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Frank Dwight Baldwin (June 26, 1842 – April 22, 1923), a native of Constantine, Michigan, and born in Manchester, Michigan, is one of only 19 servicemen to receive the Medal of Honor twice. Baldwin received his first award for his actions during the Atlanta Campaign where he led his company in battle at Peachtree Creek and captured two commissioned officers in the American Civil War. He received his second for conspicuous bravery in 1874 during the Indian Wars. Baldwin holds the distinction of being the first recipient of the Medal of Honor in different conflicts.[citation needed] He also fought in the Philippines during the Spanish–American War and rose to the rank of major general before retiring.

Major General Frank Dwight Baldwin
Frank Baldwin Brady-Handy oval.png
Frank D. Baldwin
Born (1842-06-26)June 26, 1842
Manchester, Michigan
Died April 22, 1923(1923-04-22) (aged 80)
Denver, Colorado
Place of burial Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States United States of America
Union
Service/branch  United States Army
Union Army
Years of service 1861, 1862–1865, 1866–1906
Rank Union Army major general rank insignia.svg Major General
Unit 19th Michigan Infantry Regiment
19th U.S. Infantry Regiment
5th U.S. Infantry Regiment
4th U.S. Infantry Regiment
Commands held 27th U.S. Infantry Regiment
Battles/wars American Civil War
Indian Wars
Spanish–American War
World War I
Awards Medal of Honor (2)

Contents

Life and careerEdit

Baldwin served in the Civil War in the 19th Michigan Infantry, initially as a first lieutenant,[1] fighting in all his regiment's battles from 1862 to 1865. In 1864, then-Captain Baldwin participated in General William Tecumseh Sherman's famous March to the Sea, and on July 20 of that year distinguished himself at the Battle of Peachtree Creek, earning his first Medal of Honor.[1]

After the war, he became a student at Hillsdale College, but upon the postbellum reorganization of the Regular Army, he joined the 19th United States Regular Infantry as a second lieutenant in 1866.[2] He was eventually assigned to the 5th U.S. Infantry, with whom he fought in the various frontier conflicts with the Indians. He served with distinction under General Nelson A. Miles as chief of scouts during campaigns against Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.

On November 8, 1874, while commanding a scout company on escort duty, he led a surprise attack on the camp of Grey Beard, rescuing two young sisters whose parents and brothers had been killed by another Indian band. He was awarded his second Medal of Honor for this action against a larger force in a strong defensive position.

His actions in an attack on an Indian village on the Red River in Montana on December 18, 1876, earned him a brevet of captain, U.S. Regular Army (awarded on February 27, 1890).

Baldwin also served in the Philippines during the Spanish–American War. He was promoted to brigadier general, U.S. Regular Army on June 9, 1902, and he retired in 1906. In 1915, he was advanced to major general on the Army's retired list.

During World War I, Baldwin served as Adjutant General of the Colorado National Guard; appointed to the post in 1917, he served until retiring again in 1919.

On January 10, 1867, he married Alice Blackwood.[1][2] They had one daughter, Juanita.[2]

He died in Denver, Colorado, and was buried with full military honors in Section 3 of Arlington National Cemetery.

AffiliationsEdit

General Baldwin belonged to numerous fraternal, military and social organizations which included the following:

LegacyEdit

His wife, Alice Blackwood Baldwin, honored the general's war contributions by compiling and editing the memoirs of her late husband in 1929. Along with General Baldwin, three other two-time Medal of Honor recipients are interred in Arlington National Cemetery (Navy Lieutenant Commander John C. McCloy, Marine Major Louis Cukela, and Marine Corporal John Henry Pruitt).

AwardsEdit

 
Baldwin (right) with Buffalo Bill in 1891

First Medal of HonorEdit

Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 19th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Peachtree Creek, Georgia, July 20, 1864.[3] Citation: "Led his company in a countercharge at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864, under a galling fire ahead of his own men, and singly entered the enemy's line, capturing and bringing back 2 commissioned officers, fully armed, besides a guidon of a Georgia regiment." Date of issue: December 3, 1891.

Second Medal of HonorEdit

 
Frank Baldwin's charge on Grey Beard's Band, McClellan's Creek, Texas, November 8, 1874

Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At McClellan's Creek, Texas, November 8, 1874. Citation: "Rescued, with 2 companies, 2 white girls by a voluntary attack upon Indians whose superior numbers and strong position would have warranted delay for reinforcements, but which delay would have permitted the Indians to escape and kill their captives." Date of issue: November 27, 1894.[4]

Other awardsEdit

Veteran's Hall of FameEdit

Inducted into the Hillsdale County, Michigan Veteran's Hall of Fame in 2004 for his distinguished service in the American Civil War. Hall of Fame inductee 016, Civil War inductee 004.

Dates of rankEdit

  • Second lieutenant, Michigan Horse Guards - 19 September 1861
  • Mustered out of service - 22 November 1861
  • First lieutenant, 19th Michigan Infantry - 12 August 1862
  • Captain, 19th Michigan Infantry - 23 January 1864
  • Mustered out - 10 June 1865
  • Second lieutenant, 19th Infantry - 23 February 1866
  • First lieutenant, 19th Infantry - 10 May 1866
  • Captain, 5th Infantry - 27 March 1879
  • Brevet major - 27 February 1890
  • Major, 5th Infantry - 26 April 1898
  • Lieutenant colonel, Inspector General, Volunteers - 20 June 1898
  • Discharged from Volunteers - 12 May 1899
  • Lieutenant colonel, 4th Infantry - 18 December 1999
  • Colonel, 27th Infantry - 26 July 1901
  • Brigadier general, United States Army - 2 June 1902
  • Retired - 26 June 1906 [5]
  • Major general, United States Army, Retired - 4 March 1915 [6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Baldwin, Francis Leonard Dwight (1842-1923)". Texas State Historical Association. 
  2. ^ a b c "Major General Frank D. Baldwin Collection". Archives and Special Collections, Hillsdale College. 
  3. ^ U.S. Congress, "General Staff Corps and Medals of Honor," 1st session of the 66th Congress, Senate Documents, vol. 14, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1919), 384.
  4. ^ U.S. Congress, "General Staff Corps and Medals of Honor," 1st session of the 66th Congress, Senate Documents, vol. 14, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1919), 457.
  5. ^ Official Register of Commissioned Officers of the United States Army. 1910. pg. 473.
  6. ^ Official Register of Commissioned Officers of the United States Army. 1923. pg. 1042.