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Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile has been an active participant in the regional and international arena.[1] Chile assumed a two-year non-permanent position on the UN Security Council in January 2003 and was re-elected to the council in October 2013.[2] It is also an active member of the UN family of agencies, serving as a member of the Commission on Human Rights and participating in UN peacekeeping activities. Chile hosted the second Summit of the Americas in 1998, was the chair of the Rio Group in 2001, hosted the Defense Ministerial of the Americas in 2002, and the APEC summit and related meetings in 2004. In 2005 it hosted the Community of Democracies ministerial conference. An associate member of Mercosur and a full member of APEC. The OECD agreed to invite Chile to be among four countries to open discussions in becoming an official member.[3] Chile has been an important actor on international economic issues and hemispheric free trade. The Chilean Government has diplomatic relations with most countries.

Contents

Diplomatic relationsEdit

 
Status of the foreign relations of Chile around the world.

Chile does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Togo, Taiwan, or Yemen. Regarding Western Sahara, Chile has sent contradictory comments. Chile's Senate speaker Sergio Romero has said that Chile does not recognize Western Sahara's independence,[4][5] but Chile's Ministry of Foreign Relations website includes Western Sahara as an independent country with which Chile has no diplomatic relations.

AfricaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Algeria
  Angola
  • Angola is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  • Chile is accredited to Angola from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
  Egypt
  • Chile has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Santiago.
  Ethiopia
  • Chile has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia does not have an accreditation to Chile.
  Ghana
  Kenya See Chile–Kenya relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  Libya
  • Chile is accredited to Libya from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
  • Libya has an embassy in Santiago.
  Morocco
  • Chile has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Santiago.
  Namibia
  • Chile is accredited to Namibia from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Namibia is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  South Africa
  • Chile has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Santiago.

AmericasEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Argentina See Argentina–Chile relations

Chile and Argentina were close allies during the wars of independence against Spain. Argentine General José de San Martín crossed the Andes with Chilean independence hero Bernardo O'Higgins and together they defeated the Spaniards. However, after independence, relations soured. This was primarily due to a border dispute: both nations claimed the totality of the Patagonia region.[6]

Attempts to clear up the dispute were unsuccessful until 1881, when Chile was at war with both Bolivia and Peru. In order to avoid fighting Argentina as well, Chilean President Aníbal Pinto authorized his envoy, Diego Barros Arana to hand over as much territory as was needed to avoid Argentina siding with Bolivia and Peru. Barros succeeded in his mission: Argentina was granted east Patagonia and Chile the Strait of Magellan.[6]

However, border disputes continued. In 1902, war was again avoided when British King Edward VII agreed to mediate between the two nations. He established the current border in the Patagonia region.[6]

The Beagle conflict began to brew in the 1960s, when Argentina began to claim that the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands in the Beagle Channel were rightfully hers. In 1971 Chile and Argentina signed an agreement formally submitting the Beagle Channel issue to binding Beagle Channel Arbitration. On May 2, 1977 the court ruled that the islands and all adjacent formations belonged to Chile. See the Report and decision of the Court of Arbitration.

On 25 January 1978, the Argentina military junta led by General Jorge Videla declared the award fundamentally null and intensified their claim over the islands. On 22. December 1978, Argentina started[7] the Operation Soberanía over the disputed islands, but the invasion was halted due to:[8]

The newspaper Clarín explained some years later that such caution was based, in part, on military concerns. In order to achieve a victory, certain objectives had to be reached before the seventh day after the attack. Some military leaders considered this not enough time due to the difficulty involved in transportation through the passes over the Andean Mountains.

and in cite 46:

According to Clarín, two consequences were feared. First, those who were dubious feared a possible regionalization of the conflict. Second, as a consequence, the conflict could acquire great power proportions. In the first case decisionmakers speculated that Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Brazil might intervene. Then the great powers could take sides. In this case, the resolution of the conflict would depend not on the combatants, but on the countries that supplied the weapons.

In December that year, moments before Videla signed a declaration of war against Chile, Pope John Paul II agreed to mediate between the two nations. The Pope's envoy, Antonio Samorè, successfully averted war and proposed a new definitive boundary in which the three disputed islands would remain Chilean. Chile immediately accepted this decision, but Argentina still disliked and avoided acceptance until after the lost Falklands War in 1982. Both agreed to Samoré's proposal and signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina, ending that dispute.[9]

In the 1990s, under presidents Frei and Menem both countries solved almost all of the remaining border disputes during bilateral talks. They also agreed to submit Laguna del Desierto to international arbitration in 1994. Almost the entire disputed area was awarded to Argentina.[10]

