Formula Three

(Redirected from Formula 3)

Formula Three, also called Formula 3, abbreviated as F3, is a third-tier class of open-wheel formula racing. The various championships held in Europe, Australia, South America and Asia form an important step for many prospective Formula One drivers.

Mika Mäki drives a Dallara F308 Formula Three Car in a Formula 3 Euro Series race at Hockenheimring in 2009
Rudolf Dötsch in a MarchToyota at the Nürburgring 1976

History edit

A typical early car, the Effyh 500 (1947–1952) was built in Malmö, Sweden and was one of the more successful cars. It had a lightweight tube chassis, aluminium bodywork and was powered by a 500cc 1-cylinder JAP engine.

Formula Three (adopted by the FIA in 1950) evolved from postwar auto racing, with lightweight tube-frame chassis powered by 500 cc motorcycle engines (notably Nortons and JAP speedway). The 500 cc formula originally evolved in 1946 from low-cost "special" racing organised by enthusiasts in Bristol, England, just before the Second World War; British motorsport after the war picked up slowly, partly due to petrol rationing which continued for a number of years and home-built 500 cc cars engines were intended to be accessible to the "impecunious enthusiast". The second post-war motor race in Britain was organised by the VSCC in July 1947 at RAF Gransden Lodge, 500cc cars being the only post-war class to run that day. Three of the seven entrants were non-starters, and, of the four runners, all but one retired on the first lap, leaving Eric Brandon in his Cooper Prototype (T2) trailing round to a virtual walk-over at an average speed of 55.79 mph (89.79 km/h), though his best lap (which was the fastest recorded for any 500) was 65.38 mph (105.22 km/h).[citation needed]

Cooper came to dominate the formula with mass-produced cars, and the income this generated enabled the company to develop into the senior categories. Other notable marques included Kieft, JBS and Emeryson in England, and Effyh, Monopoletta and Scampolo in Europe. John Cooper, along with most other 500 builders, decided to place the engine in the middle of the car, driving the rear wheels. This was mostly due to the practical limitations imposed by chain drive but it gave these cars exceptionally good handling characteristics which eventually led to the mid-engined revolution in single-seater racing.

The 500cc formula was the usual route into motor racing through the early and mid-1950s (and stars like Stirling Moss continued to enter selected F3 events even during their GP careers). Other notable 500 cc Formula 3 drivers include Stuart Lewis-Evans, Ivor Bueb, Jim Russell, Peter Collins, Don Parker, Ken Tyrrell, and Bernie Ecclestone.

From a statistical point of view, Parker was the most successful F3 driver. Although coming to motor racing late in life (at age 41 in 1949), he won a total of 126 F3 races altogether, and was described by Motor Sport magazine (in his 1998 obituary) as "the most successful Formula 3 driver in history". Although Stirling Moss was already a star by 1953, Parker beat him more than any other driver, and was Formula 3 Champion in 1952, again in 1953, and in 1954 he only lost the title by a half-point. He took the title for a third time in 1959.

500cc Formula Three declined at an international level during the late 1950s, although it continued at a national level into the early 60s, being eclipsed by Formula Junior for 1000 or 1100 cc cars (on a sliding scale of weights).

A one-litre Formula Three category for four-cylinder carburetted cars, with heavily tuned production engines, was reintroduced in 1964 based on the Formula Junior rules and ran to 1970. These engines (a short-stroke unit based on the Ford Anglia[1] with a special 2-valve Cosworth or Holbay OHV down-draught head, initially pioneered by Brian Hart, being by far the most efficient and popular) tended to rev very highly and were popularly known as "screamers"; F3 races tended to involve large packs of slipstreaming cars. The "screamer" years were dominated by Brabham, Lotus and Tecno, with March beginning in 1970. Early one-litre F3 chassis tended to descend from Formula Junior designs but quickly evolved.

For 1971 new regulations allowing 1600 cc engines with a restricted air intake were introduced. The 1971–73 seasons were contested with these cars, as aerodynamics started to become important.

