Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden
|Grand Duke of Baden|
|Reign||22 January 1856 – 28 September 1907|
|Born||9 September 1826|
|Died||28 September 1907 (aged 81)|
|Father||Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden|
|Mother||Sophie of Sweden|
Frederick was born in Karlsruhe on 9 September 1826. He was the third son of Grand Duke Leopold (1790–1852) and of his wife, Grand Duchess Sophie (1801–1865), who was born Princess of Sweden, daughter of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden.
He became the heir presumptive to the Grand Duchy upon the death of his father in 1852 and the accession of his brother as Grand Duke Louis II. Due to his brother's mental ill-health, he was regent ad interim of Baden in 1852–1855, and took the title of Grand Duke in 1856. His brother, Louis II, died in 1858. He was considered a relatively liberal supporter of a constitutional monarchy. During his reign the option of civil marriages was introduced in Baden as well as direct elections to the Lower House of the Parliament of Baden in 1904.
The Grand Duke had a pivotal role in the history of the Zionist movement. In 1896 the Grand Duke met Theodor Herzl (the founder of political Zionism) via their mutual acquaintance the reverend William Hechler, and helped Herzl in obtaining an audience with his nephew, Wilhelm II, German Emperor. After some persuasion on the part of the Grand Duke, the Emperor accepted the appeal for an audience. It took place in Palestine on 2 November 1898, during the Kaiser's visit to inaugurate the Church of the Redeemer, Jerusalem.
Frederick I was present at the proclamation of the German Empire at Versailles in 1871, as he was the only son-in-law of the Emperor and one of the reigning sovereigns of Germany. He died at his summer residence at the island of Mainau in southern Germany on 28 September 1907. Today, Mainau is owned by the Lennart Bernadotte Foundation, created by Frederick's great-grandson Count Lennart Bernadotte, (1909–2004).
Titles, styles and honoursEdit
Titles and stylesEdit
- 9 September 1826: His Grand Ducal Highness Prince Frederick of Baden
- 24 April 1852: His Grand Ducal Highness The Prince Regent of Baden
- 22 January 1858: His Royal Highness The Grand Duke of Baden
- German honours
- Anhalt: Grand Cross of Albert the Bear, 1889
- Bavaria: Knight of St. Hubert, 1852
- Brunswick: Grand Cross of Henry the Lion
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, September 1844
- Hesse and by Rhine: Grand Cross of the Ludwig Order, 24 September 1843
- Hohenzollern: Cross of Honour of the Princely House Order of Hohenzollern, 1st Class
- Nassau: Knight of the Golden Lion, June 1860
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross of the Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, with Golden Crown, 17 May 1852
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Grand Cross of the White Falcon, 6 August 1853
- Saxony: Knight of the Rue Crown, 1853
- Schaumburg-Lippe: Military Merit Medal
- Württemberg: Grand Cross of the Württemberg Crown, 1846
- Foreign honours
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Leopold, 1845
- Brazil: Grand Cross of the Southern Cross
- Denmark: Knight of the Elephant, 24 April 1877
- France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, September 1846
- Greece: Grand Cross of the Redeemer
- Hawaii: Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha I
- Italy: Knight of the Annunciation, with Collar, 9 November 1864
- Japan: Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum, 5 June 1906
- Monaco: Grand Cross of St. Charles
- Montenegro: Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I
- Siam: Knight of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, with Collar, 5 October 1897
- Tunisia: Husainid House Order, in Diamonds
- United Kingdom: Knight of the Garter, 20 September 1906
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- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Hannover (1865), "Königliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" pp. 38, 78
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Hessen (1879), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 10
- Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau (1866), "Herzogliche Orden" p. 9
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Oldenburg (1869/70), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 28
- Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1855), "Großherzogliche Hausorden" p. 11
- Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen (1867), "Königliche Ritter-Orden" p. 4
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1907), "Königliche Orden" p. 27
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
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- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 463. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
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- Militaire Willems-Orde: Baden, Friedrich Grossherzog von (in Dutch)
- "Ordinul Carol I" [Order of Carol I]. Familia Regală a României (in Romanian). Bucharest. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
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- "The London Gazette, Issue: 27959 Page: 7015". The London Gazette. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
Frederick I, Grand Duke of BadenBorn: 9 September 1826 Died: 28 September 1907
| Grand Duke of Baden