Freiburg Minster (German: Freiburger Münster or Münster Unserer Lieben Frau) is the cathedral of Freiburg im Breisgau, southwest Germany. The last duke of Zähringen had started the building around 1200 in romanesque style. The construction continued in 1230 in Gothic style. The minster was partly built on the foundations of an original church that had been there from the beginning of Freiburg, in 1120.
|The Cathedral of Our Lady|
|Location||Freiburg im Breisgau|
|Website||Website of the Cathedral|
|Founder(s)||Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen|
|Archdiocese||Archdiocese of Freiburg|
The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt once said that the church's 116-meter tower will forever remain the most beautiful spire on earth. His remark gave rise to the frequently heard misquote of the most beautiful tower in the whole of Christianity.
The tower is nearly square at the base, and at its centre is the dodecagonal star gallery. Above this gallery, the tower is octagonal and tapered, and above this, is the spire.
It is the only Gothic church tower in Germany that was completed in the Middle Ages (1330), and has lasted until the present, surviving the bombing raids of November 1944, which destroyed all of the houses on the west and north side of the market. The tower was subject to severe vibration at the time, and its survival of these vibrations is attributed to its lead anchors, which connect the sections of the spire. The windows had been taken out of the spire at the time by church staff led by Monsignor Max Fauler, and so these also suffered no damage.
Freiburg Minster was not the seat of a bishop until 1827, long after it was built.
The tower has 16 bells, the oldest being the "Hosanna" bell from 1258, which weighs 3,290 kilograms. This bell can be heard on Thursday evening after the Angelus, on Friday at 11:00 am (a time consequently known as "Spätzleglocke"), on Saturday evenings, and each year on 27 November in remembrance of the air raid.
The nave windows were donated by the guilds, and the symbols of the guilds are featured on them. The deep red color in some of the windows is not the result of a dye, but instead the result of a suspension of solid gold nanoparticles.
In 2003, the Lenten cloth was restored and backed with a supporting material. It now weighs over a ton, and so must be carried from the workshop with heavy machinery for its use during Lent.
The cathedral holds 19 bells, altogether 25 tonnes, making it one of the largest peals in Germany.
|Nr.||name||year cast||caster's name||cast at||diameter||measures||chime|
|1||Christus||1959||Friedrich Wilhelm Schilling||Heidelberg||2133 mm||6856 kg||g0|
|2||Petrus||1774 mm||3917 kg||bes0|
|3||Paulus||1566 mm||2644 kg||c1|
|4||Maria||1490 mm||2290 kg||d1|
|5||Hosanna||1258||anonymous||1610 mm||3290 kg||es1|
|6||Josef||1959||Friedrich Wilhelm Schilling||Heidelberg||1242 mm||1354 kg||f1|
|7||Nikolaus||1095 mm||958 kg||g1|
|8||Johannes||1081 mm||913 kg||a1|
|9||Jakobus||1022 mm||803 kg||bes1|
|10||Konrad||903 mm||560 kg||c2|
|11||Bernhard||798 mm||381 kg||d2|
|12||Lambert und Alexander||670 mm||212 kg||f2|
|13||Michael||594 mm||149 kg||g2|
|14||Schutzengel||575 mm||150 kg||a2|
|15||Odilia||505 mm||112 kg||c3|
|16||Magnificat||456 mm||79 kg||d3|
|17||Vesperglöckchen||1606||Hans Ulrich Bintzlin||Breisach||510 mm||70 kg||b2|
|18||Silberglöckchen||13th century||anonymous||352 mm||33 kg||f3|
|19||Taufglocke||13th/14th century||anonymous||550 mm||95 kg||a2|
From the time of its construction, the cathedral was not owned by the Roman Catholic Church but by the people of Freiburg. In the Middle Ages, the situation changed so that the building was self-owned, and administered by a guardian appointed by the people of the city. More recently, the Münsterbauverein association was created, which now legally owns the cathedral.
For the conservation of the cathedral, the Freiburger Münsterbauverein ("Freiburg Minster-Upkeep Association") was established. The association invests several million euros each year in the care and maintenance of the building and its interior. The present architect in charge is Yvonne Faller and the chair of the association is Sven von Ungern-Sternberg.
- (in German) Cathedral windows
- Der schönste Turm auf Erden, Badische Zeitung, Seite 17, 10. März 2005
- "Freiburg Münster (Cathedral) – Our landmark". Freiburg Tourism. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Erzbischöfliches Dompfarramt (nd). "Die Vorhallenwände". Münsterfabrikfonds (in German). Retrieved 2022-02-15.
- "BIOPRO Home". archive.is. 12 March 2007. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2019.