Two-litre engine rules were introduced for 1974, still with restricted air intakes. Today engine regulations remain basically unchanged in F3, a remarkable case of stability in racing regulations.

As the likes of Lotus and Brabham faded from F3 to concentrate on Formula One, F3 constructors of the 1970s included Alpine, Lola, March, Modus, GRD, Ralt, and Ensign.

By the start of the 1980s however, Formula Three had evolved well beyond its humble beginnings to something closely resembling the modern formula. It was seen as the main training ground for future Formula One drivers, many of them bypassing Formula Two to go straight into Grand Prix racing. The chassis became increasingly sophisticated, mirroring the more senior formulae – ground effects were briefly used in the early 1980s but were banned, in line with other FIA single-seater formulae; carbon fibre chassis started to be introduced from the mid-1980s.

Historically, March (up to 1981), Ralt (up to the early 1990s) and Reynard (1985–1992) had been the main chassis manufacturers in two-litre F3, with Martini fairly strong in France; Reynard pioneered use of carbon fibre in the mid-1980s replacing traditional aluminium or steel monocoque structures. Dallara however, after an unsuccessful Formula One project, focussed their attention on the formula in the early nineties and obliterated all the other marques with their F393. Within a couple of years, the chassis was considered a prerequisite to competitiveness, and today Dallara chassis are ubiquitous to the formula. In order to keep costs down, their chassis have had a three-year life-cycle, with only minor annual updates. It was agreed however to extend the life-cycle of the current F308 to four years to assist teams; this chassis however, has been replaced in 2012 with the new F312 chassis, intended to be run until 2017. Most F3 championships, most notably the British series, offer a secondary class for cars from the previous life-cycle in order to provide a cheap point of entry for lesser funded teams and drivers.

F3 cars edit

Formula Three cars are monocoque chassis, using slick racing tyres and wings. Currently, Dallara manufactures the overwhelming majority of F3 cars, though Mygale, Lola (formerly in partnership with Dome of Japan), Arttech, and SLC also have a limited output. In many smaller or amateur F3 racing series older cars are frequently seen. Usually these series are divided into two or more classes, to allow more participation.

Engines in FIA Formula 3 are all 3.4-litre, 6-cylinder naturally aspirated spec engines.[2]

Engines in others Formula 3 series must be built from a production model block (stock block), and often must be sealed by race or series organizers, so no private tuning can be carried out. Honda engines (prepared by Mugen) have perennially been popular, as have engines produced by Volkswagen, Alfa Romeo, or Renault. Currently the HWA-tuned Mercedes and the Volkswagen engines dominate the British and European series, with Mugen, TOM'SToyota, Opel, and Fiat being used by some teams.

Car regulations edit

  • Width: 1,150 mm (45.3 in) maximum
  • Wheelbase: 2,000 mm (79 in) minimum
  • Track: 1,200 mm (47 in) minimum
  • Weight: 550 kg (1,210 lb) minimum including driver
  • Active suspension, telemetry, and traction control are forbidden
  • Two-wheel steering only
  • Two-wheel drive only (rear-wheel-drive)
  • Sequential paddle-shift gearbox, six forward gears (maximum), and one reverse
  • Undrilled ferrous brakes
  • Wheels, width 9.5 in (240 mm), diameter 13 in (330 mm) maximum
  • Fuel capacity: 45 litres (12 US gallons)
  • Controlled fuel from a single supplier, but of a comparative standard to pump/street gasoline (petrol)
  • Stock derived 2.0 L (122 cu in)/3.4 L (207 cu in) engine with 28 mm (1.1 in) width restrictor, hence about 380 hp (280 kW) at 8000rpm

Complete regulations: "" (PDF). (1213 kiB)

Championships and series edit

Sebastian Vettel demonstrating his Formula 3 Euro Series car (2006)

