue armed struggle until their political goals are satisfied," while electing Dini at the head of the faction's executive committee.
At the same time, the Daoud faction's determined to isolate the other faction's top leadership—Ahmed and its Vice-President Mohamed Adoyta Youssouf—deciding that they could not "speak on behalf of the FRUD or to commit it in any manner.
As a result of its December 1994 agreement with the government, the moderate faction was given two ministerial positions on 8 June 1995: FRUD President Daoud became Minister of Health and Social Affairs, while FRUD Secretary-General Ougoure Kifle Ahmed became Minister of Agriculture and Water Resources. The moderate faction was formally legalized in March 1996. On 15–16 April 1997, it held its First Ordinary Congress, electing a 153-member National Council and a 21-member Executive Committee. Although the party continued to be led by Daoud, who is an Afar, the composition of the leadership selected at this congress reflected the party's efforts to appeal to other ethnic groups aside from its Afar base. Djama Djellai, an Issa, was chosen as First Vice-President, and Ismael Youssouf, a Gadabursi, was chosen as Second Vice-President. The Executive Committee included several representatives of ethnic groups aside from the Afar: four were Issa, two were Gadabursi, two were Arabs, and one was Isaaq. FRUD took part in the December 1997 parliamentary election in alliance with the ruling People's Rally for Progress (RPP), and this alliance won 78.5% of the vote, taking all 65 seats in the National Assembly.
1999 presidential electionEdit
Ismail Omar Guelleh of the RPP stood in the presidential election held on April 9, 1999, as the joint candidate of the RPP and FRUD, receiving 74.02% of the vote. Prior to the election, Abatte Ebo Adou, a FRUD parliamentary deputy, announced that he would stand as a presidential candidate and was expelled from FRUD as a result.
For its part, the radical faction eventually signed its own peace agreement with the government in 2001.
FRUD held its Second Ordinary Congress on 28–29 April 2002. Daoud was re-elected as FRUD President at this congress, and the party's Executive Committee was reduced from 27 to 19 members.
2003 parliamentary electionEdit
In the parliamentary election held on 10 January 2003, the moderate faction was part of the Union for the Presidential Majority (Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle, UMP), which won 62.7% of the popular vote and all seats. The radical faction participated in the election as part of the opposition coalition, the Union for a Democratic Change.
Third Ordinary CongressEdit
The moderate faction held its Third Ordinary Congress, attended by 1,250 delegates, on 30–31 May 2007. Daoud was re-elected as President of FRUD by acclamation, without opposition. At the congress, FRUD's National Council was expanded to 335 members; the FRUD Executive Committee named at this congress included 26 members, four of whom were women. FRUD was again part of the UMP for the February 2008 parliamentary election; the UMP again won all seats amidst an opposition boycott.
- Marshall, Monty G. (16 April 2015). "Major Episodes of Political Violence 1946–2014". Center for Systemic Peace. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- "ACLED Version 5 (1997–2014)". Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- Political Parties of the World (6th edition, 2005), ed. Bogdan Szajkowski, p. 180
- "«Le FRUD a toujours apporté son soutien à l’action du chef de l’Etat et continuera de le faire dans l’avenir », déclare le président du FRUD, M. Mohamed Ali Daoud"[permanent dead link], ADI, 20 June 2002 (in French).
- "DINI'S FACTION REAFFIRMS PURSUIT OF ARMED STRUGGLE", Reuters, 30 September 1994 (Horn of Africa Bulletin, Vol. 6 No. 5 (September–October 1994).
- Christophe Farah, "EX-REBELS IN DJIBOUTI'S COALITION GOVERNMENT", Reuters, June 9, 1995.
- "Djibouti: Political opposition parties (This Response replaces an earlier version dated 13 January 1999. Archived May 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine", Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (UNHCR Refworld), DJI31018.FE, 1 February 1999.
- "First FRUD congress held", Indian Ocean Newsletter, 16 April 1997 (Horn of Africa Monthly Review, 21 February–28 April 1997).
- Political Handbook of the World: 1998 (1998), page 261 (cited in "Djibouti: Political opposition parties (This Response replaces an earlier version dated 13 January 1999.) Archived May 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine", Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (UNHCR Refworld), DJI31018.FE, 1 February 1999.
- "Proclamation du Président de la République de Djibouti par le Conseil Constitutionnel." Archived 2007-08-16 at the Wayback Machine, Journal Officiel de la République de Djibouti (in French).
- "Djibouti: Flap in FRUD", Indian Ocean Newsletter, No. 839, 2 January 1999 (cited in "Djibouti: Political opposition parties (This Response replaces an earlier version dated 13 January 1999.) Archived May 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine", Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (UNHCR Refworld), DJI31018.FE, 1 February 1999).
- "Le Conseil National du FRUD élit les 19 membres de son Comité Exécutif"[permanent dead link], ADI, 4 May 2008 (in French).
- "Djiboutis to vote Friday in Parliamentary polls" Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, Middle East Online, 9 January 2003.
- "Sous le signe des réformes" Archived 2007-07-07 at the Wayback Machine, La Nation, 31 May 2007 (in French).
- "M. Ali Mohamed Daoud réélu président du Frud" Archived 2007-08-16 at the Wayback Machine, ADI, 3 June 2007 (in French).
- "14% de sièges aux femmes" Archived 2008-01-19 at the Wayback Machine, La Nation, 16 January 2008 (in French).
- IPU-PARLINE page for 2008 election