Fred Davis (snooker player)

Fred Davis, OBE (14 August 1913 – 16 April 1998) was an English professional player of snooker and English billiards. Born in 1913 in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, Davis was an eight-time World Snooker Championship winner from 1948 to 1956, and a two-time winner of the World Billiards Championship. The brother of 15-time world snooker champion Joe Davis, the pair were the only two players to win both snooker and English billiards world championships, and is second on the list of most world snooker championship titles, behind Joe.

Fred Davis
OBE
Fred Davis after the 1948 World Snoker Championship.jpg
Davis with the World Snooker Championship trophy in 1948
Born(1913-08-14)14 August 1913
Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England
Died16 April 1998(1998-04-16) (aged 84)
Denbighshire, Wales
Sport country England
Professional1929–1993
Highest ranking4 (1976–77)
Highest break140: 1952 World Professional Match-play Championship
Century breaks36
Best ranking finishSemi-final (1974 World Championship, 1978 World Championship)
Tournament wins
Major12
World Champion

Davis' professional career started in 1929 at the age of 15, playing billiards and competed in his first world snooker championship in 1937, reaching the final three years later losing to Joe 36–37. From 1947, Davis played in five straight finals against Scottish player Walter Donaldson, winning three. When the event merged into being the World Professional Match-play Championship in 1952, Davis won five more championships, defeating Donaldon three times and then John Pulman twice.

Davis' won the World Billiards championship two times in 1980, defeating Rex Williams in the may event, and later Mark Wildman in the November event. With the beginning of the snooker world rankings in 1976, Davis was ranked fourth in the world, and remained on the professional tour until 1993, aged 80, when he stopped playing due to arthritis in his left knee. He died in 1998 after a fall in his home in Denbighshire, Wales.

Early lifeEdit

Fred Davis, was born in Chesterfield in Derbyshire on 14 August 1913, the youngest the six children of coalminer to pub landlord Fred Davis, and his wife Ann-Eliza. His snooker playing 12-years-older brother, Joe Davis, was the oldest of the six siblings.[1][2] Joe actively discouraged Fred's professional ambitions, telling Fred that he was not good enough to pursue a professional career. Fred learned to play on a miniature table; a Christmas gift from his parents.[3] Fred instead played English billiards which he later called "his first love",[4] where he won the British Boys Under 16 Billiards Championship in 1929.[5] He turned professional automatically under the rules of the Billiards Association and Control Council in 1929.[6] By the time that he was ready to play competitive billiards, the sport was in sharp decline, although he did defeat Kingsley Kennerley to win the United Kingdom Professional Billiards Championship in 1951.[7] Davis remarked that once snooker had come to the fore he assumed that he would never play another billiards match.[8]

CareerEdit

Pre-war careerEdit

After a young career in billiards, Davis concentrated on snooker, he first played in the World Snooker Championship in 1937 but lost 17–14 to Welshman Bill Withers in the first round, a defeat that Davis put down to ignoring his worsening eyesight.[9] His brother Joe considered this defeat an affront to the family honour and hammered Withers 30–1 in the very next round. Joe's fury with his brother's performance persuaded Fred to consult an optician who devised a pair of spectacles with swivel lens joints to help his play.[10]

He reached the semi-finals in 1938 and 1939 before reaching the final in 1940 World Snooker Championship, losing 36–37.[11] Davis was called up on 20 July 1940 to serve in the British Army for World War II, only five days after his wedding.[12]

Post-war careerEdit

Joe had dominated snooker from 1927 to 1946, had retired from the World Snooker Championship after his 1946 victory, Fred reached the final the following year, but lost 62–82 to Scot Walter Donaldson.[13] The pair made up the final for five straight years until 1951, with Davis winning in 1948, 1949 and 1951.[14][15] Joe Davis had been undefeated in the world championships, but Fred would go on to be the only player to beat Joe on level terms a feat he achieved four times between 1948 and 1954,[16] despite Joe had previously telling Fred that he would never beat him.[8] Snooker remained a huge attraction at this time, and crowds filled Blackpool Tower Circus to see Davis beat Donaldson 84–61 in the 1948 final and 80–65 in the 1949 final. However times were changing, and from 1950 matches became shorter. Donaldson beat Davis for the last time to win the 1950 title, 51–46.[17]