The last border dispute are 50 km (31 mi). in the Southern Patagonian Ice Field from Mount Fitz Roy to Mount Daudet that is still officially undefined.[11][12] In August 2006, however, a tourist map was published in Argentina placing the disputed region within the borders of that country. Chile filed an official complaint, sparking renewed efforts to settle the dispute which the Argentine government supports and urged Chile to finish quick as possible the demarcation of the international border.[13]

Since democratization in the 1980s, both countries began a close economic and political integration as Chile became an associated member of Mercosur. Also both countries practice defense cooperation and friendship policy.[citation needed]

  • Argentina has an embassy in Santiago and several consulates throughtout the country.
  • Chile has an embassy in Buenos Aires and several consulates throughout the country.
  Bahamas
  • Bahamas does not have an accreditation to Chile.
  • Chile is accredited to the Bahamas from its embassy in Kingston, Jamaica.
  Barbados

Barbados is accredited in Chile through its embassy in Caracas, (Venezuela). Chile is accredited to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain, (Trinidad and Tobago) and maintains an honorary consulate in Bridgetown. Barbados and Chile formally established diplomatic relations on 3 October 1967.[14] Chile was the first Latin American country with which Barbados formally established formal diplomatic relations.[15] Both countries raised the agenda of rekindling ties in 2005 as a precursor to the attempted Free Trade Area of the Americas trade bloc. At current both blocs have discussed the introduction of a free trade agreement[16][17] and more specifically Chile and CARICOM have specifically noted the possibility of establishing a free trade agreement.[18]

Chilean President Ricardo Lagos visited Barbados on February 20–21, 2005[19] The Barbados Prime Minister later reciprocated by official visit to Chile in November 2005. As part of their meeting the Government of Barbados pledged support to Chilean-diplomat José Miguel Insulza for the post of Secretary General to the Organization of American States (OAS).[citation needed] In May 2009, Prime Minister David Thompson outlined his plan to further Barbadian relations in the Americas. As part of his outline he named Chile as one of three countries which he desired his government would further enhance relations with in South America.[20] In August 2017 President Bachelet visited Barbados and met with her Barbadian counterpart to discuss mutual areas of cooperation.[21][22][23]

  • Barbados is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  • Chile is accredited to Barbados from its embassy in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
  Belize 11 October 1990
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on October 11, 1990.[24]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of American States.
  • Belize has an honorary consulate in Santiago.
  • Chile is accredited to Belize from its embassy in San Salvador, El Salvador.
  Bolivia See Bolivia–Chile relations

Relations with Bolivia have been strained ever since the independence wars because of the Atacama border dispute (Bolivia claims a corridor to the Pacific Ocean). The Spaniards never bothered to definitely establish a border between Chile and Bolivia. Chile claimed its limit with Peru ran through the Loa River and that Bolivia was therefore landlocked, while Bolivia claimed it did have a coast and that the limit with Chile ran along the Salado River. The border remained vague throughout the 19th century. Finally, Bolivia and Chile agreed, in 1866, to allow Bolivia access to the Pacific and that the limit of the two countries would run along the 24th parallel. The area between the 25th and 23rd parallel would remain demilitarized and both nations would be allowed to mine there.[25] It was also agreed that taxes on the exportation of saltpeter would not increase.[citation needed]

However, in 1879, Bolivian dictator General Hilarión Daza increased the taxes on the exportation of saltpeter, violating the 1866 treaty. When Chilean-owned saltpeter companies protested, Daza expropriated their companies and sold them in a public auction. Daza then put an end to all commerce with Chile and exiled all Chilean residents in Bolivia (the Bolivian port of Antofagasta had more Chileans than Bolivians). In response, Chile declared war on Bolivia and occupied Bolivia's coast. Peru had, in 1873, signed a secret pact with Bolivia in which the two countries agreed to fight together against any nation that threatened either of them. When Peru refused to be neutral in the conflict between Chile and Bolivia, Chile declared war on Peru. Chile defeated both countries and annexed the coast claimed by Bolivia. This was ratified in a 1904 treaty.[26]

Diplomatic relations with Bolivia continued to be strained because of Bolivia's continuing aspiration to the sea. In 1964, Bolivian President Víctor Paz Estenssoro severed diplomatic relations with Chile. Generals Augusto Pinochet and Hugo Banzer resumed diplomatic relations and attempted to settle territorial disputes. The secret negotiations started in 1973 and in 1975 diplomatic relations between Chile and Bolivia were established. That year, both dictators met in the Bolivian border town of Charaña. Pinochet agreed to give Bolivia a small strip of land running between the Chilean city of Arica and the Peruvian border. However the Treaty of Lima between Peru and Chile specified that Chile must consult Peru before granting any land to a third party in the area of Tarapacá. Peruvian dictator General Francisco Morales Bermúdez did not agree with the Charaña proposal and instead drafted his own proposal, in which the three nations would share administration of the port of Arica and the sea immediately in front of it. Pinochet refused this agreement, and Banzer broke ties with Chile again in 1978. The failure of the Charaña accords was one of the reasons of Banzer's downfall that very year.[citation needed]

