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Freedom of the City of Dublin

The Freedom of the City of Dublin is awarded by Dublin City Council after approving a person nominated by the Lord Mayor. Eighty-two people have been honoured under the current process introduced in 1876. Most honourees have made a contribution to the life of the city or of Ireland in general, including politicians, public servants, humanitarians, artists and entertainers; others were distinguished members of the Irish diaspora and foreign leaders, honoured visiting Dublin. Honourees sign the roll of freedmen in a ceremony at City Hall or the Mansion House and are presented with an illuminated scroll by the Lord Mayor.

Contents

Ancient privileges and dutiesEdit

In ancient boroughs such as Dublin, a royal charter established the privileges of the "burgesses" (or "citizens" in places like Dublin with city status). Admission as a freeman or citizen was by principally granted to members of the guilds represented on Dublin Corporation and others by "special grace", as well as by marriage or descent from existing citizens. The wealthy could buy freedom by paying a "fine", and some of the penal laws facilitated Protestant immigrants' becoming freemen.[1][2]

Ancient charters were superseded for municipal governance purposes by the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 and for all other non-ceremonial purposes by the Local Government Act 2001.[3] Nevertheless, ancient privileges and duties of freemen are sometimes cited in relation to the modern award. Rights included:[4]

Freedmen had a duty to defend the city and could be called into the militia at short notice.[4] In 1454, apprentices to be admitted freemen needed a bow and sword, while merchants additionally needed a coat of mail and helmet.[4][7][8]

Honorary FreedomEdit

While the Representation of the People Act 1918 abolished the franchise rights of freemen, the Municipal Privileges Ireland Act 1876 allowed the creation of "Honorary Freemen".[1] This was retained by Local Government Act 1991[9] and currently the Local Government Act 2001.[1][10]