As defending champion, Davis did not play in the 1952 event, which was only contested by two players.[18][19] Following a disagreement between some of the players and the governing body, Davis played in an alternative tournament – the World Professional Match-play Championship. Davis then won each of the first five championships.[20] Davis won the first three of these events over Donaldson, but when Davis won the 1954 event with a 39–21 victory over Donaldson, it was clear there was a decline in interest as only five players entered the championship; Donaldson then retired.[21][22]

After defeating John Pulman in two close finals in 1955 and 1956, Davis chose not to play in the 1957 Championship—held in Jersey and, for financial reasons, featuring just four entrants—thus leaving the path clear for Pulman to win the event.[23] After the war Davis and his wife had invested in a hotel in Llandudno, and this gave them some financial security away from snooker. This proved a wise move; by the early 1960s Davis was playing exhibitions in aid of cancer charities, but soon even this limited amount of snooker activity dried up. Following tours of Canada and Australia (where he won an international tournament in 1960) and after an exhibition in Pontefract where he performed in front of only a handful of people, Davis effectively went into retirement. He hardly played for four seasons before being contacted by Rex Williams, who was keen to restart interest in snooker.[24] Under Williams, the championships were resumed in 1964 on a challenge basis. Davis challenged Pulman on three occasions, but lost in 1964 by 19–16, in 1965 by 36–37 and in 1966 by five matches to two.[25]

Modern eraEdit

The revival of the World Championship as a single-elimination tournament in 1969 saw Davis defeat future world champion Ray Reardon 25–24 before losing 37–24 to Gary Owen in the semi-finals.[26] Davis's match with Reardon would earn a place in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest recorded snooker session and Reardon would later note that he learned more from that match than he had in the previous 20 years playing the sport.[27] That same year BBC TV started its Pot Black series. Davis's familiarity with long matches contested over several weeks in his prime meant he was not immediately suited to the single-frame format of the event; however, he acclimatised well to it, finishing as runner-up in the 1971 series John Spencer. He also achieved the highest break in the 1970 (54), 1971 (73) and 1975 (87) series.[28]

Soon after winning a Professional Snooker Association of Canada's Invitation Event where he defeated Paul Thornley in the final in may 1970,[29] Davis suffered the first of two heart attacks, and did not participate in the 1970 World Championship, which was held in Australia and won by John Spencer.[30] He lost 31–21 to Spencer in his first match in the 1972 championship, but defeated David Greaves 16–1 in the second round of the 1973 championship before losing to Alex Higgins, the defending champion, 16–14 in the quarter-finals, a match most notable for a leak in the roof which forced rain to stop play while a cover was found and the position of each ball marked.[31]

Davis gained his revenge in 1974, when he beat Higgins 15–14 in the quarter-finals, having earlier beaten Bill Werbeniuk 15–5. This return match with Higgins also contained a notable incident when the referee, Jim Thorpe, called a push-shot in frame 25, a decision to which Higgins vehemently objected, swearing at the referee. Higgins blamed his subsequent defeat on the incident,[32] but never blamed Davis for any part of it, clearly stating his admiration for Davis for playing so well following his second heart attack.[32] Davis, for his part, also praised Higgins for his "sportmanship".[33] However, Davis lost 15–3 to eventual champion Reardon in the semi-finals.[34]

