François Bernier (25 September 1620 – 22 September 1688) was a French physician and traveller. He was born at Joué-Etiau in Anjou. He was briefly personal physician to Mughal prince Dara Shikoh (28 October 1615 – 30 August 1659), the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, and after Dara Shikoh's demise, was attached to the court of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (14 October 1618 – 20 February 1707), for around 12 years during his stay in India.
Édition de 1830 des Voyages dans les États du Grand Mogol.
His 1684 publication Nouvelle division de la terre par les différentes espèces ou races qui l'habitent (A new division of the Earth) is considered the first published post-Classical classification of humans into distinct races. He also wrote Travels in the Mughal Empire, which is mainly about the reigns of Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb. It is based on his own extensive journeys and observations, and on information from eminent Mughal courtiers who had witnessed the events at first hand.
Bernier abridged and translated the philosophical writings of his friend Pierre Gassendi from Latin into French. Initial editions of Bernier's Abregé de la Philosophie de Gassendi were published in Paris in 1674 by the family Langlois and in 1675 by Estienne Michallet. A complete edition in eight volumes was published by Anisson and Posuel at Lyon in 1678; Anisson and Posuel joined with Rigaud to publish a second edition in seven volumes in 1684. Bernier objectively and faithfully rendered Gassendi's ideas in his Abregé, without editorial interjection or invention. However, Bernier remained uncomfortable with some of Gassendi's notions: in 1682, Estienne Michallet was again his publisher, putting forth his Doutes de Mr. Bernier sur quelques-uns des principaux Chapitres de son Abregé de la Philosophie de Gassendi.
A son of a farmer, François Bernier, was orphaned very young and was cared for by his uncle, the curé de Chanzeaux. At the age of 15, he moved to Paris to study at the Collège de Clermont (the future Lycée Louis-le-Grand) where he was invited to stay at the home of his younger friend Chapelle, the natural son of Luillier who was a councillor at the parlement in Metz. There Bernier most probably met Cyrano de Bergerac and Molière, and certainly the philosopher Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655), whose aide and secretary he became. He developed a taste for travel (1647) in the company of monsieur d'Arpajon, the French ambassador to Poland and Germany.
In 1652 during a prolonged stay with Gassendi in the south of France, he managed to become a medical doctor on the strength of a speed-course at the famous Faculté de Montpellier: an intensive three-month course gave the medical degree providing one did not practice on French national territory.
Liberated from his ties to France by the death of Gassendi in 1655, he set out on his twelve-year journey to the East, at 36 years of age: Palestine, Egypt, one year in Cairo, Arabia, and an attempt to enter Ethiopia which was frustrated by civil war in the interior. In 1658 he debarked at Surat in India, in Gujarat state. Attached at first and for a short while to the retinue of Dara Shikoh—the history of whose downfall he was to record—he was installed as a medical doctor at the court of Aurangzeb, the last of the great Mughal emperors.
A tour of inspection by Aurangzeb (1664–65) gave Bernier the opportunity to describe Kashmir, the first and for a long time the only European to do so. In: "Voyages de F. Bernier (angevin) contenant la description des Etats du Grand Mogol, de l'Indoustan, du royaume de Kachemire" (David-Paul Maret ed., Amsterdam, 1699). He subsequently visited the other extreme of the empire in Bengal. European medical training was highly esteemed amongst the Mughal and gave him access to all ranks of the court, even on medically required occasions to the Emperor's harem.
After his return from Kashmir, he traveled around on his own, meeting with Jean-Baptiste Tavernier in Bengal and—while preparing for a journey to Persia at Surat—with Jean Chardin, that other great traveler in the Orient (1666).
He returned once more to Surat (1668) to write a memoir on Indian commerce for the use of Jean-Baptiste Colbert (who recently had founded La Compagnie des Indes Orientales). In 1669 Bernier left India for Paris, to stay.
In 1671 he almost was jailed for writing in defense of the ideas of René Descartes, against whom a judicial arrest had been issued—an exploit he followed with an "Abrégé de la Philosophie de Gassendi", also not a subject to arouse official approval (1674).
Meanwhile he was a favored guest at some of the great literary salons, for example that of Marguerite de la Sablière, who introduced him to Jean de La Fontaine; or at that of Ninon de Lenclos. (His much-debated text on "races" -- "A New Division of the Earth" , of which the second half is dedicated to feminine beauty—may be read against this background.)
