Major-General Frederick Gerard Peake CMG CBE CStJ (12 June 1886 – 30 March 1970), known as Peake Pasha, was a British Army and police officer and creator of the Arab Legion.

Frederick G. Peake
Frederick Peake portrait.jpg
Peake wearing traditional Jordanian Keffiyeh
Birth nameFrederick Gerard Peake
Nickname(s)Peake Pasha
Born12 June 1886
Epsom, England
Died30 March 1970(1970-03-30) (aged 83)
Kelso, Scotland
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service1906–1939
RankMajor-General
UnitImperial Camel Corps
Royal Flying Corps
Sudan Camel Corps
Duke of Wellington's Regiment
Commands heldArab Legion
Battles/warsWorld War I
AwardsOBE, CMG, CBE, CStJ
Other workPoliceman, author

Military careerEdit

The son of Lt-Colonel Walter Peake DSO, of Melton Mowbray, Peake was born at Epsom on 12 June 1886. He attended Stubbington House School, Fareham,[1] later graduated from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in 1906 was commissioned into the Duke of Wellington's Regiment, and served in India from 1908 to 1913.

During the First World War, Peake served with the Royal Flying Corps in Salonica, and was also an officer serving with the Imperial Camel Corps, part of the British Imperial Egyptian Army, seeing action in the Darfur Expedition. In 1917 he was awarded the Order of the Nile, Fourth Class.[1][2] He served for a time under Lawrence of Arabia.

In September 1920 Peake, then a Captain, left the Imperial Camel Corps to report on the security situation in Transjordan. Security was found to be inadequate, and in October the same year Peake, by then promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, was ordered by the High Commissioner of Palestine to form two small police forces:

  1. The Mobile Force, 100 men to guard the Palestine-Amman road.
  2. 50 men to support the British District Officer posted to Al Karak, east of the Dead Sea.

During the summers of 1921 and 1923, Peake organised the 150-man Reserve Mobile Force, which formed the nucleus of the Arab Legion. This force was made of up Arabs, Kurds, Turks, and Circassians, armed with German rifles. Due to increasing regional skirmishes, the Reserve Mobile Force was increased in strength to 750 officers and men. This reorganised force thwarted Wahhabi raids in 1922 and the Adwan Rebellion in 1923. Peake became a Major-General in the army of the Emirate of Transjordan.

Private lifeEdit

In 1937 Peake married Elspeth MacLean Ritchie, younger daughter of Norman Ritchie, of St Boswells, and they had one daughter.[1][3] In 1939, he retired and was succeeded by John Bagot Glubb. To the Jordanians he became known as "Peake Pasha".

In retirement, Peake settled at Hawkslee, St Boswells, Roxburghshire, his wife's home village. She died in 1967.[1] His daughter, Julia Grace Peake, was born in 1941. She married firstly David Renwick Grant, and secondly the late Sir Hugh Arbuthnot, 7th Baronet.

AwardsEdit

Selected publicationsEdit

  • A History of Jordan and its Tribes, University of Miami Press, 1958[1]
  • Change at St Boswells (the story of a border village), John McQueen and Son, 1961[1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f 'PEAKE, Frederick Gerard', in Who Was Who (A. & C. Black); online edition, Oxford University Press, 2014, PEAKE, Frederick Gerard[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 27 July 2016 (subscription site)
  2. ^ The London Gazette'", 31 August 1917
  3. ^ Frederick Peake at ThePeerage.com

External linksEdit

  • The Arab Legion
  • "Archival material relating to Frederick Peake". UK National Archives.  
  • Portraits of Frederick Gerard Peake at the National Portrait Gallery, London