Recipients of the Freedom of Dublin since the Municipal Privileges Ireland Act 1876[11]
No.
[fn 1]
Name Resolution Signature Country[fn 2] Field Notes
1 Isaac Butt 4 September 1876 16 October 1876 Ireland Politics
2 William Ewart Gladstone 1 November 1877 7 November 1877 England Politics
3 Ulysses S. Grant 30 December 1878 3 January 1879 United States Politics / Military Former President and General in the Union Army
4 Edward E. Potter 26 April 1880 4 May 1880 United States Diplomacy / Military Former General in the Union Army; captained the USS Constellation carrying relief aid for the 1879 Irish famine.[13]
5 Charles Stewart Parnell 3 January 1882 16 August 1882 Ireland Politics
6 John Dillon 3 January 1882 16 August 1882 Ireland Politics
7 Kevin Izod O'Doherty 10 August 1885 1 September 1885 Ireland / Australia Politics Had just returned from Australia to contest North Meath in the November general election.
8 Patrick A. Collins 22 July 1887 2 August 1887 United States Politics
9 William O'Brien 22 July 1887 2 August 1887 Ireland Politics
9a Timothy Daniel Sullivan 10 December 1887 24 October 1893 Ireland Politics
9b Thomas Sexton 28 December 1887 Did not sign roll Ireland Politics
10 George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon 16 January 1888 2 February 1888 England Politics For supporting the First Home Rule Bill[14][15]
11 John Morley 16 January 1888 2 February 1888 England Politics For supporting the First Home Rule Bill as Chief Secretary for Ireland[14]
12 Patrick F. Moran 1 October 1888 4 October 1888 Ireland / Australia Religion: Catholic Cardinal, Archbishop of Sydney
13 Margaret Sandhurst 19 September 1889 20 September 1889 England Activism / Politics Suffragist who had just had her election to London County Council overturned.[16]
14 James Stansfeld 19 September 1889 20 September 1889 England Politics / Activism Radical MP and suffragist
15 George Salmon 14 March 1892 30 June 1892 Ireland Education / Religion: Church of Ireland Provost of Trinity College, Dublin during its tercentenary
16 Stuart Knill 23 December 1892 2 January 1893 England Politics Then Lord Mayor of London. of the Knill baronets.
17 John Redmond 18 December 1901 3 April 1902 Ireland Politics
18 Patrick Aloysius McHugh 30 October 1901 3 April 1902 Ireland Politics
19 Douglas Hyde 29 June 1906 7 August 1906 Ireland Culture: Irish language Under his pen name An Craoibhín Aoibhín
20 Emanuel Spencer Harty 2 September 1907 Did not sign roll Ireland Public service: civil engineering Dublin City Engineer[17]
20a Hugh Lane 10 February 1908 Did not sign roll Ireland (Dublin) / England Culture: art : collector Had established the Municipal Gallery of Modern Art
21 Richard Croker 1 July 1907 24 August 1908 United States Politics Tammany Hall boss
22 Edward O'Meagher Condon 28 September 1909 4 October 1909 Ireland Activism Co-accused of the Manchester Martyrs
23 Charles Cameron 30 September 1910 20 February 1911 Ireland (Dublin) Public service: medicine
24 Kuno Meyer 18 July 1911 22 April 1912 Germany Culture: Irish language Expunged 15 March 1915 due to anti-German feeling in World War I; restored 19 April 1920.[18]
25 Peadar Ua Laoghaire 18 July 1911 22 April 1912 Ireland Culture: Irish language Priest
25a Daniel Mannix 5 August 1920 Did not sign roll Australia / Ireland Religion: Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne
26 John McCormack 3 September 1923 6 September 1923 Ireland / United States Culture: music
27 Ehrenfried Günther Freiherr von Hünefeld 30 June 1928 3 July 1928 Germany Aviation Bremen transatlantic aircraft owner
28 Hermann Köhl 30 June 1928 3 July 1928 Germany Aviation Bremen transatlantic aircraft pilot
29 James Fitzmaurice 30 June 1928 3 July 1928 United States Aviation Bremen transatlantic aircraft navigator
30 Frank B. Kellogg 25 August 1928 30 August 1928 United States Politics / Diplomacy United States Secretary of State who had recently instigated the Kellogg–Briand Pact
31 Lorenzo Lauri 2 May 1932 27 June 1932 Italy Religion: Catholic Cardinal, papal legate during 1932 Eucharistic Congress in Dublin
32 John Lavery 12 August 1935 17 September 1935 Ireland / England Culture: art : painter
33 John Purser Griffith 4 May 1936 8 June 1936 Ireland Public service: civil engineering
34 George Bernard Shaw 4 March 1946 28 August 1946 Ireland / England Culture: literature / drama
35 Richard Cushing 16 September 1949 16 September 1949 United States Religion: Catholic Cardinal, Archbishop of Boston
36 Paul A. Dever 16 September 1949 16 September 1949 United States Politics Governor of Massachusetts
37 Seán T. O'Kelly 4 May 1953 2 June 1953 Ireland Diplomacy Then President of Ireland
38 John D'Alton 4 May 1953 2 June 1953 Ireland Religion: Catholic Cardinal Archbishop of Armagh
39 Gerald O'Hara 12 July 1954 27 July 1954 United States Religion: Catholic Apostolic Nuncio to Ireland
44[fn 1] Chester Beatty 7 November 1955 26 July 1956 United States / Ireland (Dublin) Culture: art : collector
45 John F. Norton 11 August 1958 28 October 1958 Australia Religion: Catholic Bishop of Bathurst
46 Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian 1 May 1961 22 June 1961 Armenia Religion: Catholic: Armenian Cardinal, papal legate for the Patrician Year Congress held at Croke Park.[19]
47 Michael Browne 16 July 1962 23 August 1962 Ireland Religion: Catholic Cardinal, former Master General of the Dominican Order; received freedom of Limerick[20] and Drogheda[21] on the same trip to Ireland.
