Fredrikstad (Norwegian: [ˈfrɛ̀drɪkstɑ] ; previously Frederiksstad; literally "Fredrik's Town") is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Fredrikstad.

Fredrikstad Municipality
Fredrikstad kommune
Above: Panorama view of Glomma River and Fredrikstadbrua, from Fredrikstad Fortress
Bottom: Aerial view of Tøihusgaten and Isegran heritage town area
Østfold within Norway
Østfold within Norway
Fredrikstad within Østfold
Fredrikstad within Østfold
Coordinates: 59°12′19″N 10°57′0″E / 59.20528°N 10.95000°E / 59.20528; 10.95000
DistrictEastern Norway
Administrative centreFredrikstad
 • Mayor (2023)Arne Sekkelsten (H)
 • Total293 km2 (113 sq mi)
 • Land284 km2 (110 sq mi)
 • Rank#269 in Norway
 (30 September 2023)
 • Total85,044 Increase
 • Rank#7 in Norway
 • Density286/km2 (740/sq mi)
 • Change (10 years)
Increase +8.6%
Official language
 • Norwegian formBokmål
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNO-3107[2]
WebsiteOfficial website
Fredrikstad Cathedral
Ferrari 355 F1 Berlinetta on the Fredrikstad Bridge
Old Town Fredrikstad[3]

The city of Fredrikstad was founded in 1567 by King Frederick II, and established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The rural municipality of Glemmen was merged with Fredrikstad on 1 January 1964. The rural municipalities of Borge, Onsøy, Kråkerøy, and Rolvsøy were merged with Fredrikstad on 1 January 1994.

The city straddles the river Glomma where it meets the Skagerrak, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the Sweden border. Along with neighboring Sarpsborg, Fredrikstad forms the fifth largest city in Norway: Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg. As of 30 September 2021, according to Statistics Norway, these two municipalities have a total population of 141,708 with 83,761 in Fredrikstad and 57,947 in Sarpsborg.

Fredrikstad was built at the mouth of Glomma as a replacement after Sarpsborg (15 kilometres (9 miles) upstream) was burnt down by the Swedish Army in the 1500s. Some of the citizens stayed behind and rebuilt their old town at its original site and got their city status back in 1839.

The city centre is on the west bank of the Glomma, while the old town on the east bank is Northern Europe's best preserved fortified town.

Fredrikstad used to have a large sawmill industry and was an important harbour for timber export, then later on shipbuilding, until the main yard was closed in 1988. The main industries are currently various chemical plants and other light industry.

In 2005, Fredrikstad was the final host port for the Tall Ships' Race, attracting thousands to the city. In 2019, it was the first host port.

In 2017, Fredrikstad won the national award for most attractive city. The award is given yearly by the Norwegian government on the basis of social, economic and environmental factors.[4]

General information




The city was named after the Danish king Frederick II in 1569. The last element stad means "city".

Prior to 1877, the name was spelled Frederiksstad, then from 1877 to 1888 it was written as Fredriksstad, and finally since 1889 it has been spelled in its current form: Fredrikstad.



The coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 21 April 1967. The old arms are based on the oldest known seal of the city, which dates from 1610. They showed a fortress being guarded by a bear. Strangely, Fredrikstad had no fortifications in 1610 (it received some at the end of the 17th century). Fredrikstad was founded by citizens of Sarpsborg and both the fortress and the bear are taken from the old arms of Sarpsborg. The composition of the seal was also used as arms since the beginning of the 19th century. The new arms were granted at the 400th anniversary of the city in 1967 and show a more modern variation on the fortress and bear.[5]



After Sarpsborg was burned to the ground during the Northern Seven Years' War, the ruling king, Frederik II, decided by royal decree to rebuild the city 15 kilometres (9 mi) south of the original location. This new site's proximity to the sea and the accessible open land surrounding it made it a better location than the old one. The name Fredrikstad was first used in a letter from the King dated 6 February 1569. The temporary fortification built during the Hannibal War (1644–1645) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, became permanent in the 1660s.

The work on the fortifications was first led by Willem Coucheron and later Johan Caspar von Cicignon. During the next 60 years, several fortifications at the Fredrikstad Fortress were built, including Isegran, Kongsten, and Cicignon. In 1735, a suburb on the western side of Glomma, Vestsiden, was founded. This part later grew faster than the old city, and became the dominant city centre. Most of the buildings in the old city burned down during a fire in 1764.

In the 1840s, timber exporting from Fredrikstad started to gain momentum. In the 1860s, several steam powered saws were built along the river, and in 1879 the railway reached Fredrikstad, leading to further growth. With the decline of the timber exports as a result of the modernization of wood-processing industries in the early 1900s, Fredrikstad's production changed to other types of products. It later became one of Norway's most important industrial centres, famous for its large shipyard, Fredrikstad Mekaniske Verksted.