Chile and Bolivia maintain consular relations, and appear to have become friendlier. Former Chilean President Ricardo Lagos attended the inauguration of current Bolivian President Evo Morales. Morales has repeatedly announced his intention to establish diplomatic relations with Chile once more, but has still not given up Bolivia's claim to the sea.[citation needed]

  Brazil See Brazil–Chile relations
 
Michelle Bachelet and Dilma Rousseff, 15 December 2011

Chile and Brazil have acted numerous times as mediators in international conflicts, such as in the 1914 diplomatic impasse between the United States and Mexico, avoiding a possible state of war between those two countries. More recently, since the 2004 Haitian coup d'état, Chile and Brazil have actively participated in the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti, which is led by the Brazilian Army. They are also two of the three most important economies in South America along with Argentina.[citation needed]

  Canada See Canada–Chile relations

Since 1997 Canada and Chile's trade relations have been governed by the Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement, Chile's first full free trade agreement and Canada's first with a Latin American nation.[27]

  Colombia

Both nations are members of the Pacific Alliance.

  • Chile has an embassy in Bogotá.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Santiago.
  Costa Rica
  • Chile has an embassy in San José.
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Santiago.
  Cuba See Chile–Cuba relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Santiago.
  Dominican Republic
  • Chile has an embassy in Santo Domingo.
  • Dominican Republic has an embassy in Santiago.
  Ecuador

After the War of the Pacific (1879–83) pursued a policy of promoting friendly relationships between countries with disputes with Chile's neighbors. In doing so Chile made attempts to establish friendly relationships between Ecuador and Colombia, both were countries that had serious territorial disputes with Peru in the Amazon. Military cooperation with Ecuador grew considerably after the War of the Pacific with Chile sending instructors to the military academy in Quito and selling superfluous arms and munitions to Ecuador.[28] Despite Chile's over-all good relations with Ecuador both countries had a minor diplomatic crisis resulting from the capture of the Peruvian torpedo boat Alay in Ecuadorian territorial waters during the war.[29]

Chile together with the other ABC Powers and the USA were among the guarantors of the Rio Protocol that followed the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War in 1942.[30]

  • Chile has an embassy in Quito and a consulate-general in Guayaquil.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Santiago.
  El Salvador
  • Chile has an embassy in San Salvador.
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Santiago.
  Guatemala
  • Chile has an embassy in Guatemala City.
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Santiago.
  Guyana
  Haiti See Chile-Haiti relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  • Haiti has an embassy in Santiago.
  Honduras
  • Chile has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.
  • Honduras has an embassy in Santiago.
  Jamaica
  • Chile has an embassy in Kingston.
  • Jamaica is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  Mexico 1831 See Chile-Mexico relations

The two nations have maintained relations since 1831.[32]

On May 20, 1914, Chile and the other ABC Powers met in Niagara Falls, Canada, to mediate diplomatically to avoid a state of war between the United States and Mexico over the Veracruz Incident and the Tampico Affair. In 1974, Mexico severed diplomatic relations over the overthrow of President Salvador Allende. For the next fifteen years, Mexico would accept thousands of Chilean refugees who were escaping the government of General Augusto Pinochet. Diplomatic relations between the two nations were re-established in 1990. Currently both countries have signed a free trade agreement that went into effect in 1999.[33] Both nations are founding members of the Pacific Alliance and are the only two Latin-American nations to be members of the OECD.

  Nicaragua
  • Chile has an embassy in Managua.
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Santiago.
  Panama
  • Chile has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Santiago and a consulate-general in Valparaíso.
  Paraguay
  • Chile has an embassy in Asunción.
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Santiago.
  Peru See Chile–Peru relations

Chile and Peru had excellent relations at the time of independence, when Chilean independence hero Bernardo O'Higgins formed the Freedom Expedition of Perú, financed by the Chilean government for the cause of the liberation of the northern neighbour. Chile and Peru participated in a common conflict against Spain, the Chincha Islands War (1864–1866), despite their causes for war with Spain where different. Despite the Chilean port of Valparaíso was bombed and mostly destroyed by Spain during the conflict, the combined Peru-Chile fleet managed to defend Chilean territory near Abtao, and the Peruvian defenders of Callao managed to drive back the Spanish attack. In 1873, Peru signed a secret defensive pact with Bolivia in which it agreed to help that nation in case of foreign attack. The moment came in 1879, when Chile declared war on Bolivia. Peru refused to null its defensive pact with Bolivia, and Chile declared war on Peru. The War of the Pacific, as the conflict was called, resulted in a decisive victory for Chile, which managed to reach Lima and occupied Peru for a few years.[citation needed]