48 John F. Kennedy 27 May 1963 28 June 1963 United States Politics / Diplomacy During state visit to Ireland
49 Hilton Edwards 11 June 1973 22 June 1973 England / Ireland (Dublin) Culture: drama Co-founder of the Gate Theatre
50 Micheál Mac Liammóir 11 June 1973 22 June 1973 England / Ireland (Dublin) Culture: drama Co-founder of the Gate Theatre
51 Éamon de Valera 3 February 1975 7 March 1975 Ireland Politics / Diplomacy Former Taoiseach and President
52 John A. Costello 3 February 1975 7 March 1975 Ireland (Dublin) Politics Former Taoiseach, alternately with de Valera
53 Pope John Paul II 24 September 1979 29 September 1979 Poland / Vatican Religion: Catholic / Diplomacy During official visit
54 Noel Purcell 22 June 1984 28 June 1984 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: drama Actor
55 Maureen Potter 22 June 1984 28 June 1984 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: drama Actress
56 Akihito 20 February 1985 4 March 1985 Japan Diplomacy Then Crown Prince, during official visit[22]
57 Michiko 20 February 1985 4 March 1985 Japan Diplomacy Then Crown Princess, during official visit[22]
58 Stephen Roche 28 September 1987 29 September 1987 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: cycling After winning 1987 Tour de France
59 Nelson Mandela 18 July 1988 1 July 1990 South Africa Activism Awarded on 70th birthday, while in prison; enrolled by proxy by Oliver Tambo on 21 September 1988; signed in person after his release.[12][23][24]
60 Patrick Hillery 4 March 1991 22 April 1991 Ireland Diplomacy Former President of Ireland
61 Mother Teresa of Calcutta 1 February 1993 2 June 1993 Albania / India Religion: Catholic / Activism
62 Jack Charlton 11 April 1994 26 May 1994 England Sport: soccer Then manager of the Republic of Ireland national team
63 Bill Clinton 6 November 1995 1 December 1995 United States Politics / Diplomacy During official visit during the Northern Ireland peace process
64 Gay Byrne 12 April 1999 11 May 1999 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: broadcasting
65 Aung San Suu Kyi 1 November 1999 18 June 2012 Burma Activism Granted in 1999 while she was under house arrest, Suu Kyi signed for her award in 2012 during a visit to Ireland.[25] The Council voted 59–2 (with one abstention) to revoke her award on 13 December 2017 over human rights abuses against the Rohingya people in Myanmar.[26][27]
66 Paul McGuinness 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: music U2 manager
67 The Edge 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) / Wales Culture: music U2 member
68 Larry Mullen Jr. 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: music U2 member
69 Adam Clayton 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) / England Culture: music U2 member
70 Bono 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: music U2 member
71 Mikhail Gorbachev 3 December 2001 9 January 2002 Russia Politics / Diplomacy / Activism
72 Kevin Heffernan 1 March 2004 17 May 2004 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: gaelic football Player and manager of the Dublin intercounty team
73 Ronnie Delany 5 September 2005 5 March 2006 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: athletics Won the 1956 Olympic 1500 m[28]
74 Bob Geldof 5 September 2005 5 March 2006 Ireland (Dublin) Activist / Culture: music Live Aid organiser and Boomtown Rats lead singer[28]
Geldof returned his award in November 2017 in protest over Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi also holding the accolade, stating that he does not "wish to be associated in any way with an individual currently engaged in the mass ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya people of north-west Burma."[29] Suu Kyi's award was revoked by the Council about a month later, though Lord Mayor Mícheál Mac Donncha denied the decision was influenced by protests by Geldof and members of U2.[26][27] At the same meeting, the Councillors voted 37–7 (with 5 abstentions) to remove Geldof's name from the Roll of Honorary Freemen.[26][30]
75 Thomas Kinsella 5 February 2007 24 May 2007 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: literature : poetry
76 Louis le Brocquy 5 February 2007 24 May 2007 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: art : painter
77 Peter McVerry 4 November 2013 22 March 2014 Ireland (Dublin) Activism / Religion: Catholic Jesuit homeless campaigner[31]
78 Brian O'Driscoll 4 November 2013 22 March 2014 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: rugby union Captain of the Ireland national team[31]
79 Kevin Crowley 1 September 2014 28 February 2015 Ireland (Dublin) Activism / Religion: Catholic Capuchin homeless campaigner
80 Johnny Giles 1 September 2014 28 February 2015 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: soccer Former captain and manager of the Republic of Ireland national team
81 Barack Obama 7 February 2017 TBD United States Politics Former President of the United States of America; for "moderating and progressive" influence on the world stage.[32]
82 Michelle Obama 7 February 2017 TBD United States Politics Former First Lady of the United States of America; for work for the education of girls around the world and on behalf of refugees.[33]
Notes
  1. ^ a b The missing numbers 40 to 43 correspond to the four earlier non-numeric values, inserted for those who signed the roll late or never. Since 1955, numbering is from resolution rather than signature.[12]
  2. ^ Those associated with Dublin in particular are noted

