Foreign relations of Poland
The Republic of Poland is a Central European country and member of the European Union and NATO, among others. Poland wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs. The foreign policy of Poland is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law.
The Polish economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Since the collapse of communism and its re-establishment as a democratic nation, Poland has extended its responsibilities and position in European and Western affairs, supporting and establishing friendly foreign relations with both the West and with numerous European countries.
Integration with the West and EuropeEdit
In 1994, Poland became an associate member of the European Union (EU) and its defensive arm, the Western European Union (WEU). In 1996, Poland achieved full OECD membership and submitted preliminary documentation for full EU membership. In 1997, Poland was invited in the first wave of NATO policy enlargement at the July 1997 NATO Summit in Madrid, Spain. In March 1999, Poland became a full member of NATO. Poland promoted its NATO candidacy through energetic participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and through intensified individual dialogue with NATO. Poland formally joined the European Union in May 2004, along with the other members of the Visegrád group.
Poland was a part of the multinational force in Iraq.
Establishing relationships with European countriesEdit
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The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the establishment of seven new sovereign states in Poland's immediate neighborhood (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia), of which Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia (through the Kaliningrad Oblast) border Poland. Poland has actively pursued good relations with all its neighboring countries, signing friendship treaties replacing links severed by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. The Poles have forged special relationships with Lithuania and particularly Ukraine in an effort to firmly anchor these states to the West.[clarification needed]
Due to its tragic historical experience with aggression of powerful neighbors (e.g., Partitions of Poland, Second World War), Polish foreign policy pursues close cooperation with a strong partner, one apt enough to give strong military support in times of critical situations. This creates the background of Poland's tight relations with the USA and their sensitivity in relations towards its partner within the European Union, Germany. At the same time, the equally burdened attitude towards Russia results in very tense diplomatic relations, which have been constantly worsening since Vladimir Putin's rise to power. This is an important factor for the special attention Poland pays to the political emancipation[clarification needed] of all its Eastern neighbors: Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Algeria||See Algeria–Poland relations|
|Egypt||See Egypt–Poland relations
|Kenya||13 December 1963||See Kenya–Poland relations|
|Nigeria||See Nigeria–Poland relations
|South Africa||See Poland–South Africa relations
|Tanzania||1961||See Poland–Tanzania relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Argentina||1920||See Argentina–Poland relations
|Belize||2 May 1995||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 2, 1995.
|Brazil||27 May 1920||See Brazil–Poland relations|
|Canada||1935||See Canada–Poland relations
|Chile||1920||See Chile–Poland relations
|Colombia||1931||See Colombia–Poland relations|
|Cuba||1933||See Cuba–Poland relations
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1972.
|Mexico||26 February 1928||See Mexico–Poland relations
|Peru||1923||See Peru–Poland relations|
|United States||See Poland–United States relations
A tighter security alliance with the United States was announced in the middle of the Georgian crisis as an agreement between the two countries was reached to allow the US to install and operate an interceptor missile defense shield, a move which Russia sees explicitly targeting it and which it stated made Poland "a legit military target". A high-ranking Russian military official said: "Poland in deploying [the US system] opens itself to a nuclear strike".
|Uruguay||22 July 1920||See Poland–Uruguay relations
|Venezuela||1933||See Poland–Venezuela relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Afghanistan||See Afghanistan–Poland relations
|Azerbaijan||1992-02-21||See Azerbaijan–Poland relations
|China||1919||See China–Poland relations|
|Georgia||1992-04-28||See Georgia–Poland relations
|India||See India–Poland relations
Historically, relations have generally been close and friendly, characterized by understanding and cooperation on international front.
|Indonesia||See Indonesia–Poland relations
|Iran||See Iran–Poland relations
|Israel||27 February 1990||See Israel–Poland relations
Poland broke off relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967, following most other countries of the Soviet Union controlled Eastern Bloc. Poland was the first Eastern bloc country to recognize Israel again in 1986. Full diplomatic relations have been reestablished in 1990, after the communist People's Republic of Poland was transformed into modern, democratic Poland. Government relations between Poland and Israel are steadily improving, resulting in the mutual visits of presidents and the ministers of foreign affairs.
|Japan||See Japan–Poland relations
|Kazakhstan||6 April, 1992||See Kazakhstan–Poland relations
Poland opened its embassy in Nur-Sultan in March 1994. Kazakhstan’s embassy to Poland was opened in October 2000.