In 1883, Chile and Peru signed the Treaty of Ancón in which Peru handed over the Province of Tarapacá. Peru also had to hand over the departments of Arica and Tacna. These would remain under Chilean control until a later date, when there would be a plebiscite to decide which nation would maintain control over Arica and Tacna. Chile and Peru, however, were unable to agree on how or when to hold the plebiscite, and in 1929, both countries signed the Treaty of Lima, in which Peru gained Tacna and Chile maintained control of Arica.[citation needed]

Relations have remained sour because of the war. In 1975, both countries were at the brink of war, only a few years before the centennial of the War of the Pacific. The conflict was fueled by ideological disputes: Peruvian General Juan Velasco was a left-winger while Chilean General Augusto Pinochet was a right-winger. Velasco, backed by Cuba, set the date for invasion on August 6, the 150th independence anniversary of Bolivia, and the proposed date when Chile intended to grant this country with a sovereign corridor north of Arica, in former Peruvian territory, transfer not approved by Peru. However, he was successfully dissuaded from starting the invasion on that date by his advisor, General Francisco Morales Bermúdez, whose original family was from the former Peruvian (currently Chilean) region of Tarapacá. Velasco later fell ill and was deposed by a group of generals who proclaimed Morales Bermúdez president on August 28.[citation needed]

Morales Bermúdez assured the Chilean government that Peru had no plans for an invasion despite its tremendous military superiority. Tensions mounted again when a Chilean spy mission in Peru was discovered. Morales Bermúdez was again able to avert war, despite pressure from Velasco's ultranationalist followers.[citation needed]

Relations between the two nations have since mostly recovered. In 2005, the Peruvian Congress unilaterally approved a new law which stated the sea limit with Chile. Peru's position was that the border has never been fully demarcated, but Chile disagreed reminding on treaties in 1952 and 1954 between the countries, which supposedly defined seaborder. The border problem has still not been solved. However, former Chilean president Michelle Bachelet and Peru's Alan García established a positive diplomatic relationship, and it is very unlikely any hostilities will break out because of the dispute.[citation needed]

Nevertheless, in early April 2007, Peruvian nationalistic sectors, mainly represented by left wing ex-presidential candidate Ollanta Humala decided to congregate at 'hito uno' right at the border with Chile, in a symbolic attempt to claim sovereignty over a maritime area known in Peru as Mar de Grau (Grau's Sea) just west of the Chilean city of Arica. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2,000 people just ten kilometers from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Despite these incidents, the presidents of both Chile and Peru have confirmed their intentions to improve the relationships between the two countries, mainly fueled by the huge amount of commercial exchange between both countries private sectors.[citation needed]

  • Chile has an embassy in Lima and a consulate-general in Tacna.
  • Peru has an embassy in Santiago and consulates-general in Arica, Iquique and Valparaíso.
  Suriname
  • Chile is accredited to Suriname from its embassy in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
  • Suriname is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  Trinidad and Tobago
  • Chile has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  United States See Chile–United States relations
 
Bachelet with U.S. President Barack Obama, 30 June 2014

Chile-United States relations have been better in the period 1988 to the present than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, The United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics.

  Uruguay See Chile–Uruguay relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Santiago.
  Venezuela
  • Chile has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Santiago.

AsiaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Armenia 15 April 1993 See Armenia–Chile relations
  • Armenia is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina and maintains an honorary consulate in Santiago.
  • Chile is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia and maintains an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Baku.
  China 1970 See Chile–China relations

Chile recognized the Republic of China until 1970, when diplomatic recognition was switched to the People's Republic of China under the left-leaning Allende. After the 1973 coup by the Pinochet-led junta, diplomatic relations were cut between Chile and all Communist nations, with the exception of China and Romania. The strongly anti-Communist military government in Chile maintained friendly ties with the Communist government in China for the remainder of the Cold War, with Pinochet crediting the Chinese for abiding by the principle of non-interference in other nations' internal affairs.[36] China and Chile exchanged military missions and the Soviet Chilean copper exports to China and Chinese loans The friendly relations were cemented by a share distaste for the Soviet Union, the Chinese diplomatic principle of non-interference in other nations' internal affairs, and a willingness to overlook ideological differences in the pursuit of economic ties.[37]