In 1975, Davis travelled to Australia to compete in the World Championship, where he played Dennis Taylor,[35] but lost by a single frame, 15–14.[35] The 1975 Watney Open in Leeds provided some consolation, and Davis beat Patsy Fagan 13–9 and John Spencer 13–12 before losing 17–11 in the final to Alex Higgins.[36] Davis stated that a win over Spencer convinced him that he could still compete at the highest level of tournament play.[35] World rankings were introduced in 1976. Despite Davis's abilities peaking long before this, but he was still ranked number 4 that season. In 1977 Davis was ranked number 9, rising to 6 during both the 1978 and 1979 seasons; he maintained his form as the tour expanded, still being ranked inside the top 16 players in 1982, aged 67, and only falling outside the top 64 in 1988, aged 74.[37] Although Davis lost 15–13 to Eddie Charlton in the quarter-finals of the 1976 World Championship, having beaten Werbeniuk 15–12 in round one, he came close to winning his first professional title for twenty years at the 1976 Pontins Professional. With victories over Willie Thorne, 7–4 in the quarter-finals, and Graham Miles, 7–2 in the semi-finals, he faced Reardon in the final. Davis missed a crucial brown ball in the deciding frame, having made a break of 107 during the match, and Reardon won 10–9.[38]

He reached the semi-finals of the 1978 World Snooker Championship, at the age of 64, having defeated John Virgo 9–8, Dennis Taylor 13–9 and Patsy Fagan 13–10.[39] He met Perrie Mans and trailed 14–16, but missed a pink ball, which allowed Mans to take the frame, and eventually win 18–16. The crucial missed pot was watched by his brother Joe, who was taken ill after the missed; he was rushed to hospital to undergo a six-and-a-half-hour operation, but died a few weeks later.[40][41] This would be the last time Davis would reach the semi-finals of the event. Davis closed 1978 with a quarter-final appearance in the UK Championship. He defeated veteran Yorkshireman John Dunning 9–2 before losing to Alex Higgins 9–4.[42]

In early 1979 Davis met Alex Higgins in the final of the Castle Open (an event hosted at Bernard Bennett's club in Southampton).[43] During the World Championship that year he beat Kirk Stevens 13–8 to progress to the quarter-finals. This match was to be his last victory at the Crucible Theatre, but Davis compiled the first century of the championship, a break of 109 in the sixth frame — an effort even applauded by the referee.[44] In the quarter-final against Eddie Charlton, Davis soon fell 5–0 behind; he later admitted that he unwisely played an attacking game. This style enabled him to make a break of 110 in the eighth frame to reduce his arrears from 6–1 to 6–2, but he lost the match 13–4.[45]

During the first World Challenge Cup in 1979 Davis acted as England's captain (the team was completed by John Spencer and Graham Miles). He won his first seven frames as England won matches 8–7 over Northern Ireland and the Rest of the World. England were however defeated 14–3 in the final by Wales.[46] Although Davis lost 13–5 to David Taylor in his first match in the 1980 World Snooker Championship,[47] he did reach the quarter-finals of the UK Championship the following season, with a 9–6 victory over Mark Wildman before his 9–6 defeat by Alex Higgins.[48] In 1981, at the age of 67, Davis played in his last snooker final, the Raffles/Sheffield Shield Tournament played at the Sheffield Snooker Centre. He beat Mike Watterson 9–6 and Dennis Taylor 9–5. In the final he led Terry Griffiths 4–1, but eventually lost 9–5.[49] Earlier in the season he played in his last Masters, beating Kirk Stevens 5–4 in the first round before losing to Terry Griffiths 5–2 in the quarter-finals.[48]

Last yearsEdit

Davis played professionally into old age, making his last appearance in the World Snooker Championship in 1984 aged 70, where he lost to Werbeniuk 10–4. The following year he trailed Canadian Bob Chaperon 7–2 in the fourth qualifying round, but came back to win the match 10–9.[50][51] Davis showed similar resilience in the 1985 UK Championship qualifying rounds to survive 9–8 against John Rea. He then went on to beat Werbeniuk 9–7 in the first round, having trailed 5–3 at the interval. Davis then lost to Alex Higgins 9–2 in the second round.[52] That same month Davis defeated Billy Kelly and then Kirk Stevens in the Mercantile Credit Classic; Stevens amusingly asked Davis not to retire until Stevens had finally defeated him. Davis would be defeated 5–3 by Eugene Hughes in the fourth round.[53]

