Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén

Francisco Javier Castaños y Aragorri, 1st Duke of Bailén (22 April 1758 – 24 September 1852),[citation needed] was a Spanish general during the Napoleonic Wars. He was the 1st President of the Senate of Spain between July and September 1834.

The Duke of Bailén
General Francisco Javier Castaños (Museo del Prado).jpg
President of the Council of Regency
In office
1 February 1810 – 29 May 1810
MonarchFernando VII
President of the Estamento of Próceres
Assumed office
10 April 1834 – 12 July 1835
Succeeded byThe Duke of Ahumada
Personal details
Francisco Javier Castaños y Urioste

22 April 1758
Madrid, Spain
Died22 April 1852(1852-04-22) (aged 93)
Madrid, Spain
The Surrender of Bailén, by José Casado del Alisal, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain. Castaños is in the White uniform.


Castaños was born at Madrid.[citation needed]

Castaños is remembered for his victory over the French under Dupont, whom he surrounded and compelled to surrender at the decisive Battle of Bailen in 1808, being on that moment in command of the "Army of the South", the biggest Spanish military unit during the Napoleonic War. Though just months later lead his army to a decisive defeat at the Battle of Tudela. After this he served under Wellington in several engagements, and was commander of the Spanish army, if required, to invade France in 1815. A recent historian asserts that evidence suggests Castaños may have played a crucial role in the Allied army's success at the Battle of Albuera.[1]

Castaños died at Madrid in 1852.[citation needed]


  1. ^ "But for Castaños' efforts to get him to stand and fight, Beresford would have retreated behind the Guadiana" (Esdaile 2003, p. 343).


  • Esdaile, Charles J. (2003). The Peninsular War: A New History. MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6231-7.

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