  India See Chile-India relations

Chile was the first country in South America to sign a trade agreement with India, in 1956. An ongoing dialogue has nurtured bilateral political understanding. The mechanism of Foreign Office level consultations was initiated in Santiago in August 2000, and was followed up with a second meeting in New Delhi in April, 2003. However, high-level political exchanges have been few and far between. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi visited Chile in 1968, Transport and Communications Minister K.P. Unnikrishnan in 1990, and President Shankar Dayal Sharma in 1995. From the Chilean side, there has not been any HOS/HOG visit to India. As an indication of Chile's interest in an enhanced relationship, the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture visited India in December 2001.[citation needed]

  • Chile has an embassy in New Delhi.
  • India has an embassy in Santiago.
  Indonesia 1964 See Chile-Indonesia relations

Bilateral relations between Chile and Indonesia were established in 1964. These relations were strengthened by the establishment of the Indonesian embassy in Santiago in March 1991.

  • Chile has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Santiago.
  Iran

Iran severed its diplomatic ties with Chile on August 18, 1980, protesting Pinochet regime's repressive internal policies and giving the Chilean Chargé d'affaires in Tehran 15 days to close the embassy and leave the country.[38] Iran and Chile resumed relations on December 2, 1991 with Iran opening its embassy in Santiago, only to close it again in 1999 citing financial problems. The Iranian embassy in Santiago was finally reopened in 2007 at full ambassador level.[39]

  • Chile has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Santiago.
  Iraq
  • Chile does not have an accreditation to Iraq.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Santiago.
  Israel February 1949 See Chile–Israel relations

Chile recognized Israel's independence in February 1949.[40][41] Both countries established diplomatic relation on 16 May 1950, with Israel sending their first ambassador on that date and Chile sending their first ambassador on 16 June 1952.[40]

  • Chile has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel has an embassy in Santiago.
  Japan September 1897 See Chile–Japan relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Tokyo.[42]
  • Japan has an embassy in Santiago.[43]
  Jordan
  • Chile has an embassy in Amman.
  • Jordan has an embassy in Santiago.
  Kazakhstan
  • Chile is accredited to Kazakhstan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Kazakhstan is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  Lebanon
  • Chile has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Santiago.
  Malaysia See Chile–Malaysia relations

The Chile–Malaysia relations is mainly based on trade. In 2009, the total trade between Chile and Malaysia is $336 million with the total Malaysian export to Chile were $16.8 million while the import with $148.7 million.[44]

  • Chile has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Santiago.
  Pakistan See Chile-Pakistan relations

Chile–Pakistan relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Chile and Pakistan. Formal diplomatic relations between the two states established in 2008.

  • Chile is accredited to Pakistan from its embassy in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
  • Pakistan is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  North Korea 1972-06-01[45] See Chile-North Korea relations
  Palestine See Chile–Palestine relations
  • Chile has a representative office in Ramallah.
  • Palestine has an embassy in Santiago.
  Philippines See Chile–Philippines relations

Chile and the Philippines were both former Spanish colonies. Diplomatic relations between Chile and the Philippines began way back in 1854 when Chile opened a consulate in Binondo, Manila. But the formal relations established on July 4, 1946, the day that the Philippines officially gained their official independence from the United States.During the authoritarian regime of Ferdinand Marcos in 1980, he invited Augusto Pinochet to visit the country, but later he refused Pinochet's plane to land in the country, this was because of a US program to isolate Pinochet's regime, in which the US pressured Marcos to cancel Pinochet's visit.Chilean-Philippines relations were strained until 1986, when Corazon Aquino later ousted Marcos in the People Power Revolution.

  • Chile has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in Santiago.
  Saudi Arabia
  • Chile is accredited to Saudi Arabia from its embassy in Amman, Jordan.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Santiago.
  Singapore
  • Chile has an embassy in Singapore.
  • Singapore is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  South Korea 18 April 1962 See Chile–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and República de Chile began on 18 April 1962.[46]

  Taiwan See Chile–Taiwan relations
  • Chile has a Trade Office in Taipei.
  • Taiwan has a Trade Office in Santiago.
  Thailand 29 October 1962
  • Chile has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Santiago.
  Turkey 1926 See Chile–Turkey relations

Chile was the first country in Latin America which recognized Turkey with the Friendship Treaty, on January 30, 1926.[50] In Santiago, there can be found the Turkish Republic Square, Atatürk College[51][52] and Atatürk monument.[53] The Turkish embassy in Chile is the first embassy of Turkey opened in Latin America. In addition Turkey includes a Chile Square in Ankara inaugurated on September 18, 1970 that contains the Bernardo O'Higgins Monument.[53][54] The Pablo Neruda square in Turkey was inaugurated in 2007.[53]

  • Chile has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Santiago.
  United Arab Emirates
  • Chile has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Santiago.
  Vietnam See Chile–Vietnam relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Santiago.

EuropeEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Andorra 15 July 1996
  • Andorra does not have an accreditation to Chile.
  • Chile is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain and maintains an honorary consulate in Andorra la Vella.
  Austria See Austria–Chile relations

The first bilateral relations dates back from 1846.

  • Austria has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Vienna.
  Belgium
  • Belgium has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Brussels.
  Bulgaria
  • Bulgaria is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Chile is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  Croatia 1992-04-15 See Chile–Croatia relations

The Senate of Chile has awarded Croatian President Stjepan Mesić an order of merit, to honor the improvement of bilateral relations between Croatia and Chile. While representing Chile, senate vice president Baldo Prokurica stated that he found areas for stronger collaboration in future in oil and gas research and shipyards and he expressed an interest in Chilean students' having scholarships in Croatia.[55] There are between 380,000 and 500,000 people of Croatian descent living in Chile. Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Chile

  • Chile has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Santiago.
  Czech Republic
  • Chile has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Santiago.
  Denmark See Chile–Denmark relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Copenhagen.
  • Denmark has an embassy in Santiago.
  Estonia See Chile–Estonia relations
  • Chile re-recognized Estonia on August 28, 1991 and diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on September 27, 1991.
  • An agreement on visa-free travel between Estonia and Chile came to force on 2 December 2000.[56][57][58] The two countries also have in force a Memorandum on co-operation between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs.[56] Agreements on cultural, tourism, and IT cooperation are being readied.[56]
  • Chile is among Estonia's most important foreign trade partners in South America.[59]
  • In 2007, trade between Estonia and Chile was valued at 6.3 million EUR. Estonian exports included mainly machinery, mechanical equipment, and mineral fuels; Chile exports included mainly wine, fish, crustaceans and fruit. In 2004, 83% of Chile exports to Estonia, then totaling 2.4 million EUR, consisted of wine.[56] In 2008, Chilean wines held the highest share of Estonia's imported wine market, followed by Spanish wines.[60] Due to its climate being unsuitable for large-scale grape production, most wine sold in Estonia is imported.
  • In 2006, Estonia and Chile issued the joint Antarctic themed stamp series, designed by Ülle Marks and Jüri Kass, bearing images of the Emperor penguin and the minke whale.[61] The works of Chilean writers Isabel Allende, Pablo Neruda and José Donoso have been translated into Estonian.[56]
  • Chile is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Estonia is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  Finland 1931 See Chile–Finland relations

Chile recognised Finland's independence on June 17, 1919. Diplomatic relations between them were established in 1931 and have been continuously maintained, despite pressures at times to discontinue them.[62] The two countries maintain resident ambassadors in both capitals.[62]

  • Chile has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Santiago.
  France 1846 See Chile–France relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Paris.
  • France has an embassy in Santiago.
  Germany See Chile–Germany relations
  Greece See Chile–Greece relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Athens.
  • Greece has an embassy in Santiago.
  Holy See
  • Chile has an embassy in Rome to the Holy See.
  • Holy See has an apostolic nunciature in Santiago.
  Hungary
  • Chile has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Santiago.
  Iceland
  • Chile is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway.
  • Iceland is accredited to Chile from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Reykjavík.
  Ireland See Chile–Ireland relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Dublin.[63]
  • Ireland has an embassy in Santiago.[64]
  Italy 1864

See Chile–Italy relations

  • Chile has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
  • Italy has an embassy in Santiago.
  Monaco
  • Chile is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has honorary consulates in Santiago and Valparaíso.
  Netherlands
  • Chile has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Amsterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Santiago.
  Norway See Chile–Norway relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Santiago.
  Poland 1920 See Chile–Poland relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Santiago.
  Portugal
  • Chile has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Santiago.
  Romania 1925-02-05 See Chile–Romania relations
  • In 1965 diplomatic relations were renewed. Even though most of the Eastern European countries broke their relations with Chile after 1973. Romania retained diplomatic relations with Chile.
  • Approximately 3,000 Chileans looked for asylum in Romania during Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship.
  • Chile has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Santiago.
  Russia 1944-12-11 See Chile–Russia relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Santiago.
  Serbia 1935
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations 1935. They were renewed in 1946. Diplomatic relations were broken off on two occasions, in 1947 and 1973, and the last renewal was in March 1990.[65]
  • A number of bilateral agreements in various fields have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[66]
  • Chile is accredited to Serbia from its embassy in Athens, Greece.
  • Serbia is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  Spain 1844 See Chile–Spain relations
  Sweden 1827 See Chile–Sweden relations
   Switzerland
  • Chile has an embassy in Berne.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Santiago.
  Ukraine 1993
  • Chile is accredited to Ukraine from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
  • Ukraine is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  United Kingdom See Chile – United Kingdom relations
  • Chile supported Britain politically, to a degree during the Falklands War. Britain supported the dictator Pinochet, granting him asylum, and even returning him back to Chile after numerous requests for criminal extradition by Spain, Argentina, Peru, and many other countries.
  • Chile has typically been Britain's strongest partner in South America. Britain has played an important role in shaping Chile's politics and government, throughout the ages (especially in its fight for independence)
  • Chile has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Santiago.

OceaniaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Australia See Australia–Chile relations

Diplomatic relations date back from the time when Australia was a British colony. During the Australian gold rush, the population grew fast and Chile became one of Australia's major wheat suppliers, with a regular traffic of ships between Sydney and Valparaíso. Australia and Chile signed the Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement on July 30, 2008. The agreement came into effect in the first quarter of 2009. Australia was one of several international partners with Chile in the Gemini Observatory, with one of the two 8 m telescopes of the observatory located at the summit of Cerro Pachón in Chile. Both countries are members of APEC, OECD and the Cairns Group.

  • Australia has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Canberra and consulates-general in Melbourne and Sydney.
  Fiji
  • Chile is accredited to Fiji from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Fiji is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  New Zealand 1948 See Chile–New Zealand relations

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Schenoni, Luis (2017) "Subsystemic Unipolarities?" in Strategic Analysis, 41(1): 74-86 [1]
  2. ^ "Chad, Chile, Lithuania, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia elected to serve on UN Security Council". United Nations. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  3. ^ Economic Department - Embassy of Chile in the United States of America
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2006-03-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ http://www.moroccotimes.com/news/article.asp?idr%3D2%26id%3D7019. Retrieved March 4, 2006. Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  6. ^ a b c Perry, Richard O. (1980-01-01). "Argentina and Chile: The Struggle for Patagonia 1843-1881". The Americas. 36 (3): 347–363. doi:10.2307/981291. JSTOR 981291.
  7. ^ See Argentine newspaper Clarín of Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998
  8. ^ See Alejandro Luis Corbacho "Predicting the probability of war during brinkmanship crisis: The Beagle and the Malvinas conflicts" http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1016843 (p.45)
  9. ^ "Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Chile and Argentina (with annexes and maps),29 November 1984" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  10. ^ Parish, Randall R Jr. (2006). "Democrats, Dictators, and Cooperation: the Transformation of Argentine-Chilean Relations". Latin American Politics and Society. 48 (1): 143–174.
  11. ^ "Border agreement between Chile and Argentina". 1998. Archived from the original on July 11, 2004. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
  12. ^ "Map showing border between Chile and Argentina (partly undefined)". Retrieved October 21, 2006.
  13. ^ Tras la fricción por los Hielos Continentales, la Argentina llama a Chile a demarcar los límites "lo antes posible"
  14. ^ LIST OF COUNTRIES WITH WHICH BARBADOS HAS DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS - As of August 2006
  15. ^ Barbados' Prime Minister to Pay an Official Visit to the Republic of Chile[permanent dead link], Barbados Government Information Service, 3 November 2005
  16. ^ The Organization of American States: CARICOM-MERCOSUR
  17. ^ "Joint Communique issued at the conclusion of the CARICOM/MERCOSUR Ministerial Meeting" (PDF). 24–25 February 2005.
  18. ^ The Private Sector Organisation of Jamaica - CARICOM/Chile Relations
  19. ^ Chilean President to Visit Barbados, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Barbados), Press Release dated 12 February 2005
  20. ^ Barbados Hoping To Expand Relations, Barbados Government Information Service (BGIS), 8 May 2009
  21. ^ Barbados and Chile to strengthen relationship, Barbados Daily Nation, Added 24 August 2017
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ BARBADOS, CHILE STRENGTHEN TIES
  24. ^ [3]
  25. ^ Boundary Treaty between Bolivia and Chile of 1866.
  26. ^ "Chile". Foreign relations of the United States. 1905-01-01.
  27. ^ Parraguez, Maria-Luisa. "Chile's Foreign Policy towards North America". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA (26 March 2008)
  28. ^ Burr, Robert N. 1955. The Balance of Power in Nineteenth-Century South America: An Exploratory Essay. The Hispanic American Historical Review.
  29. ^ Tromben, Carlos (2002), "Naval Presence: The Cruiser Esmeralda in Panama" (PDF), International Journal of Naval History, 1 (1)