In the qualifying rounds of the 1988 World Snooker Championship Davis beat Jack Fitzmaurice 10–8 and Jim Bear 10–4 before losing to Australian John Campbell 10–3 in the final qualifying round. This gave Davis a cheque for £3,117, which despite winning the event eight times, was his highest ever in a professional snooker competition.[54] The following year he beat Bernard Bennett 10–4 in the second round of qualifying for the World Championship,[55] it would be his last ever victory in a championship he had first graced 52 years earlier.[56]

During the 1989-90 snooker season Davis recorded wins over Jimmy van Rensberg and Mike Watterson, but a 10–6 defeat by Ian Brumby in the second round of qualifying for the World Championship meant that he was forced into a 'play-off' to maintain his full professional status where he was defeated 10–5 by Jason Prince.[57] Suffering from arthritis of the knee, Davis limped from the arena to the press conference during which he was given an emotional standing ovation from spectators, players on other match tables and even those on the practice tables, who all ceased playing to acknowledge the moment.[58] At the press conference, Davis announced he was now retired from competitive snooker but would keep playing in UK-based billiard tournaments.[58] However, snooker threw its doors open to all comers and Davis resumed his snooker career, but played little competitive billiards thereafter.[56]

During the 1990-91 snooker season he recorded his final professional snooker victories at the Mercantile Classic. In the preliminary round he beat veteran Southampton professional Bernard Bennett 5–1 and Tony Wilson 5–4 on the same day. In the next round he lost 5–2 to Rex Williams in a match which saw 99 years of professional experience between the two players.[59] As a former World Champion, Davis was invited to compete in the 1991 World Masters, where he lost to Steve Davis 0–6. It would be Fred's last ever TV appearance in a competitive match.[60]

BilliardsEdit

Davis won the World Billiards Championships in June 1980, beating Rex Williams 5978–4452, and in so doing became the only player except for Joe Davis to have lifted both the World Snooker and World Billiards titles. However, he was quick to point out that standards differed markedly from those of the 1930s when the top players made such large breaks that they killed the game as popular entertainment.[61] He would receive £1500 plus a cheque for £500 for the highest break (583); this was presented to him by 94-year-old Willie Smith, World Billiards champion in 1920 and 1923.[62] Davis also retained the title later in November the same year, when the championship was restored to a knock-out basis for the first time since 1934. Davis beat Paddy Morgan 1907–978, John Barrie 1253-1153 and Mark Wildman 3037–2064 in the final to pocket £4000, then a record for a billiards event.[63]

The modest billiards revival continued during the 1980s and Davis continued to play in events during the decade. In March 1982 he was defeated by a record narrow margin of six points in the semi-finals whilst defending his world title, as eventual champion Rex Williams beat him 1500–1494.[64] In the 1983 event he beat Clive Everton and Eddie Charlton en route to the final where he lost to Rex Williams 1500–605, but at least took the highest break prize for an effort of 427.[65] Also revived (from 1979) was the United Kingdom Professional Billiards Championship. Although Davis lost the title 1548–1031 in the semi-final of the 1979 event (to John Barrie)[66] Davis looked likely to reclaim the title in 1983 when, having dispatched Ian Williamson and Ray Edmonds, he led Mark Wildman 750–477 after the first session of the final. However, Wildman recovered to take the title by 1500–1032.[67]

In the 1984 World Billiards Championship Davis lost to Eddie Charlton 1436–829 in the semi-finals.[68] After this time billiard events increasingly changed structure to a series of games of 400 or 150 points. Davis was always less happy with this structure; with this and with his advancing years, Davis fared less well at the game after this time. In the 1985 World Championship he did defeat Clive Everton 3–1 in round one, but fell 3–0 to Australian Robby Foldvari in the quarter-finals.[69] The following year (still seeded third) he lost 3–0 to Bob Close, who was making his professional debut.[70] In 1987 he reached the quarter-finals of both the UK Billiards Championship and the World Championship, but lost on both occasions to Robby Foldvari.[71][72] Davis's last entry in the World Billiards Championship came in 1992, but with the main competition to be played in India, he did not play his first-round match against David Barton.[73] Davis did enter the 1993 UK Billiards Championship, but did not play his first-round match against Ian Williamson and he also scratched from the Radiant Grand Slam Second Leg where he was due to play David Edwards that same month.[74]