In 1685 Bernier visited London where he met with some famous exiles from France: Hortense Mancini, Duchesse de Mazarin, niece of the redoubtable Cardinal; Saint-Évremond; others. He returned to Paris via the Netherlands, where he probably visited his philosophical correspondent Pierre Bayle.
Foremost among his correspondents while he was in India had been Jean Chapelain, who shipped him crates of books, Melchisédech Thévenot, and François de La Mothe Le Vayer. From Chapelain's correspondence we know of a link with the elder Pétis de la Croix, whose son François Pétis de la Croix was sent on a language course to Persia two years after Bernier's return from India.
Note: this description of the life of François Bernier is abstracted from a French introduction by France Bhattacharya to an edition of "Voyage dans les Etats du Grand Mogol" (Paris: Fayard, 1981).
One of the things the newly arriving physician François Bernier noticed in Aurangzeb's capital was the embroidered dressing of the Mughal Emperor's subjects he writes in his Travels in the Moghal Empire: "Large halls are seen in many places, called Karkanahs, or workshops for the artisans. In one hall, embroiderers are busily employed, superintended by a master." He continued, "Manufactures of silk, fine brocade, and other fine muslins, of which are made turbans, girdles of gold flowers, and drawers worn by Mughal females, so delicately fine as to wear out in one night" were one of the most expensive forms of clothing ins the world, "or even more when embroidered with fine needlework."
In India, Bernier came under the protection of Daneshmand Khan (Mullah Shafi'a'i, a native of Yazd), an important official at the court of Aurangzeb. Mullah Shafi'a'i was secretary of state for foreign affairs, grand master of the horse, later treasurer (Mir Bakshi) and governor of Delhi (died 1670). Bernier and Daneshmand seem to have been on terms of mutual esteem, and Bernier always refers to him as "my Agha".
Two excerpts from "Travels in the Mughal Empire" illustrate the interchange that followed. The importance of the detail could only fully be appreciated in the last decades of the 20th century, following the contributions by Henry Corbin and Seyyed Hossein Nasr to the history of Islamic philosophy.
- (Commenting on the yogi manner of meditation): "However I know that this ravishment and the way to enter it are the great mystery of the cabal of the Yogis, as it is of the Sufis. I say mystery because they keep it hidden amongst them and if it were not for my Pandit; and that Danishmand Khan knew the mysteries of the cabal of the Sufis, I would not know as much as I did."
- "(...)do not be surprised if without knowledge of Sanskrit I am going to tell you many things taken from books in that language; you will know that my Agha Danismand Khan paid for the presence of one of the most famous pandits in India, who before had been pensioned by Dara Shikoh, the oldest son of Shah Jahan, and that this pandit, apart from attracting the most learned scientists to our circle, was at my side for over three years. When I became weary of explaining to my Agha the latest discoveries of William Harvey and Pequet in anatomy, and to reason with him on the philosophy of Gassendi and Descartes, which I translated into Persian (because that is what I did during five or six years) it was up to our pandit to argue."
A candidate for becoming Bernier's "pandit" probably would have come from the circle around Hindu scholars such as Jagannatha Panditaraja, who still was at work under Shah Jahan, or Kavindracharya, who taught Dara Sikhoh Sanskrit. Gode's argument that this pandit was none other than Kavīndrācārya Sarasvatī himself has won general acceptance. His intellectual partner could be someone like Zu'lfaqar Ardistani (died 1670), author of the Dabistan-i Mazahib, an overview of religious diversity (Jewish, Christian Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim ...). He was educated perhaps by Mir Abul-Qasim Astrabadi Findiriski a link between the religious tolerance aspect of the great project of Persian translations, initiated by Akbar and continued by his great-grandson Dara Shikoh, and the School of Isfahan near the end of the Safavid reign; or perhaps he was educated by Hakim Kamran Shirazi, to whom Mir Findiriski referred as "elder brother", who studied Christian theology and the Gospel under Portuguese priests, traveled to India to study Sanskrit Shastra, lived with the yogi Chatrupa at Benares, and died, chanting the liberation of the philosophers, at the age of 100. Those were scholars who had a knowledge of Greek peripatetic philosophers (mashsha'un, falasifa—in the Arabic translations), as well as respect for Ibn Sina and Shihabuddin Yahya Suhrawardi Maqtul (Hikmat al Ishraq).
France Battacharya notes that she removed, in her critical edition based on the 1724 edition, the chapter "Lettre à Chapelle sur les atomes"—as being not so relevant to the context.