Until the launch of the FIA Formula 3 Championship in 2019, there has never been a World Championship for Formula Three. In the 1970s and into the 1980s the European Formula Three Championship and British Formula 3 Championship (once one series had emerged from the competing British series in the 1970s) were the most prominent, with a number of future Formula One champions coming from them. France, Germany, and Italy also had important Formula Three series, but interest in these was originally subsidiary to national formulae – Formula Renault in France and Formula Super Vee in Germany. These nations eventually drifted towards Formula Three. The Italian series tended to attract older drivers who moved straight across from karting whereas in other nations drivers typically graduated to F3 after a couple of years in minor categories. The European series died out in the mid-1980s and the national series became correspondingly more important. For 2003, French and German F3, both suffering from a lack of competitive entrants, merged to recreate the Formula 3 Euro Series.[3]

Brazil's SudAm Formula Three Championship, which now has the most powerful engine of all Formula Three series, was known for producing excellent drivers who polished their skills in the British Formula 3 championship. Perhaps the most curious of all was the small All-Japan Formula Three Championship. Although few drivers spent a significant amount of time there, future stars such as Ralf Schumacher and Jacques Villeneuve scored victories there. An Asian series was established in 2001 and grew to produce past A1 drivers for Indonesia and Australia.

Special races edit

Átila Abreu driving for Mücke Motorsport during the 2005 Pau Grand Prix in France

In addition to the many national series, Formula Three is known for major non-championship races typically including entries from the national series, the best-known of which is the FIA World Cup at Macau. The first Formula Three Grand Prix of Macau was held in 1983 and won by Ayrton Senna. Michael Schumacher, David Coulthard, Ralf Schumacher, and Takuma Sato have also won there. The Formula Three Grand Prix of Macau traditionally marks the end of the Formula Three season, with drivers from almost every national series participating.

Other major races include the Pau Grand Prix (from 1999 to 2006), the Masters of Formula 3 (traditionally held at Zandvoort), and the Korea Super Prix at Changwon. These events give fans in locations not visited by other major series a way to experience major international racing.

The Monaco F3 Grand Prix held until 1997 was also a famous special race. It was restored in 2005 only, as a part of the F3 Euro Series.

List of Formula Three series edit

Current series edit

Series name Zone/country Active years Additional information
FIA Formula 3 regulations
FIA Formula 3 Championship International 2019– Replaced the GP3 Series and the FIA Formula 3 European Championship in 2019.
FIA Formula Regional regulations
    Formula Regional Americas Championship North America 2018– Was known as F3 Americas until 2019.
  Formula Regional European Championship by Alpine Europe 2019– Replaced the Formula Regional European Championship and the Formula Renault Eurocup in 2021.
  Formula Regional Japanese Championship Japan 2020– K2 acquired Formula Regional rights for 2020 after Japanese Formula 3 Championship officials changed specifications away from Formula Regional, thereby abandoning nomenclature rights under FIA rules.
Alpine Formula Racing Asia Series Asia 2021– The new championship aligns with the Formula Regional European Championship by Alpine running the Tatuus Formula Regional spec car with Renault engines (Formula Renault FR-19).
    Formula Regional Middle East Championship Asia 2023– Replaced the Formula Regional Asian Championship in 2023
   Formula Regional Oceania Championship New Zealand 2023– The series switched to the Formula Regional chassis for 2020 and rebranded as Formula Regional championship from 2023 onwards.
  Formula Regional Indian Championship India 2023–
Former FIA F3 regulations
  Monoposto Racing Championship United Kingdom 1977– Monoposto racing championship runs Formula 3 cars up to the 2007 year MY of the Dallara chassis. Featuring a BOP to ensure fair racing between the years, all cars run a 2.0L production F3 engine (190bhp) limit through various restrictors.
  Drexler-Automotive Formula 3 Cup Austria 1982,
"Drexler-Automotive Formel 3 Pokal" for the main Cup and "Drexler-Automotive Formel 3 Trophy" for B division older chassis cars.
  FIA Central European Zone Formula 3 Europe 1994–2005,
  Australian Formula Open Series Australia 1999–2019,
  F2000 Italian Formula Trophy Italy 2014– Formerly known as F2 Italian Trophy. Mainly running older F3 chassis and engines.
Euroformula regulations - based on 2018 F3-chassis
  Euroformula Open Championship Europe 2009– Formerly the Spanish Formula Three Championship. The Spanish Formula Three title continues to exist as a sub-championship.
  Super Formula Lights Japan 2020– Formerly the Japanese Formula 3 Championship until 2019, when the series adopted Euroformula Open Championship regulations in 2020, forcing a name change.
GB3 Championship regulations (Upgraded FIA Formula 4)
  GB3 Championship United Kingdom 2016– Although called British Formula 3 in the UK, this is to avoid confusion with Formula 4. The car is a Tatuus Formula 4 tub with superior aerodynamics to the F4 cars in other series. The engines are tuned 2 liter Ford Duratec engines without air restrictor.
Non-FIA regulations series
  Chilean Formula Three Championship Chile 1972–1974 1976–2012 2016– The Chilean championship did not follow the FIA's Formula 3 regulations.