Retirement and deathEdit

Davis was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1977.[75] Davis (accompanied by his wife Sheila) was presented with the award by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother at Buckingham Palace.[76] Davis retired in 1993, aged 79, having lost to future world champion Ronnie O'Sullivan 5–1 in the Grand Prix qualifying during his last season. Davis lost 10–1 to Peter Daubney in the first round of qualifying for the 1992 World Snooker Championship.[77][78] Just four months later he would lose 5–0 to Mark King in the sixth round of qualifying for the 1993 event; it would be Davis' last World Championship match.[79] His last ever competitive snooker match came in August 1992 when he lost 5–1 to Neil Tomkins in the 1992 European Open.[80]

On 14 August 1993 Davis turned 80, and still held a ranking of 259. Even then he stated that he would have loved to continue playing, but was prevented from doing so by the severe arthritis in his left knee which made it painful to walk. Indeed, it was Davis' attempt to redistribute his stance which contributed to such heavy defeats in his final snooker matches.[81] He died in April 1998 in Denbighshire, three days after a fall at his home. His death came hours after what would have been his brother Joe's 97th birthday.[82]

ControversyEdit

At the end of 1988 Davis spoke out against the governing body and its running of the game. His comments followed the convening of disciplinary action against him following his withdrawal from the Mercantile Credit Classic qualifying competition the previous May. Davis withdrew because of intense discomfort caused by his arthritis and confirmed his withdrawal twice with the tournament director, David Harrison. Davis was furious that his unblemished 60-year career had been called into question by a disciplinary board and took up his case via association member Ian Doyle. Doyle offered an apology, but no official apology was given. Davis stated that the WPBSA was more interested in thinking of ways to get at Barry Hearn, rather than acting in a constructive manner and accused the WPBSA of trying to buy off lower-ranked players to "get them on their side against Hearn".[83]

Performance and rankings timelineEdit

[84][85]

Pre-warEdit

Tournament 1936/
37
1937/
38
1938/
39
1939/
40
Daily Mail Gold Cup[nb 1] A A A 3
World Championship LQ SF SF F

Post-warEdit

Tournament 1945/
46
1946/
47
1947/
48
1948/
49
1949/
50
1950/
51
1951/
52
1952/
53
1953/
54
1954/
55
1955/
56
1956/
57
1957/
58
1958/
59
1959/
60
Apr
1964
Mar
1965
Apr
1966
Sunday Empire News Tournament[nb 1] Tournament Not Held 3 Tournament Not Held
Sporting Record Masters' Tournament[nb 1] Tournament Not Held 3 Tournament Not Held
Professional Matchplay Championship Tournament Not Held W W W W W A Tournament Not Held
News of the World Snooker Tournament[nb 1][nb 2] Tournament Not Held A 5 4 7 3 3 2 2 W W 2 Not Held
World Championship[nb 3] SF F W W F W A Tournament Not Held F F F

