The Franco-Italian border is 515 kilometres (320 mi) long, in southeast France and northwest Italy. It begins at the west tripoint of France–Italy–Switzerland ( ) at the top of Mont Dolent (3,820 m), in the French commune of Chamonix (department of Haute-Savoie), the Italian city of Courmayeur, (Aosta Valley), and the Swiss commune of Orsières (canton of Valais).
The boundary then follows a general direction towards south, to the Mediterranean, it reaches the sea at Menton in France and Ventimiglia in Italy. The border separates three regions (Aosta Valley, Piedmont, and Liguria) and four provinces of Italy (Aosta, Turin, Cuneo, and Imperia) from two regions (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) and five departments of France (Haute-Savoie, Savoie, Hautes-Alpes, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, and Alpes-Maritimes).
The Franco-Italian border is mountainous. The points of paved road crossings between the two countries are, from north to south, quoted in this exhaustive list:
- Mont Blanc Tunnel
- Little St Bernard Pass
- The Saint Nicolas plateau below the Mont Cenis pass
- Fréjus Road Tunnel
- Pian del Colle (near Col de l'Échelle)
- Col de Montgenèvre (near Claviere)
- Col Agnel
- Maddalena Pass
- Col de la Lombarde
- Tende Tunnel
- Fanghetto, one of two villages in the municipality of Olivetta San Michele
- Olivetta San Michele
- Menton (France) and Ventimiglia (Italy)
The border between the two countries dates back to that separating the Kingdom of Sardinia and France during the 19th century. In 1860, the Treaty of Turin links the Savoy and County of Nice to France; the accuracy of the border between the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia is carried out the following year.
When World War II came out, Italy claims and administrates a territory in the date of armistice of 24 June 1940 (Franco-Italian armistice signed at the Incisa villa near Rome) and then extended from 11 November 1942. The Germans occupied the Italian zone from 1943, and the territory was finally liberated by France in 1944. The border is changed by the Treaty of Paris in 1947, when France Schedule including Tende, La Brigue, Mont Chaberton and the Lake of Mont Cenis.