Defunct series edit

Series name Zone/country Active years Additional information
German Formula Three Championship Germany 1950–1953
The main Championship merged into the Formula 3 Euro Series in 2003. A lower-level Formula 3 Cup was run between 2003 and 2014.
British Formula Three Championship United Kingdom 1951–1961
Soviet Formula 3 Championship Soviet Union 1960–1987 The championship was cancelled due to the financial problems of the Soviet Union and later replaced with Russian Formula Three Championship
Italian Formula Three Championship Italy 1958–1966
FIA European Formula 3 Championship Europe 1975–1984
Formula 3 Euro Series Europe 2003–2012 Incorporated into the FIA Formula 3 European Championship from 2013
FIA Formula 3 International Trophy International 2011 Replaced by the revived FIA Formula 3 European Championship in 2012
FIA Formula 3 European Championship Europe 2012–2018 Replaced the FIA Formula 3 International Trophy and Formula 3 Euro Series. In 2019, joined with GP3 Series, to create FIA Formula 3 Championship
Japanese Formula 3 Championship Japan 1979–2019 With the rebranding of the series to Super Formula Lights, the Japanese Formula 3 Championship officially ended after 41 years.[6]
Spanish Formula Three Championship Spain 2001–2008 Replaced by European F3 Open Championship
Formula Three Sudamericana South America 1987–2013 Replaced by Fórmula 3 Brasil
Brazilian Formula Three Championship Brazil 1989–1995
Replaced Formula Three Sudamericana in 2014, renamed to Super Fórmula Brasil, but canceled in 2018.
French Formula Three Championship France 1964–1973
Replaced by Formula 3 Euro Series
Belgian Formula Three Championship Belgium 1964–1967
Swedish Formula 3 Championship Sweden 1964–1994
Danish Formula 3 Championship Denmark 1949–1966
Norwegian Formula 3 Championship Norway 1999–2000
Scandinavian & Nordic Formula Three Championship Scandinavia 1984–1985
Finnish Formula Three Championship Finland 1958–1960
Known as Nordic Formula Three Masters in 2010
North European Zone Formula 3 Cup Northern Europe 2008–2009[7]
Russian Formula Three Championship Russia 1997–2002
Greece Formula 3 Championship Greece 1990–2002
Turkish Formula Three Championship Turkey 1994–2006[8]
Swiss F3 Championship Switzerland 1978–2008, 2014–2021 Run as Cup sub-division of the Austria Formula 3 Cup from 2014 to 2021
East German Formula Three Championship East Germany 1950–1958
Asian Formula Three Championship Asia 2001–2008 Known as the Asian F3 Pacific Series from 2007–2008.
United States Formula Three Championship United States 2000–2001
Mexican Formula Three Championship Mexico 1990–2002
Mexican Formula Three International Championship Mexico 1990–2003
ARP/BRSCC Formula 3 Cup United Kingdom 1990–2010
MSV Formula 3 Cup United Kingdom 2011–2021 Took over the ARP/BRSCC Formula 3 Cup in 2011, before folding in 2020. Was run by the Monoposto Racing Club in 2021 before being integrated into their series.
Formula Lites United States 2015
Formula Renault Eurocup Europe 2019–2020 The series utilized Formula 3 chassis for the first time and new 1.8-litre turbocharged engine in 2019. The 2020 season was the final Formula Renault Eurocup season organised by Renault Sport, as starting from 2021 it merged with the Formula Regional European Championship.[9]
W Series International 2019, 2021–2022 Formula Regional championship exclusively for women