Modern eraEdit

Tournament 1968/
69
1969/
70
1970/
71
1971/
72
1972/
73
1973/
74
1974/
75
1975/
76
1976/
77
1977/
78
1978/
79
1979/
80
1980/
81
1981/
82
1982/
83
1983/
84
1984/
85
1985/
86
1986/
87
1987/
88
1988/
89
1989/
90
1990/
91
1991/
92
1992/
93
Ranking[86] No ranking system 4 9 6 6 8 12 20 28 46 56 47 61 83 89 128 131 190
Ranking tournaments
Dubai Classic[nb 4] Tournament Not Held NR LQ A LQ LQ
Grand Prix[nb 5] Tournament Not Held 1R 1R LQ LQ 1R LQ LQ LQ A LQ LQ
UK Championship Tournament Not Held Non-Ranking Event LQ 2R LQ 1R LQ LQ A LQ LQ
Welsh Open Tournament Not Held LQ LQ
European Open Tournament Not Held LQ LQ A LQ LQ
British Open[nb 6] Tournament Not Held Non-Ranking Event LQ 1R LQ 1R LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ
Asian Open[nb 7] Tournament Not Held Non-Ranking Event Not Held LQ A LQ LQ
International Open[nb 8] Tournament Not Held NR LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ Not Held WD
World Championship Non-Ranking Event SF 2R QF 1R SF QF 2R 2R 1R LQ 1R LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ LQ
Non-ranking tournaments
Pot Black QF RR F LQ SF A SF RR RR A RR A A A A A A A Tournament Not Held A A
The Masters Tournament Not Held QF QF QF 1R 1R 1R QF A A A A A A A A A A A A
Irish Masters[nb 9] Tournament Not Held A A A A A SF A A A A A A A A A A A A A
Pontins Professional Tournament Not Held QF QF F RR RR RR QF A A A A A A A A A A A A A
Former ranking tournaments
Canadian Masters[nb 10] Tournament Not Held Non-Ranking Tournament Not Held Non-Ranking LQ Tournament Not Held
Hong Kong Open[nb 11] Tournament Not Held Non-Ranking Event NH LQ Not Held
Classic Tournament Not Held Non-Ranking Event LQ LQ 2R LQ 1R WD LQ LQ LQ NH
Strachan Open Tournament Not Held LQ NH
Former non-ranking tournaments
World Championship SF QF A QF QF Ranking Event
Norwich Union Open Tournament Not Held A 1R Tournament Not Held
Watney Open Tournament Not Held F Tournament Not Held
Holsten Lager International Tournament Not Held 1R Tournament Not Held
Padmore Super Crystalate Tournament Not Held QF Tournament Not Held
International Open[nb 8] Tournament Not Held 1R Ranking Event Not Held
British Open[nb 6] Tournament Not Held RR RR LQ LQ A Ranking Event
UK Championship Tournament Not Held 2R QF 2R QF LQ 1R LQ Ranking Event
KitKat Break for World Champions Tournament Not Held QF Ranking Event
English Professional Championship Tournament Not Held 2R Not Held LQ 1R LQ 1R LQ Tournament Not Held
World Seniors Championship Tournament Not Held 1R NH
Performance Table Legend
LQ lost in the qualifying draw #R lost in the early rounds of the tournament
(WR = Wildcard round, RR = Round robin)
QF lost in the quarter-finals
SF lost in the semi-finals F lost in the final W won the tournament
DNQ did not qualify for the tournament A did not participate in the tournament WD withdrew from the tournament
NH / Not Held means an event was not held.
NR / Non-Ranking Event means an event is/was no longer a ranking event.
R / Ranking Event means an event is/was a ranking event.
  1. ^ a b c d Round-robin handicap tournament
  2. ^ Snooker Plus event in 1959/60 season
  3. ^ Tournaments between 1964 and 1968 were challenge matches
  4. ^ The event was also called the Dubai Masters (1988/1989)
  5. ^ The event was also called the Professional Players Tournament (1982/93–1983/1984)
  6. ^ a b The event was also called the British Gold Cup (1979/1980), Yamaha Organs Trophy (1980/1981) and International Masters (1981/1982–1983/1984)
  7. ^ The event was also called the Thailand Masters (1983/1984–1986/1987)
  8. ^ a b The event was also called the Goya Matchroom Trophy (1985/1986)
  9. ^ The event was also called the Benson & Hedges Ireland Tournament (1974/1975–1976/1977)
  10. ^ The event was also called the Canadian Open (1978/1979–1980/1981)
  11. ^ The event was also called the Australian Masters (1979/1980–1987/1988))

Career titlesEdit

[85]