Fredrikstad has three high schools. Frederick II Secondary School [no] offers general studies and financial / administrative studies. It is a merger of the former Frydenberg Gymnastic [no] and Christianslund Handelsgymnasium. Glemmen High School [no] offers professional training and study. Wang Toppidrett Frederikstad [no] offers sports, science, languages, social sciences and economics. In addition, there is a Steiner school, a private educational alternative.

Østfold University College offers higher education (master's and bachelor's studies) at the Academy of Performing Arts, Faculty of Health and Social Care and the Faculty of Engineering at Kråkerøy. Østfold Vocational College [no] offers short professional craft or technical courses. The Department of Journalism offers primarily continuing education for journalists and editors.

Fredrikstad Museum


Fredrikstad Museum is located in Old Fredrikstad. The museum shows the history of the city and the surrounding region. The museum also manages Elingaard Manor in Onsøy and Torgauten Fort. Fredrikstad Museum was founded in 1903. Since 2003, the museum's management has been located in Tøihuset in Old Town.[6]



Fredrikstad is home to nine-time Norway football winners Fredrikstad FK who play at the Fredrikstad Stadion. Egil Olsen, manager for the Norwegian national football team, is from Fredrikstad.[7] There is also an American football team, the Fredrikstad Eagles.

Fredrikstad has a top-division handball team, Fredrikstad BK, and a top-division ice hockey team, Stjernen Hockey.

The city also has a number of floorball teams, including Slevik IBK, Fredrikstad IBK and St. Croix Pirates.

Notable residents


Public service

Henrik Bjelke, ca.1650
Roald Amundsen, ca.1908


Karsten Andersen, 1964


Jørn Andersen, 2015
Number of minorities (1st and 2nd generation) in Fredrikstad by country of origin in 2021[16]
Ancestry Number
  Iraq 2,348
  Somalia 1,626
  Poland 1,500
  Kosovo 893
  Syria 813
  Sweden 715
  Bosnia-Herzegovina 667
  Iran 548
  Lithuania 417
  Afghanistan 382
  Denmark 314
  Russia 307
  Thailand 291
  Germany 277
  Philippines 261
  Eritrea 254
  Vietnam 215

International relations


Twin towns – sister cities


The following cities are twinned with Fredrikstad:[17]

City Region Country
  Aalborg[18]   North Denmark Region   Denmark
  Húsavík   Suður-Þingeyjarsýsla   Iceland
  Kotka[19]   Kymenlaakso   Finland
  Karlskoga   Örebro   Sweden
Patzún   Chimaltenango   Guatemala
San Martín Jilotepeque   Chimaltenango   Guatemala
Zhuzhou   Hunan   China

See also





  1. ^ "Forskrift om målvedtak i kommunar og fylkeskommunar" (in Norwegian).
  2. ^ Bolstad, Erik; Thorsnæs, Geir, eds. (26 January 2023). "Kommunenummer". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget.
  3. ^ Fredrikstad kommune
  4. ^ "Fredrikstad kåret til Norges mest attraktive by". (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  5. ^ Norske Kommunevåpen (1990). "Nye kommunevåbener i Norden". Retrieved 13 December 2008.
  6. ^ Fredrikstad museum (Østfoldmuseene Org) Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b "Olsen: Manager". BDFutbol. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  8. ^ "Hauge, Hans Nielsen" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 65–66.
  9. ^ Kari Gaarder Losnedahl (16 December 2010). "Hans Jacob Nilsen". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian) – via Store norske leksikon.
  10. ^ Lillian Bikset (20 November 2020). "Tore Segelcke". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian).
  11. ^ Oskar Henriksen; Anne Eilertsen; et al. (16 December 2020). "Georg Løkkeberg". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian).
  12. ^ Anne Marit Godal; Ida Scott; et al. (6 June 2019). "Terje Formoe". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian).
  13. ^ Rainer Prang (28 May 2009). "Dennis til morgenstudio" (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  14. ^ Elisabeth Skovly (12 March 2018). "Kjendisen Fra Kråkerøy". Fredrikstad Blad (interview) (in Norwegian). Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  15. ^ Gunnar Iversen (13 February 2009). "Harald Zwart". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian) – via Store norske leksikon.
  16. ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by immigration category, country background and percentages of the population". Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  17. ^ "Våre vennskapsbyer" (in Norwegian). Fredrikstad kommune. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
  18. ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  19. ^ Raino Hassinen. "Kotka – International co-operation: Twin Cities". City of Kotka. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2013.


  • Aschehougs Konversasjonsleksikon, Volume 7. Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co, 1969. (in Norwegian).