Special races edit

Event Track Region Country Championship Years
FIA Formula 3 World Cup Guia Circuit Macau   Macau standalone event 1983–2019, 2023–
New Zealand Grand Prix alternating alternating   New Zealand Formula Regional Oceania Championship 2020–2021, 2023–
Grand Prix de Pau Circuit de Pau-Ville Pau   France Euroformula Open Championship 1999–2006, 2011–2012, 2014–2019, 2022
Masters of Formula 3 Circuit Park Zandvoort Zandvoort   Netherlands standalone event 1991–2016
Formula 3 Brazil Open Autódromo José Carlos Pace São Paulo   Brazil standalone event 2010–2014
Eastside 100 EuroSpeedway Lausitz Klettwitz   Germany German Formula Three Championship 2005–2006
Monaco Formula Three Grand Prix Circuit de Monaco Monte Carlo   Monaco 1950, 1959–1997, 2005
Korea Super Prix Changwon Street Circuit Changwon   South Korea standalone event 1999–2004
FIA European Formula Three Cup alternating alternating   Europe standalone event 1985–1990, 1999–2004
Inter F3 League Fuji Speedway Oyama   Japan standalone event 1990–1993
Australian Grand Prix F3 Support Race Albert Park Circuit Melbourne   Australia standalone event 2006–2007
Indy 300 F3 Challenge Surfers Paradise Street Circuit Surfers Paradise   Australia standalone event 2008
Wakefield Park Open Wheel Festival Wakefield Park Goulburn   Australia standalone event 2017
New Race Festival Circuit Zolder Heusden-Zolder   Belgium standalone event 1999–2000
MRF Madras Formula 3 Grand Prix Madras International Circuit Chennai   India standalone event 1995, 1999
Sardinia F3 Masters Circuito di Cagliari Cagliari   Italy standalone event 2003
Lady Wigram Trophy Ruapana Park Christchurch   New Zealand standalone event 2003–2004
Privilege Formula Festival International unknown unknown standalone event 1992–1993
Japanese Grand Prix F3 Support Race Suzuka Circuit Suzuka   Japan standalone event 1988–1993
Cellnet Superprix Brands Hatch Kent   United Kingdom standalone event 1988

References edit

  1. ^ Gauld, Graham, "Ford", in World of Automobiles (London: Orbis, 1974), Volume 6, p.696
  2. ^ "Guide to Formula 3". FIAFormula3® - The Official F3® Website. Archived from the original on 2020-03-19. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  3. ^ "Formula 3". FIAFormula3® - The Official F3® Website. Retrieved 2023-06-12.
  4. ^ "formel 3 guide - Formel 3 Meister Österreich". Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  5. ^ "formel 3 guide - Formel 3 Meister Italien". Retrieved 2016-07-21.
  6. ^ Thukral, Rachit; Tanaka, Ken (17 August 2019). "All-Japan F3 rebranded as Super Formula Lights". Motorsport Network. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2010-03-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Formula 3 Survey, Karl-Friedrich Katabian, International Race Results and Data Association, page 1225
  9. ^ Smith, Luke (31 October 2020). "Formula Regional Europe merges with Renault Eurocup for 2021". Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  10. ^ Partially sourced from

External links edit

Championship websites edit

Regional F3 edit

Old regulations edit

Euroformula style edit

Other edit