Snooker (12 titles)Edit

Billiards (4 titles)Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Everton, Clive (23 September 2004). "Davis, Joseph [Joe]". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31013. Archived from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2020. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (8 July 2019). "Joe Davis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  3. ^ Thomas Jr., Robert Mcg. (23 April 1998). "Fred Davis, a Grand Master Of British Snooker, Dies at 84" (newspaper). p. Section A, Page 22. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  4. ^ Davis, Fred., Talking Snooker, A&C Black, Second Edition 1983, p. 12.
  5. ^ Everton, Clive (1982). Guinness Books of Billiards and Snooker, Guinness Publishing. p. 117.
  6. ^ Everton, Clive (2 December 2011). Black Farce and Cue Ball Wizards: The Inside Story of the Snooker World. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-78057-399-1.
  7. ^ Everton, Clive (1982). The Guinness Book of Billiards and Snooker. p. 52.
  8. ^ a b Everton, Clive (February 1980). "Snooker Scene". Halsowen: Everton's news agency. p. 11. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  9. ^ Davis, Fred (1983). Talking Snooker. A&C Black. p. 13.
  10. ^ Everton, Clive (1993). The Embassy Book of World Snooker. Surrey: The Book People. p. 15.
  11. ^ Everton, Clive. Guinness Book of Billiards and Snooker. pp. 58–59.
  12. ^ Everton, Clive (September 1976). "Snooker Scene". Halsowen: Everton's news agency. p. 23. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  13. ^ Davis, Fred (1983). Talking Snooker. A&C Black. p. 18.
  14. ^ "Snooker Champ". Sunday Times. 2 May 1948. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  15. ^ Turner, Chris. "World Professional Championship". cajt.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk. Chris Turner's Snooker Archive. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  16. ^ Everton, Clive (1982). Guinness Book of Billiards and Snooker. p. 60.
  17. ^ Everton, Clive (1982). Guinness Book of Billiards and Snooker. pp. 62–63.
  18. ^ Everton, Clive (30 April 2009). "Neil Robertson set to rewrite history as first genuine Australian world champion". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  19. ^ "Snooker and billiards". The Glasgow Herald. 26 February 1952. p. 3. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  20. ^ Turner, Chris. "World Matchplay". cajt.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk. Chris Turner's Snooker Archive. Archived from the original on 28 February 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
  21. ^ "Davis retains snooker title". The Argus. 8 March 1954. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  22. ^ "Snooker". The Glasgow Herald. 19 November 1953. p. 9. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  23. ^ Davis, Fred (1983). Talking Snooker. A&C Black. p. 24.
  24. ^ Everton, Clive (September 1976). "Snooker Scene". Halsowen: Everton's news agency. pp. 26–27. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  25. ^ Everton, Clive (1982). Guinness Book of Billiards and Snooker. p. 65.
  26. ^ Davis, Fred (1983). Talking Snooker. A&C Black. p. 28.
  27. ^ Reardon, Ray (1986). Enjoying Snooker. St Michael Books. p. 70.
  28. ^ Perrin, Reg (1983). Pot Black. BBC Books. pp. 21–22.
  29. ^ "Billiards and Snooker Magazine". No. 592. June 1970. p. 16. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  30. ^ Davis, Fred (1983). Talking Snooker. A&C Black. p. 29.
  31. ^ Malone, Emmet (23 March 1996). "Spoilsport rain began Williams' reign at top". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  32. ^ a b Higgins, Alex (2007). From the Eye of the Hurricane: My Story, Headline. pp. 99–100.
  33. ^ Davis, Fred (1983). Talking Snooker. A&C Black. p. 34.
  34. ^ Everton, Clive (1982). Guinness book of Billiards and Snooker. p. 92.
  35. ^ a b c Davis, Fred (1983). Talking Snooker. A&C Black. p. 35.
  36. ^ Hayton, Eric (2004). The CueSport Book of Professional Snooker. Rose Vila Publications. p. 334.
  37. ^ Karnehm, Jack. (1981). World Snooker. Pelham Books. p. 12.
  38. ^ Everton, Clive (June 1976). "Snooker Scene". Halsowen: Everton's news agency. p. 24. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  39. ^ Everton, Clive. (1982). The Guinness Book of Billiards and Snooker. p. 96.
  40. ^ Everton, Clive (2 December 2011). Black Farce and Cue Ball Wizards: The Inside Story of the Snooker World. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-78057-399-1.
  41. ^ Everton, Clive (April 1986). "Snooker Scene". Halsowen: Everton's news agency. p. 19. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  42. ^ Everton, Clive (1982). Guinness Book of Billiards and Snooker. p. 96.
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