|Malaysia||See Malaysia–Poland relations|
|North Korea||1948 October||See Poland–North Korea relations
|Pakistan||17 December 1962||See Pakistan–Poland relations
|Palestine||1988||See Palestine–Poland relations
|Saudi Arabia||See Poland–Saudi Arabia relations
|South Korea||1 November 1989||See Poland–South Korea relations|
|Taiwan||See Poland–Taiwan relations
|Turkey||See Poland–Turkey relations
|United Arab Emirates||
|Vietnam||See Poland–Vietnam relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Albania||See Albania–Poland relations|
|Austria||1921||See Austria–Poland relations
|Belarus||1992-03-02||See Poland–Belarus relations
|Bulgaria||1920s||See Bulgaria–Poland relations|
|Croatia||1992-04-11||See Croatia–Poland relations
|Cyprus||1960s||See Cyprus–Poland relations|
|Czech Republic||1991-10-6||See Czech Republic–Poland relations|
|Denmark||See Denmark–Poland relations
Denmark and Poland have still not agreed on the formal establishment of the maritime border between the two countries. Denmark supports a border halfway between the two countries, but Poland wants to be awarded an even greater share of the Baltic Sea, since Poland has a much longer coastline than the Danish island of Bornholm. The issue has gained significance alongside Russia's plans to build the controversial Nord Stream natural gas pipeline through the disputed area.
|Estonia||1991-09||See Estonia–Poland relations
|Finland||1919-03-08||See Finland–Poland relations|
|France||1919-2-24||See France–Poland relations
Polish-French relations date several centuries, although they became really relevant only with times of French Revolution and reign of Napoleon I. Poles have been allies of Napoleon; large Polish community settled in France in the 19th century, and Poles and French were also allies during the interwar period. The official relations, having cooled down during the Cold War, have improved since the fall of communism. Currently both countries are part of the European Union and NATO.
|Germany||See Germany–Poland relations
During the Cold War, communist Poland had good relations with East Germany, but had strained relations with West Germany. After the fall of communism, Poland and the reunited Germany have had a mostly positive but occasionally strained relationship due to some political issues. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Germany has been a proponent of Poland's participation in NATO and the European Union. The Polish-German border is 467 kilometres (290 miles) long.
|Greece||See Greece–Poland relations
|Holy See||1919||See Holy See–Poland relations
|Hungary||See Hungary–Poland relations
Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages. For a long time, they enjoy traditional close friendship.
|Iceland||January 1946||See Iceland–Poland relations|
|Ireland||1976-9-30||See Ireland–Poland relations|
|Italy||1919-2-27||See Italy–Poland relations
|Latvia||1991-08-30||See Latvia–Poland relations
|Lithuania||1991-9-5||See Lithuania–Poland relations
The fall of communism in the years of 1989-1991 led to a formal reestablishment of relations by the Polish and Lithuanian states. Poland was highly supportive of the Lithuanian independence, and became one of the first countries to recognize independent Lithuania. Despite that, there was a relative crisis in the early 1990s, due to Lithuanian mistreatment of Polish minority, and Lithuanian suspicious that Poland would want to put Lithuania under its sphere of influence. After a few years, as the situation normalized, Polish-Lithuanian relations have been steadily improving over the past two decades, with both countries joining the NATO and European Union.
|Netherlands||See Netherlands–Poland relations
|Romania||1919-02-09||See Poland–Romania relations|
|Russia||See Poland–Russia relations
In recent years, relations with Russia have worsened considerably. Poland responded with strong disapproval towards the 2008 Georgian Crisis, in which a military invasion of Georgia was led by Russia. Georgia is a former USSR republic, Poland was a member of the Eastern Bloc, and Poland stated its support for Georgia and condemned Russia's actions. The Polish believed the invasion was carried out by the Russians in an attempt to reestablish and reassert its dominance over its former republics. Since 2009, however, relations with Russia somewhat improved - despite the plane accident where the former Polish president died on what is still considered a controversial event. After the 2014 Crimean crisis the relations deteriorated again, as Poland strongly condemned Russian actions against Ukraine.
|Serbia||1919||See Poland–Serbia relations
|Slovakia||1993||See Poland–Slovakia relations|
|Spain||1919-5-19||See Poland–Spain relations|
|Sweden||1919-6-3||See Poland–Sweden relations
|Ukraine||1992-1-4||See Poland–Ukraine relations
Both countries share a border of about 529 kilometres (329 miles). Poland's acceptance of the Schengen Agreement created problems with the Ukrainian border traffic. On July 1, 2009 an agreement on local border traffic between the two country's came into effect. This agreement enables Ukrainian citizens living in border regions to cross the Polish frontier according to a liberalized procedure. The Orange Revolution in Ukraine evoked a wide and authentic support within the Polish society.
|United Kingdom||1919-2-25||See Poland – United Kingdom relations
During the Cold War Poland retained a largely negative view of Britain as a sluggish ally of Poland during World War II, later acceptance of neglecting Poland in the international arena and placing it in communist influences. In communist times the UK was a part of the NATO block, so consequently it was considered by the communists as natural enemy of the communist bloc. British efforts meanwhile were focussed at trying to break Poland off from the Warsaw Pact and encouraging reforms in the country. In the 1990s and 2000s democratic Poland has maintained close relations with Britain; both in defence matters and within the EU; Britain being one of only a few countries allowing equal rights to Polish workers upon their accession in 2004.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Australia||February 1972||See Australia–Poland relations|
|Micronesia||12 February 2019||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 February 2019.
|New Zealand||1 March 1973||See New Zealand–Poland relations|
|Solomon Islands||6 March 2012||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 March 2012.
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This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.