Racial classification systemEdit
"One of the first efforts by Europeans to document human variation began with French physician Francois Bernier’s Nouvelle division de la terre par les differents especes ou races qui l’habitent, published in 1684. Loosely translated, it was entitled, A New Division of the Earth, According to the Different Species or Races of Men Who Inhabit It. Although there is a measure of uncertainty in the title about the appropriateness of the term "race" versus "species" to classify human variation, Bernier relied on categories based on outward physical characteristics such as skin color...For the most part, Europeans acquired their information about Africans and Indians in North America, not from direct experience with these populations, but rather primarily from those involved in the slave trade, missionaries or Americans like Thomas Jefferson, who wrote about Africans and slavery. If anything, Europeans were ethnocentric and naïve in their descriptions" http://www.understandingrace.org/history/science/early_class.html
"Race" is indeed a social construct, not genetic, although Europeans during Enlightenment thought so. In regards to people, there is only one race--the human race. Humans just happen to have different ethnicities, which give way to many different physical features. Francois Bernier is credited for coining the term "race". Because of his racial classification system, it was used as "evidence" to support the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and discrimination against "non-whites" (although the world's population is 80% "non-white") which we still see the effect of today.
- Bernier, François (1891). Travels in the Mogul Empire, A.D. 1656–1668. Archibald Constable, London. ISBN 81-7536-185-9.
- Gassendi, Pierre. Abregé de la Philosophie de Gassendi. Translated by François Bernier. 8 vols. Lyon: Anisson & Posuel, 1678.
- Gassendi, Pierre. Abregé de la Philosophie de Gassendi. Translated by François Bernier. 2nd ed. 7 vols. Lyon: Anisson, Posuel & Rigaud, 1684.
- Bernier, François. Doutes de Mr. Bernier sur quelques-uns des principaux Chapitres de son Abregé de la Philosophie de Gassendi. Paris: Estienne Michallet, 1682.
- Bernier, François (1671). The History of the Late Revolution of the Empire of the Great Mogol. Moses Pitt, London.
- Frédéric Tinguely (dir.), Un libertin dans l'Inde moghole - Les voyages de François Bernier (1656–1669), Edition intégrale, Chandeigne, Paris, 2008. ISBN 978-2-915540-33-8.
- Francois Bernier, "Voyage dans les Etats du Grand Mogol", introduction de France Bhattacharya (Arthème Fayard ed. Paris, 1981).
- François Bernier, "A New Division of the Earth", in Journal des sçavans (April 24, 1684). Translated by T. Bendyphe in "Memoirs Read Before the Anthropological Society of London" Vol 1, 1863–64, pp 360–64.
- Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, "A Socio-Intellectual History of the Isna 'Ashari Shi'is in India Vol II" (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ; Ma'rifat Publishing House : Canberra Australia, 1986).
- Dr. Tara Chand, "Indian Thought and the Sufis" (1961), in "The World of the Sufi, an anthology" (Octagon Press ed. London, 1979).
- Lens, "Les Correspondants de François Bernier pendant son voyage dans l'Inde -- Lettres inédits de Chapelain", in Memoires de la Société nationale d'agriculture, sciences et arts d'Angers (ancienne Académie d'Angers) Tome XV, 1872.
- Nicholas Dew. Orientalism in Louis XIV's France (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). ISBN 978-0-19-923484-4. pp. 131–167.
- Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi 1986.
- Excerpts taken from the chapter "Lettre à Monsieur Chapelain, de Shiraz en Perse, le 4 October 1667" ed. Fayard 1981.
- Tara Chand 1961.
- Gode, P. K. "Bernier and Kavīndrācārya Sarasvatī at the Mughal Court," Annals of S.V. Oriental Institute (Tirupati), 1940, 1, 1-16. Reprinted in Jina Vijaya Muni, Ā. (Ed.) Studies in Indian Literary History, Vol.II Bombay: Bhāratīya Vidyā Bhavan, 1954, pp.364--79.
- Mir Fendereski, as noted by Henry Corbin in his "History of Islamic Philosophy".
- The background to Bernier's philosophical interchange draws on "Shi'a Contributions to Philosophy, Science and Literature in India" by Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi in "A Socio-Intellectual History of the Isna 'Ashari Shi'is in India" (1989).
- Works by or about François Bernier at Internet Archive
- Bernier on Sati
- Siep Stuurman, François Bernier and the Invention of Racial Classification, History Workshop Journal, Volume 2000 Issue 50, pp. 1–21.
- Bernier, François (2001-04-01). "A New Division of the Earth". History Workshop Journal (51): 247–250. ISSN 1363-3554. JSTOR 4289731.