Frei Paul Otto (German: [fʁaɪ ˈʔɔtoː]; 31 May 1925 – 9 March 2015) was a German architect and structural engineer noted for his use of lightweight structures, in particular tensile and membrane structures, including the roof of the Olympic Stadium in Munich for the 1972 Summer Olympics.
Frei Paul Otto
31 May 1925
|Died||9 March 2015 (aged 89)|
Otto was born in Siegmar, Germany, and grew up in Berlin. He studied architecture in Berlin before being drafted into the Luftwaffe as a fighter pilot in the last years of World War II. He was interned in a prisoner of war camp near Chartres (France) and with his aviation engineering training and lack of material and an urgent need for housing, began experimenting with tents for shelter. After the war he studied briefly in the US and visited Erich Mendelsohn, Mies van der Rohe, Richard Neutra, and Frank Lloyd Wright.
He began a private practice in Germany in 1952. His saddle-shaped cable-net music pavilion at the Bundesgartenschau (Federal Garden Exposition) in Kassel brought him his first significant attention. He earned a doctorate in tensioned constructions in 1954.
Otto specialised in lightweight tensile and membrane structures, and pioneered advances in structural mathematics and civil engineering. He founded the Institute for Lightweight Structures at the University of Stuttgart in 1964 and headed the institute until his retirement as university professor. Major works include the West German Pavilion at the Montreal Expo in 1967 and the roof of the 1972 Munich Olympic Arena. He has lectured worldwide and taught at the Architectural Association School of Architecture, where he also designed some of the research facilities buildings of the school's forest campus in Hooke Park.
Until his death, Otto remained active as an architect and engineer, and as consultant to his protégé Mahmoud Bodo Rasch for a number of projects in the Middle East. One of his more recent projects was his work with Shigeru Ban on the Japanese Pavilion at Expo 2000 with a roof structure made entirely of paper, and together with SL Rasch GmbH Special and Lightweight Structures he designed a convertible roof for the Venezuelan Pavilion. In an effort to memorialise the September 11 attacks and its victims as early as 2002, Otto envisioned the two footprints of the World Trade Center buildings covered with water and surrounded by trees; his plan includes a world map embedded in the park with countries at war marked with lights and a continuously updated board announcing the number of people killed in war from 11 September 2001, onward.
On request of de:Christoph Ingenhoven, Otto designed the "Light eyes" for Stuttgart 21. – drop-shaped overlights in the park, that descend onto the tracks to support the ceiling. Otto remarked in 2010 that the construction should be stopped because of the difficult geology.
Otto died on 9 March 2015; he was to be publicly announced as the winner of the 2015 Pritzker Prize on 23 March but his death meant the committee announced his award on 10 March. Otto himself had been told earlier that he had won the prize by the executive director of the Pritzker Prize, Martha Thorne. He was reported to have said, "I’ve never done anything to gain this prize. Prize winning is not the goal of my life. I try to help poor people, but what shall I say here — I'm very happy."
List of buildingsEdit
This is a partial list of buildings designed by Otto:
- 1967 – West Germany Pavilion at Expo 67 Montreal
- 1972 – Roof for Olympic Stadium, Munich
- 1975 – Multihalle, Mannheim
- 1977 – Umbrellas for 1977 Pink Floyd tour
- 1980 – Aviary at Munich Zoo
- 1985 – Tuwaiq Palace, Saudi Arabia, with Buro Happold
- 2000 – Roof structure of the Japanese Pavilion at Expo 2000, Hanover Germany (provided engineering assistance with Buro Happold and architectural collaboration with Shigeru Ban)
- "Biography: Frei Otto". The Hyatt Foundation. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- "Frei Otto". Praemium Imperiale. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Fong, Mei (11 January 2002). "From Parks to Twisted Towers, Designs for a Memorial Multiply". Wall Street Journal.
- "Meilenstein in Stuttgart: Erster Musterkelch wurde betoniert". ingenhoven architects. 18 March 2016.
- Werner Sobek: S21 Tiefbahnhof Stuttgart.
- Video: Animation. Stuttgart 21 – Ein Bahnhof kommt unter die Erde. and pictures: Großprojekt Stuttgart 21: Wie der Bahnhof einmal aussehen soll.
- Hans Monath, Andreas Böhme: Bahn soll bei Stuttgart 21 Notbremse ziehen.
- Stuttgart 21-Architekt fordert den sofortigen Baustopp.
- "Frei Otto, 2015 Laureate". Pritzker Architecture Prize. 10 March 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Pritzker Prize for Frei Otto, German Architect, Announced After His Death, Robin Pogrebin, The New York Times, 10 March 2015
- Cramer, James P.; Yankopolus, Jennifer Evans (2005). Almanac of Architecture & Design 2006. Greenway Communications. p. 720. ISBN 978-0-9755654-2-1.
- Barnes, Michael; Dickson, Michael (1 November 2000). Widespan Roof Structures. ICE Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7277-2877-7.
- The man with the golden pen, Building.co.uk, 2005 issue 08
- Conrad Roland: Frei Otto – Spannweiten. Ideen und Versuche zum Leichtbau. Ein Werkstattbericht von Conrad Roland. Ullstein, Berlin, Frankfurt/Main und Wien 1965.
- Frei Otto, Bodo Rasch: Finding Form: Towards an Architecture of the Minimal, 1996, ISBN 3-930698-66-8
- Philip Drew, "Frei Otto; Form and Structure", 1976, ISBN 0-258-97053-7, ISBN 978-0-258-97053-9
- Philip Drew, "Tensile Architecture", 1979, ISBN 0-258-97012-X, ISBN 978-0-258-97012-6
- Frei Otto at archINFORM
- Frei Otto's official website
- Frei Otto: Spanning The Future Documentary film's official Website
- Japan Pavilion Expo 2000 – About the roof structure
- SL Rasch GmbH Homepage
- Last recorded interview with Frei Otto, about his life and receiving the Pritzker Prize
- Uncube Nr. 33 Frei Otto – by uncube magazine