SourcesEdit

  • Clark, Mary (Spring 2000). "Freedom of the City of Dublin". Dublin Historical Record. Old Dublin Society. 53 (1): 33–37. JSTOR 30101245.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Clark (2000) p.34
  2. ^ Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the municipal corporations in Ireland (1835). First report, appendix: Report on the City of Dublin, Part I. Command papers. Vol.27 No. 23. William Clowes for HMSO. pp. 17–19, §§60–63.
  3. ^ "Local Government Act, 2001, Section 11 (16)". Irish Statute Book. 21 July 2001. Retrieved 2 April 2015. Subject to this Act, royal charters and letters patent relating to local authorities shall continue to apply for ceremonial and related purposes in accordance with local civic tradition but shall otherwise cease to have effect.
  4. ^ a b c "Freedom of the City of Dublin". Dublin City Council. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  5. ^ AP (20 March 2000). "Bono asserts public sheep-grazing right". Rome News-Tribune. Rome, Georgia: via Google News. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  6. ^ Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen Jr. U2 by U2. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-077674-9.[page needed]
  7. ^ Berry, Henry F. (1900). "The Records of the Dublin Gild of Merchants, known as the Gild of the Holy Trinity, 1438-1671". The journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 10 (5th ser.) 30 (continuing) (1): 59.
  8. ^ Gilbert, John T. (1889). "Dublin Assembly Roll, 1454". Calendar of ancient records of Dublin in the possession of the municipal corporation of that city. Vol.1. Joseph Dollard. p. 283.
  9. ^ "Local Government Act, 1991, Section 48". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  10. ^ "Local Government Act, 2001, Section 74". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  11. ^ "Previous Recipients of Keys to the City". Dublin City Council. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  12. ^ a b Clark (2000) p.37
  13. ^ "Report of the Commander of the Relief Ship Constellation". Irish Emigration Database. DIPPAM. 15 June 1880. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  14. ^ a b "The Freedom of Dublin". Chicago Tribune. 4 February 1888. p. 9. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  15. ^ Omond, George William Thomson. "Robinson, George Frederick Samuel, 1st Marquess of Ripon". Dictionary of National Biography. Second Supplement, Vol.2. p. 230.
  16. ^ Haggard, Robert F. (2001). The Persistence of Victorian Liberalism: The Politics of Social Reform in Britain, 1870-1900. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 134–135. ISBN 9780313313059. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  17. ^ "Harty, Emanuel Spencer". Dictionary of Irish Architects. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  18. ^ Clark (2000) p.36
  19. ^ "Cardinal Gregory Peter Agagianian, Oak Room, Mansion House". Digital Collections » Freedom of the City. Dublin City Council libraries. 22 June 1961. p. FOC001. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  20. ^ "50 Years Ago: Cardinal to be Freeman of city" (PDF). Limerick Leader. 13 August 2012. p. 19. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  21. ^ "Cardinal Browne receives Freedom of Borough of Drogheda". Holdings. National Library of Ireland. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  22. ^ a b "Lord Mayor Michael O'Halloran, Crown Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan, Oak Room, Mansion House". zzz. zzz. 4 March 1985. p. FOC019. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  23. ^ FOC032 Mandela 1990 Archived 2013-12-12 at the Wayback Machine. Dublin City Public Libraries & Archive, 2013-01-16.
  24. ^ Happy memories of asking the Nelson Mandela about his first vote Irish Times, 2013-12-06.
  25. ^ "Burma's Aung San Suu Kyi leaves Ireland after awards". RTÉ News. 18 June 2012. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  26. ^ a b c "Councillors vote to revoke award from Aung San Suu Kyi". RTÉ News. 14 December 2017. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  27. ^ a b "Aung San Suu Kyi has Freedom of Dublin award revoked". The Guardian. 14 December 2017. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017 – via Agence France-Presse.
  28. ^ a b "Minutes of Special Meeting held on 5 March 2006 outside the Mansion House at 4.00 pm" (PDF). Dublin City Council. 5 March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  29. ^ Bennett, Isabel (13 November 2017). "Bob Geldof renounces honour also held by Aung San Suu Kyi". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  30. ^ Kilraine, John [@John_Kilraine] (13 December 2017). "Dublin councillors voted 37 in favour with 7 against and 5 abstentions to also remove Bob Geldof's name from the Roll of Honorary Freemen #rtenews" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017 – via Twitter.
  31. ^ a b [1] Irish Independent, 2014-23-03.
  32. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38891178
  33. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38891178

External linksEdit