  30. ^ Palmer, David. "Peru-Ecuador Border Conflict Missed Opportunities, Misplaced Nationalism, and Multilateral Peacekeeping". Journal of Interamerican Studies & World Affairs. ISSN 0022-1937.
  31. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-02-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ Inicio de relaciones diplomáticas entre Chile y México (in Spanish) Archived 2010-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Free Trade Agreement Chile - Mexico Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Embassy of Chile in Mexico City
  35. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Santiago
  36. ^ "Chile's Right-Wing President Welcomes a Chinese Official." _The New York Times_, June 16, 1987, page A5.
  37. ^ Sulzberger, C. L. "Chile and the Coldest War." _The New York Times_, November 29, 1975, page 27.
  38. ^ http://tarikhirani.ir/fa/events/3/EventsDetail/266/
  39. ^ http://santiago.mfa.ir/index.aspx?fkeyid=&siteid=94&pageid=12978
  40. ^ a b "Bilateral Relationship Chile - Israel". Embassy of Chile in Israel. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved April 15, 2009.
  41. ^ "Relaciones Bilaterales: Revisión Histórica (Bilateral Relations: Historical Review)" (in Spanish). Israeli Embassy in Chile. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
  42. ^ Embassy of Chile in Tokyo
  43. ^ Embassy of Japan in Santiago
  44. ^ "Media Release: Malaysia-Chile Free Trade Agreement". Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Malaysia. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  45. ^ https://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=5774446&cid=43990&categoryId=43992
  46. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24587.jsp?menu=m_30_30[permanent dead link]
  47. ^ http://www.minrel.gob.cl/foreign-minister-munoz-participates-in-the-signing-of-agreements-with-the-republic-of-korea/minrel/2015-04-23/103948.html
  48. ^ https://chile.gob.cl/corea-del-sur/
  49. ^ http://overseas.mofa.go.kr/cl-ko/index.do
  50. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) http://www.chileturquia.com/description.aspx?id=16 Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ Basyn - Yayýn ve Enformasyon Genel Müdürlüðü
  52. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish)http://www.loprado.cl/index.php?id=10&tx_ttnews%5Bpointer%5D=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=35&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=9&cHash=2fdbb1fae2[permanent dead link]
  53. ^ a b c "Asuntos Culturales" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 February 2014.
  54. ^ Basyn - Yayýn ve Enformasyon Genel Müdürlüðü
  55. ^ "President Mesić Receives Order Of Merit From Chile". HINA. Javno.hr. July 16, 2008. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2009.
  56. ^ a b c d e Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Estonia and Chile Archived August 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ Elektrooniline Riigi Teataja: Eesti Vabariigi valitsuse ja Tšiili Vabariigi valitsuse vaheline turistide viisakohustuse kaotamise kokkulepe
  58. ^ Visa-free travel between Estonia, Chile comes into force, BNS news agency, Tallinn - December 1, 2000, BBC Archive
  59. ^ Estonian Cabinet of Ministers: Prime Minister spoke with the President of Chile about the common interests of both states
  60. ^ Ärileht Archived 2005-04-11 at the Wayback Machine 4 December 2008 15:21: Eesti tarbija eelistab Hispaania ja Tšiili veine
  61. ^ "Eesti ja Tšiili ühine postmark". Õhtuleht. October 25, 2006. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012.Template:Dead icon
  62. ^ a b "La historia de las relaciones entre Finlandia y Chile" (in Spanish). Embajada de Finlandia, Santiago de Chile. February 22, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  63. ^ Embassy of Chile in Dublin, Ireland
  64. ^ Embassy of Ireland in Santiago
  65. ^ [4]
  66. ^ [5]
  67. ^ Embassy of Chile in Madrid (in Spanish)
  68. ^ Consulate-General of Chile in Barcelona (in Spanish)
  69. ^ Embassy of Spain in Santiago (in Spanish)
  70. ^ Embassy of Chile in Stockholm
  71. ^ Embassy of Sweden in Santiago
  72. ^ "Embajada de Chile en Nueva Zelanda". Chile.gob.cl. 2016-05-25. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
  73. ^ "New Zealand Embassy | New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Mfat.govt.nz. Retrieved 2016-06-20.

Further readingEdit

  • Rodríguez Elizondo, José: Chile-Perú. El siglo que vivimos en peligro. La Tercera-Mondadori, Santiago, 2004
  • Parraguez, Maria-Luisa (March 26, 2008). "Chile's Foreign Policy towards North America". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, California, USA.

External linksEdit